Communication and interpersonal relationship in nursing


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Communication and interpersonal relationship in nursing

  1. 1. Communication and Interpersonal Relationship in Nursing Dr.Valliammal Shanmugam Lecturer College of Nursing NIMHANS Bangalore -29 1
  2. 2. DEFINITION Communication implies exchange of information & understanding among people. It involves Transmission and reception of messages People are involved Process 2
  3. 3. SIGNIFICANCE• Planning• Organizing• Leading• Controlling• Motivation• Emotional Expression• Information 3
  4. 4. PROCESS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONProcess of communication involves several parts The Sender Encoding The Message The Channel Decoding The receiver Feed back 4
  5. 5. Written communication channels Iincludes letters, memorandum, reports,manuals and forms. Written materialsprovide hard copies for storage and retrievalin case documented evidence is neededlater. 5
  6. 6. Electronic channels Include e-mail, voice mail, portable telephones,facsimile (Fax) machines, telecommunicating,networked computers (Integrated data bases, on-line “chat session” etc.), video conferencing,cellular telephones and telecommunicating (itrefers to where employee actually work at homewhile linked to the office through computers, datanet works, fax machines and telephones). 6
  7. 7. Factors influencingorganizational communication• Formal Channel of Communication• Authority Structure• Job Specialization• Information Ownership 7
  8. 8. COMMUNICATION FLOWSWithin organization there are 5 directions in whichcommunication flows; downward, upward, lateral,diagonal and external.Downward Flow:To convey job related information to employees atlower levels. Absence of it, results in roleambiguity, stress and anxiety among employees.Eg. Group Meetings, Budgets, OperationalProcedures, Circulars. 8
  9. 9. There are 5 specific ways for downward communication. They area) Specific task directivesb) Job rationalec) Procedures and Practicesd) Feedbacke) Indoctrination of goals 9
  10. 10. Distortions of downward communicationa) Reliance upon written diffusion methodsb) Message over loadc) Timingd) Filtering 10
  11. 11. Ways to improve downward communicationa) Specify the objectives for communicatingb) Keep content of communication with qualities like accuracy, specificity & no- hidden meanings.c) Employ best communication techniques to get the message across the receiver 11
  12. 12. Upward flow• Lower level employees are expected to provide upward communication about their performance & problems.• It encourages participation in decision making process & submit valuable ideas, able to get feed back on how well subordinates have understood downward communication; 12
  13. 13. • Serves the way to know the subordinates, diagnose misinterpretation, disclose the first symptoms of tension & difficulties & make subordinate’s views more visible to superiors;• When employees are given opportunity to voice dissatisfaction to higher levels, they tend to be more committed to the organization.• Common forms of upward communication are suggestion boxes, open door policies, group meetings, grievances, questions & feedback. 13
  14. 14. Distortions of Upward communicationa) Hierarchy in organization: Subordinates feel that they are expected to listen to their bosses rather than to be listened to. Some supervisors are less in habit of listening to subordinates.b) Subordinates may tell only what they want the supervisor to know.c) Employees have fear of expressing true feelings about the boss. 14
  15. 15. d) Supervisor may not be able to communicate with many sub-ordinates on an individual basis.e) Many times supervisor adopt an open door policy & assume that individuals who have something to communicate will do so voluntarily. 15
  16. 16. Ways to improve upward communication• Better listening• Building Trust• Giving response to messages• Counselling• Grievance systems• Consultive Supervisions• Meetings Contd…. 16
  17. 17. • Suggestion Systems• Job satisfaction surveys• Open door policy• Participation in a social group• Encouraging letters from employees (News letter) 17
  18. 18. Lateral Flow or Horizontal CommunicationIt takes place between peers. It is needed toachieve cooperation among group membersand between work groups. It also providesemotional & social support to individuals. Contd… 18
  19. 19. Purposes: Task coordination – HOD’s monthly meeting Problem solving – how to handle a threatened budget through Delphi technique Information sharing Conflict resolution – HOD’s help each other to resolve conflict within or with another department. 19
  20. 20. Problems in horizontal communication Too much may weaken organization structure. Too many messages flowing in all directions would lead to anarchy. Departments do not generally like to share information with other departments because of rivalry. Too much of job specialization results in becoming an island itself. 20
  21. 21. Ways to improve lateral flow communication Maintain balance between vertical & horizontal communication through flexible procedures that provides guidelines about when & how employees should use horizontal communication. 21
  22. 22.  Form a committee having employees from different department to involve in problem solving Conduct training sessions on team work in which employees gain an appreciation of horizontal communication. 22
  23. 23. Diagonal communicationTakes place between a ward supervisor of Pavilion I and members of Pavilion III. It isneeded to interact with employees regarding herparticular function. For e.g..Pavilion I ward supervisor ask the nursesof Pavilion III what kind of craft works they takeup with their patients, so that same kind of craftworks could be assigned to patients in Pavilion-I 23
  24. 24. External communicationTakes place between a ward supervisor andoutside groups like banks, financialagencies, fire control officers etc. A wardcannot operate in a vacuum. 24
  25. 25. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS A communication network is the pattern ofcommunication flows among variouspositions in an organization. It enhancescoordination & reinforces authoritystructure. It determines who gets whatinformation and how satisfied the membersare with their functions or places in thegroups. 25
  26. 26. Forms of communication networks.• a wheel• a chain• a letter ‘y’• a circle, or• all channel Among all the networks, the chain network scores high on all the factors, following ‘Y’ and others. 26
  27. 27. COMMUNICATION ROLES• Gate Keepers• Liaisons• Isolates• Cosmopolites 27
  28. 28. COMMUNICATION AUDIT The form major communication networks that need to be audited are; The task related networks pertaining to policies, procedures, rules and superior-subordinate relationships The innovative network, which includes problem solving, meetings & suggestions for change. The integrative network, which consists of praise, rewards, promotions & those items that link enterprise goals with personal needs; and The information-instructive network includes Organization’s, Publication and Bulletin Boards etc. 28
  29. 29. INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Grapevine: is the communication carried out either in face-to-the face inter action or over the phone. This may be task oriented or social characteristics of the grapevine.• Impossible to eliminate• Information travels more rapidly than through official communication channels• Spontaneous form of expression, more gratifying 29
  30. 30. • More information without official censorship & filtering.• On non-controversial topics related to organization, 75% is accurate• Emotionally charged information is likely to be distorted• Only less than 10% of the groups enter into grapevine. 30
  31. 31. Types of grapevines• Chain system• Cluster system• Gossip system 31
  32. 32. Advantages of Grapevine• Develops corporate identity, builds team work & motivates people.• Supplements formal communication, reflects the deep psychological need of people to talk about their job & their organization• gives happiness of passing timely new information giving a feeling of to be in touch & well informed & has social value 32
  33. 33. Disadvantage• Can be erroneous• Difficult to check rumours. 33
  34. 34. Rumour1. It is the unjudicious & false information that is communicated without factual evidence. Rumour serves 4 purposes: to structure & reduce anxiety to make sense of fragmented or limited information to serve as a platform to organize group members to signal a sender’s status or power 34
  35. 35. Ways to control rumour: Announce time tables for making important decision Explain decisions & behaviour that may appear inconsistent Get at the roof of the rumour & confront it with facts Identify rumour-mangers & discipline them Take the assistance of the labour union to fight rumours. 35
  36. 36. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES The internet, world wide web, electronic mail, voice mail & telecommuting constitute the information technologies.• Advantage: Easy, quick & less expensive 36
  37. 37. Demerits:• Does not promote IPR & solve IP problems• Breaks down the boundaries between work time & non-work time.• Erodes delegation of authority by creating too much & too frequent communication between superiors and subordinates• E-mail increases volume of meaningless data with consequence of unnecessary workload. Lacks confidentiality. 37
  38. 38. Information technologies• The internet, world wide web, electronic mail, voice mail & telecommuting constitute the information technologies.• Advantage: Easy, quick & less expensive 38
  39. 39. Demerits• Does not promote IPR & solve IP problems• Breaks down the boundaries between work time & non-work time.• Erodes delegation of authority by creating too much & too frequent communication between superiors and subordinates• E-mail increases volume of meaningless data with consequence of unnecessary workload. Lacks confidentiality. 39
  40. 40. IPR & HUMAN RELATIONSHuman relations in management isconcerned with the relationship betweenmanagement & workers and the role ofregulatory mechanism in resolving anydispute. 40
  41. 41. Definition:“Human Relations is concerned with the systems, rules & procedures used by unions & employers to determine the reward. For effort and other conditions of employment, to protect the interest of the employed and their employers and to regulate the ways in which employers treat their employees”. 41
  42. 42. Areas of Human Relations Activities• Collective bargaining• Role of management, unions & government• Machinery for resolution of industrial disputes• Individual grievance & disciplinary policy & practice.• Labour legislation 42
  43. 43. • Industrial relations training• Participative management• Employees development• Employee remuneration• Employee safety & health 43
  44. 44. A A A B B CD E B D C C C E D Y NetworkWheel Network E A Chain Network A E B E B D C D C Circle Network All Channel NetworkFig. 18.4 Communication Networks 44
  45. 45. Chairman Upward Managing External Director Downward Marketing Director Director Research Operations Lateral al Director on ag Di          Fig. 18.3 Communication Flows in Organisations 45
  46. 46. Thank You 46