Nervous System
The Nervous System


Two main divisions
– Central Nervous System
(CNS) includes the brain
and spinal cord
– Peripheral Ne...
Central Nervous System
 The

brain receives
impulses and sends
impulses back to the
body
 The spinal cord
connects the b...
CNS: The Brain (UP 5)
Cerebrum


3 major regions
– Cerebrum
– Cerebellum
– Brainstem

Cerebellum
Brainstem
CNS: The Cerebrum
Largest part of the brain
 Involved in voluntary activities, intelligence,
and consciousness
 Divided ...
CNS: Cerebellum & Brainstem



Medulla
Oblongata
Brainstem

Cerebellum – balance and
coordination
Brainstem includes the...
PNS: Peripheral Nervous System
 All

nerves that are NOT part of the brain
or spinal cord
 Two major divisions of the PN...
PNS: Motor Divisions
 Motor

division is then divided into the
autonomic and somatic nervous
systems
 Somatic System – r...
Autonomic Nervous System
 Regulates

automatic, involuntary

actions
– Parasympathetic Nervous System
decreases heart rat...
Cytoplasm

Neuron
Structure (UP 83)

Dendrites

Nucleus

Cell Body
Axon

Myelin

End Brush Motor
End Plate

Muscle (effect...
Neurons
 Three

types:

– Sensory: carry impulses from sense
organs to CNS
– Motor: carry impulses from CNS to
muscles/gl...
Neural Impulses


Impulses move along a neuron due to
electrical changes in the membrane
Neural Impulses (UP 83)
Membrane is polarized,
more negative inside
Na+ ions enter; membrane
depolarizes
Repolarization fo...
Neural Impulses
 Resting

potential – polarized state,
negative charge inside membrane
 Threshold –minimum stimulus need...
Synapses


Location where one neuron
transfers an impulse to a cell
– Neuron to neuron
– Neuron to muscle/gland



Chemi...
Synapses



http://www.bishopstopford.com/faculties/science/arthur/synapse.swf
Reflex Arc



Reflexes prevent injury
Impulse travels from sensory neuron 
interneuron  motor neuron

http://www.suman...
Reflex Arc (UP 84)
Cell Body
(Sensory Neuron)

Sensory Neuron

Synapse
Receptors
(on dendrites)

Association
Neuron
(inter...
Animations


Action Potential
– http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/bio_d.swf
– http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu...
Electroencephalogram (EEG)



Records electrical activity of the brain
Diagnosis of neurological diseases: stroke,
epile...
EEG Activity
Behavior Impacts
EEG
EEG During Seizures
Diagnostic Techniques




MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses
radio waves and VERY powerful magnets to
create images o...
MRI of the Brain
CT Scan



Computerized Tomography
3-D x-ray image based on tissue density
– Bone appears white, liquids/gases are black...
PET Scan
Positron Emission Tomography
 Creates images based on the detection of
radiation particles
 Used to detect tumo...
Brain Death


Irreversible cessation of brain activity for 24
hours so that cardiopulmonary function must
be maintained b...
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Nervoussystem 110516205922-phpapp02

  1. 1. Nervous System
  2. 2. The Nervous System  Two main divisions – Central Nervous System (CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord – Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) contains nerves which carry info between the CNS and other organs
  3. 3. Central Nervous System  The brain receives impulses and sends impulses back to the body  The spinal cord connects the brain to the body
  4. 4. CNS: The Brain (UP 5) Cerebrum  3 major regions – Cerebrum – Cerebellum – Brainstem Cerebellum Brainstem
  5. 5. CNS: The Cerebrum Largest part of the brain  Involved in voluntary activities, intelligence, and consciousness  Divided into 4 lobes  – Frontal - personality – Temporal - auditory – Parietal - senses – Occipital - visual area Parietal Frontal Occipital Temporal
  6. 6. CNS: Cerebellum & Brainstem   Medulla Oblongata Brainstem Cerebellum – balance and coordination Brainstem includes the pons and medulla oblongata – Involuntary functions – heart rate, breathing Cerebellum
  7. 7. PNS: Peripheral Nervous System  All nerves that are NOT part of the brain or spinal cord  Two major divisions of the PNS: – Sensory division sends impulses from sense organs (ears, nose, etc.) to the CNS – Motor division send impulses from the CNS to the muscles or glands
  8. 8. PNS: Motor Divisions  Motor division is then divided into the autonomic and somatic nervous systems  Somatic System – regulates activities under conscious control such as muscle movement – Also involved with reflexes
  9. 9. Autonomic Nervous System  Regulates automatic, involuntary actions – Parasympathetic Nervous System decreases heart rate and stimulates digestion; “rest and digest” – Sympathetic Nervous System increases heart rate; “fight or flight”  These systems have opposite effects
  10. 10. Cytoplasm Neuron Structure (UP 83) Dendrites Nucleus Cell Body Axon Myelin End Brush Motor End Plate Muscle (effector)
  11. 11. Neurons  Three types: – Sensory: carry impulses from sense organs to CNS – Motor: carry impulses from CNS to muscles/glands – Interneurons: connect motor and sensory neurons
  12. 12. Neural Impulses  Impulses move along a neuron due to electrical changes in the membrane
  13. 13. Neural Impulses (UP 83) Membrane is polarized, more negative inside Na+ ions enter; membrane depolarizes Repolarization follows depolarization Impulse travels the axon –http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/bio_d.swf
  14. 14. Neural Impulses  Resting potential – polarized state, negative charge inside membrane  Threshold –minimum stimulus needed to activate a neuron  Action potential – depolarization & repolarization of membrane  Myelin increases rate of impulse
  15. 15. Synapses  Location where one neuron transfers an impulse to a cell – Neuron to neuron – Neuron to muscle/gland  Chemicals called neurotransmitters carry signals across a synapse – Acetylcholine and serotonin
  16. 16. Synapses  http://www.bishopstopford.com/faculties/science/arthur/synapse.swf
  17. 17. Reflex Arc   Reflexes prevent injury Impulse travels from sensory neuron  interneuron  motor neuron http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/nonmajorsbiology/reflexarcs.html
  18. 18. Reflex Arc (UP 84) Cell Body (Sensory Neuron) Sensory Neuron Synapse Receptors (on dendrites) Association Neuron (interneuron) Synapse Motor Neuron Effector (muscle) Motor End Plates
  19. 19. Animations  Action Potential – http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/bio_d.swf – http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/actionpotential.swf  Chemical Synapse – http://www.bishopstopford.com/faculties/science/arthur/synapse.swf – http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/anim0015.swf – http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synaptic.swf
  20. 20. Electroencephalogram (EEG)   Records electrical activity of the brain Diagnosis of neurological diseases: stroke, epilepsy, tumors, and sleep disorders
  21. 21. EEG Activity
  22. 22. Behavior Impacts EEG
  23. 23. EEG During Seizures
  24. 24. Diagnostic Techniques   MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses radio waves and VERY powerful magnets to create images of the brain Used to image soft tissue, not bone or teeth
  25. 25. MRI of the Brain
  26. 26. CT Scan   Computerized Tomography 3-D x-ray image based on tissue density – Bone appears white, liquids/gases are black, and various tissues are grey  Used to diagnose tumors
  27. 27. PET Scan Positron Emission Tomography  Creates images based on the detection of radiation particles  Used to detect tumors, seizure disorders, and evaluate patients with memory loss 
  28. 28. Brain Death  Irreversible cessation of brain activity for 24 hours so that cardiopulmonary function must be maintained by machine

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