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  • What do we know about these 2 pyramids? Old one-specific servings for everyone-no physical activity incorporated New one- no serving sizes-activity is emphasized Handout-Anatomy of mypyramid
  • Look for the word whole in front of the word grain on a product -whole wheat
  • Starchy vegetables-potatoes, corn, lima beans Dry beans and peas Orange vegetables- carrots, squash, sweet potatoes Dark green vegetables- spinach, collard greens, broccoli
  • Variety of fruits- apples, bananas, mangoes, oranges, papayas, grapes, pineapples
  • 3-A-DAY CAMPAIGN -not adding milk products, it’s replacing things that aren’t as healthy, like soda, tea, coffee, and snacks. -choosing yogurt, low-fat cheese, etc. instead will help you become healthier
  • -Substances that the body needs to regulate body functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy. -Your body requires more than 40 different nutrients for these tasks but only 6 are essential. -define what essential means
  • -Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen -2 different types we are going to talk about -simple -complex -45-65% of a persons daily caloric intake should be from carbohydrates -foods rich in complex carbs are better than simple carbs.
  • -Added to manufactured foods like cookies, candies, and soft drinks -occurs naturally in fruits, vegetables, and milk -all sugars are converted to glucose for the body to use.
  • -Found in many plant foods such as potatoes -grains-rice, cereals, and wheat -when you eat complex carbohydrates your body (digests) breaks the starch into simple sugars that can be absorbed into your bloodstream. That’s why its slower to digest. -FIBER -is a complex carbohydrate but is not considered a nutrient because its not broken down and absorbed into your bloodstream. -still necessary for the proper functioning of your digestive system. -helps prevent constipation -may reduce risk of colon cancer -may help prevent heart disease
  • -High protein foods -meats, eggs, poultry, milk and milk products -Nuts, dried beans, dried peas, and lentils contain a lot of protein also. -10-35% of diet needs to be protein
  • COMPLETE PROTEINS- animal sources INCOMPLETE PROTEINS-plant sources
  • -Helps maintain body temperature, protect your nerves, and form your cells. -20-35% of daily intake -primarily unsaturated fat
  • -MONOUNSATURATED FATS- olive oil, peanut oil, and canola oil -POLYUNSATURATED FATS- corn oil, soybean oil, and seafood. -balancing of the 2 is important for cardiovascular health
  • -ANIMAL FATS -lard and dairy products -too much can lead to heart disease -TRANS FAT -when manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetables oils. -foods that contain these stay fresher longer
  • -CHOLESTEROL -waxy-fatlike substance that is only found in animal products. Your body needs a certain amount of cholesterol to make cell membranes and nerve tissue, certain hormones and substances that aid in the digestion of fat. -your liver can make all of the cholesterol your body needs, so its not a necessary part of your diet. -when to much cholesterol is in the bloodstream it causes plaque to form on the walls of arteries. Heavy build up causes blockages which in turn causes heart attack
  • -Write this down in the notes box!!
  • -Minerals occur naturally in rocks and soil. Plants absorb these minerals through the soil and animals obtain these nutrients by eating these plants or eating an animal that has eaten these plants, then we eat these plants and animals. -24 different minerals have been shown to be essential for good health. There are 7 you need in significant amounts- Ca, Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, S. The others are only needed in trace amounts.
  • Helps with functioning of your nervous system. Good sources of Calcium-Dairy products of course but some people cannot digest dairy products so what can they eat to get Ca? -Beet greens, collard greens, broccoli, and tofu A lack of Ca can lead to osteoporosis-bones gradually weaken usually a disease of older people but what you do now can affect what happens as you get older. 85% of girls do not get enough Ca in their diet.
  • -Necessary for healthy red blood cells -Women need extra iron because they lose iron during menstruation -Boys and girls need iron to build muscle mass -Not getting enough iron may cause anemia. -a condition in which the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin -anemics are often weak and tired, may become sick easily.
  • Potassium and Sodium work together to maintain water balance in the body People who consume enough potassium each day generally have lower blood pressure than people who do not Foods rich in potassium: baked potatoes, spinach, bananas, dried fruits, oranges, soybeans, tomato products, milk, and carrots.
  • -Helps build bones and proteins -Helps with energy metabolism -Muscle contraction Sources: -leafy green vegetables -legumes -nuts -whole-grain food Another Mineral -Sodium: most people consume to much sodium. Table salt or NaCl is a major source of sodium. Helps functioning of the heart. Aids in water balance. Too much sodium can cause blood pressure problems. Can raise blood pressure. -Fluoride: helps form strong teeth and bones can get it from fish and water. -Chlorine: Helps maintain water balance and aids with digestion. Can get it from table salt, soy sauce and processed foods.
  • -required in small amounts -assists in many chemical reactions in the body -Vitamins do not directly provide the body with energy -Instead vitamins help with various processes in the body including the use of other nutrients.
  • Not stored in the body for future use. Must eat foods with these vitamins everyday
  • Aids in bone, teeth, and skin formation resistance to infection Sources: citrus fruits, green vegetables, melons, potatoes, and tomatoes.
  • B1-Thiamin- aids in nervous system function B2-Riboflavin- aids in metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats B3- Niacin- aids in metabolism B6-Pyridoxine- aids in metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats B12-Cobalamin- maintains healthy nervous system and red blood cells Pantothenic acid-aids in metabolism Folic Acid (folate)- aids in formation of red blood cells and protein Biotin- aids in metabolism
  • What can make the healthy choices unhealthy? What can make the unhealthy choices healthy? Mayo, cheese, loaded baked potato, salad dressing, toppings Baked instead of fried
  • Nutrition

    2. 2. Grain Group Make half your grains whole • Eat at least 3 oz. of whole grains every day –Cereal -Breads –Crackers -Rice –Pasta
    3. 3. Vegetable Group Vary your veggies • Eat more dark green veggies like broccoli, spinach and other dark, leafy greens • Eat more orange vegetables like carrots and sweet potatoes
    4. 4. Fruit Group Focus on fruits • Eat a variety of fruits • Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit • Go easy on fruit juices
    5. 5. Milk Group Get your calcium-rich foods • Go low-fat or fat-free when you choose milk, yogurt, and other milk products • If you don’t or can’t consume milk, choose lactose free products or other calcium sources such as fortified foods and beverages
    6. 6. Meat & Bean Group Go lean with protein • Choose low-fat or lean meats and poultry • Bake it, broil it, or grill it • Vary your protein routine choose more fish, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds
    7. 7. • Make most of your fat sources from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. • Limit solid fats like butter, stick margarine, shortening, and lard, as well as foods that contain these. • Check the Nutrition Facts label to keep saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium low. • Choose food and beverages low in added sugars. Added sugars contribute Oil/Fat Group
    8. 8. NutrientsWhat are nutrients? • Essential substances that your body needs in order to grow and stay healthy • Six categories of nutrients: •Carbohydrates •Proteins •Minerals •Vitamins •Fats •Water
    9. 9. • Structure and function: Carbohydrates are sugars and starches that the body uses for ENERGY! • PLANTS are the major source of carbohydrates in the food we eat. Carbohydrates © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation
    10. 10. Simple Carbohydrates • Sugars that are quickly digested and provide a BOOST of energy for the body • Foods with LOTS of sugar: oranges, milk, cookies, candy
    11. 11. Starches that are composed of many sugars linked together • They provide the body with long-term energy since they are digested more • Foods with • LOTS of starch: rice beans, potatoes Complex Carbohydrates
    12. 12. Protein • Structure: Proteins are made from many amino acids connected together in different arrangements. • Function: Provide the building materials your body needs to grow and repair itself
    13. 13. Essential Amino Acids • 9 of the 20 amino acids are called essential amino acids because you must obtain them from the foods you eat since your body cannot make them.
    14. 14. Complete proteins: • Foods containing all the essential amino acids Examples: fish, meat, eggs, milk, cheese Incomplete proteins: • Foods that are missing some essential amino acids Examples: Legumes, nuts, whole grains
    15. 15. Functions: • ENERGY source for the body (more than carbs and proteins) • Help protect and cushion vital organs as well as joints • Insulate the body Fat
    16. 16. Fat Structure: • Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids which are substances that do not dissolve in water. • Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats.
    17. 17. Unsaturated fats: • Contain fatty acids that are missing hydrogen atoms • At room temperature, they are typically in liquid form. • They are less harmful to the circulatory system than saturated fats. • Foods with a lot of unsaturated fat: canola, safflower, and peanut oils
    18. 18. Saturated fats: • Contain fatty acids with the MAXIMUM amount of hydrogen atoms • At room temperature, they are typically in solid form.
    19. 19. • Diets with TOO MUCH saturated fat have been known to cause heart disease. • Foods with a lot of saturated fat: beef fat, egg yolks, dairy products
    20. 20. What is a calorie? • The energy obtained from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is measured in units called Calories
    21. 21. Calorie Calculations • Carbohydrates 1g = 4 calories • Protein 1g = 4 calories • Fat 1g = 9 calories • Alcohol 1g = 7 calories
    22. 22. Sample Calculation • A slice of bread has 9g of carbohydrates, 2g of protein, and 1g of fat. • Get out a piece of paper and see if you can do the
    23. 23. • 9 grams carbohydrates x 4 calories/gram = 36 calories + 2 grams protein x 4 calories/gram = 8 calories + 1 gram fat x 9 calories/gram = 9 calories _________________________ Total calories = 53
    24. 24. Do you know the MOST IMPORTANT nutrient? It’s Water! • 60%-80% of the human body is WATER!
    25. 25. Micronutrients • Minerals and vitamins are called micronutrients since they are needed by your body in SMALL amounts. The minerals and most of the vitamins your body needs must be obtained from the FOODS you eat since your body cannot make them.
    26. 26. Micronutrients: Minerals • Minerals are INORGANIC substances that are required by your body in order to develop and grow properly. Some Important Minerals: • Calcium Iron • Potassium Magnesium
    27. 27. Micronutrients: Minerals Calcium • Function: Helps build strong bones and teeth, regulates blood clotting • Food sources: dairy products, leafy and green vegetables
    28. 28. Micronutrients: Minerals Iron • Function: Helps build hemoglobin which is the oxygen-carrying part of your red blood cells • Food sources: eggs, meats, whole grains
    29. 29. Micronutrients: Minerals Potassium • Function: Helps regulate fluid balance in the body, assists with the normal functioning of muscles and nerves • Food sources: bananas, carrots, milk
    30. 30. Micronutrients: Minerals Magnesium • Function: Involved in the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, assists with bone growth and proper muscle functioning • Food sources: milk, meat, nuts
    31. 31. Micronutrients: Vitamins Vitamins: Group of complex compounds that help your body maintain normal metabolism, growth, and development Two Groups of Vitamins: • Water-Soluble • Fat-Soluble
    32. 32. Water-Soluble Vitamins: • Vitamins that dissolve in water and are NOT stored in your body for future use Vitamin B and Vitamin C Micronutrients: Vitamins
    33. 33. Examples of Water-Soluble Vitamins: • Vitamin C: Fights against infection, maintains healthy gums, strengthens and maintains blood vessel structure –Food sources: citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables
    34. 34. Micronutrients: Vitamins Vitamin B Complex/Folic acid: Helps prevent birth defects, and is needed in the formation of red blood cells and nucleic acids –Food sources: beets, broccoli, avocado, turkey, bok choy, and lentils.
    35. 35. Fat-Soluble Vitamins: • Vitamins that dissolve into and are transported by fat • They can be stored in fat tissue, the liver, and the kidneys. • Vitamins A, D, E, and K Micronutrients: Vitamins
    36. 36. Fast Food Choices • Fast food consumption should be limited since it generally includes foods that are high in calories, fat, and/or sodium. • Try to choose smaller portions since larger portion sizes greatly increase the calorie, fat, and sodium content of your meal.
    37. 37. Fast Food Choices • Some fast food choices are healthier than others so try to choose the healthier options.
    38. 38. Healthy options: •Grilled chicken •Regular-sized single hamburger •Fruit and yogurt •Plain baked potato (no butter or sour cream) •Salad –Less healthy options: •Chicken nuggets •Croissant breakfast sandwiches •Onion rings •Large French fries
    39. 39. Physical Activity • Regular exercise, included as part of the new food pyramid, is an important part in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. • Exercise (physical activity) involves any form of movement such as walking, jogging, climbing stairs, or playing basketball.
    40. 40. Physical Activity Benefits of Regular Exercise • Helps relieve stress and depression • Adds years to your life by lowering your risk of heart disease, colon cancer, diabetes, and high blood pressure
    41. 41. • Helps you maintain a normal weight by burning calories which results in a loss of body fat • Tones and develops the muscles in your body
    42. 42. Fresh Fruit Or Vegetables Dairy produces = 1 Cup
    43. 43. Bread = 1 slice
    44. 44. 2 Cheese slices = 1 ½ ounces
    45. 45. Dry Cereal = ¾ Cup
    46. 46. Lean meat, chicken, fish = 3 ounces
    47. 47. Oil, butter, margarine = 1 teaspoon
    48. 48. Peanut butter = 2 tablespoons
    49. 49. Muffin or dinner roll = Plum
    50. 50. Nutrient and Health Claims • Free… Fat Free = less than .5 g fat Sugar Free = less than .5 g sugar • Low in … low in calories = less than 40 calories low in sodium = less than 140 mg
    51. 51. What are “fad diets”? • Diets that promise quick weight loss and usually require you to eat specific types of food Fad Diets
    52. 52. Psychological disorder that involves a person starving themselves due to an unhealthy fear of becoming obese Anorexia
    53. 53. Warning signs: • Eating extremely small amounts of food per day • False impression of their own body image • Obsessed with exercise Harmful effects: • Damage to the heart • Excessive weight loss • Negatively affects the immune system
    54. 54. Psychological disorder that involves a person overeating (“binging”) followed by the use of laxatives or vomiting to keep from gaining weight Bulimia
    55. 55. People who suffer from this disorder usually have a false sense of their body image, and they are constantly striving to obtain the “perfect body.” Harmful effects: • Tooth decay (from excessive vomiting) • Damage to the kidneys
    56. 56. Caused by an excess amount of body fat • People are usually considered “obese” if their weight is 30% or more above their ideal weight. 2 main causes: 1. Unhealthy eating habits Obesity
    57. 57. Health Risks: • Lower self-esteem • High blood pressure • Blocked arteries • Diabetes • Cancer Obesity
    58. 58. • Drugs do not really helpDrugs do not really help people lose weight and keeppeople lose weight and keep it off. • They can be addictive, andThey can be addictive, and lead to dangerous physicallead to dangerous physical problems if misused.problems if misused.
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