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V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s
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V korneyev new contributions to the taxonomic revision s

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Review of a monster fly family Ctenostylidae

Review of a monster fly family Ctenostylidae

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  • 1. New contributions to the taxonomic revision of the ctenostylid flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea: Ctenostylidae) Valery A. Korneyev I.I.Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev, Ukraine This presentation does not consist a publication in the sense of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature and all the new names are used only provisionally !
  • 2. What are ctenostylids? <ul><li>Nocturnal, aphagous picture-winged flies, apparently with parasitoid larval habits ( no hosts are known). </li></ul>
  • 3. History <ul><li>Macquart (1851) Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Supplement IV [part]. N. E. Roret, Paris. p. 161-336 + pls. 15-28. </li></ul><ul><li>Ctenostylum rufum Macquart, 1851 (Bords de l'Amazone) </li></ul><ul><li>Bigot (1882) Dipt é res nouveaux ou peu connus. 19e partie. XXX. Genre Ctenostylum . Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) 2: 21-22. </li></ul><ul><li>Ctenostylidae Bigot, 1882 (with comparison to Oestridae and Conopidae) </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Hendel (1934) Ü bersicht ü ber die Gattungen der Pyrgotiden, nebst Beschreibung neuer Gattungen u. Arten. Encycl. Ent. (B) II. Dipt., 7: 141-156 . </li></ul><ul><li>Lochmostylia Hendel, 1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Lochmostylia borgmeieri Hendel, 1934 (Brazil) </li></ul><ul><li>Hendel (1935) Bemerkungen zu &quot;The families and genera of North American Diptera&quot; by C. H.Curran, New-York 1934. Konowia 14: 51-57. </li></ul><ul><li>Lochmostyliidae Hendel, 1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Lopes (1935) Um novo g ê nero de Diptera acalyptratae e considera çõ es sobre a familia Ctenostylidae. Archivos do Instituto de biologia vegetal, Rio de Janeiro. 2: 247-253 . </li></ul><ul><li>Travassomyia borgmeieri Lopes, 1935 (Brazil) </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Curran (1934) The Diptera of Kartabo, Bartica District, British Guiana, with descriptions of new species from other British Guiana localities. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 66:287-532. </li></ul><ul><li>Tauroscypson Curran, 1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Tauroscypson guiana Curran, 1934 (Guyana) </li></ul><ul><li>Keiser (1951) Die Unterfamilie der Lochmostyliinae (Dipt., Pyrgotidae). Mitteil. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. (Bull. Soc. Ent. Suisse). 24: 113-124. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta Keiser, 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta palpifera Keiser, 1951 (Indonesia, W. Sumba) </li></ul><ul><li>Lochmostylia lopesi Keiser, 1951 (replacement name for Travassomyia borgmeieri ) </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Keiser (1952) Ramuliseta lindneri n. sp. eine Lochmostyliine aus Ostafrika (Dipt. Pyrgotidae). (Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zoologischen Ostafrika-Expedition 1951/52, Gruppe Lindner, Nr. 1). Bonner Zoologische Beitrage, 3 (314): 325-327. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta lindneri Keiser, 1952 (Tanzania) </li></ul><ul><li>Hennig (1952) Bemerkenswerte neue Acalyptraten in der Sammlung des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes (Diptera: Acalyptrata). Beitr. Ent. 2: 604-618. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta plaumanni Hennig, 1952 (Brazil) </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Aczél (1956) Revisión parcial de las Pyrgotidae neotropicales y antárcticas, con sinopsis de los géneros y especies (Diptera, Acalyptratae). Rev. Brasil. Ent. 6: 1-38. </li></ul><ul><li>Tauroscypson andina Aczél, 1956 (Bolivia) </li></ul><ul><li>Furciseta Aczél, 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Furciseta plaumanni (Hennig, 1952) transferred from Ramuliseta </li></ul><ul><li>Hennig (1961) Pyrgotidae de Madagascar (Diptera). — Mem. de l'Inst. Sci. de Madagascar (E) (1959) 11: 321-353. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta madagascariensis Hennig, 1961 (Madagascar) </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>D. McAlpine (1990) The taxonomic position of the Ctenostylidae (= Lochmostyliinae; Diptera, Schizophora). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 84(Suppl. 4) (1989): 365-371. </li></ul><ul><li>Ctenostylum rufum Macquart, 1851 (male 6 th segment and genitalia; position of the family) </li></ul><ul><li>Yang (1995) Diptera: Pyrgotidae. pp. 247-349. Insects and macrofunji of Gutianshan, Zhejiang. Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House, Hangzhou. 318 pp. </li></ul><ul><li>Han (2006) Redescription of Sinolochmostylia sinica Yang, the First Palearctic Member of the Little-Known Family Ctenostylidae (Diptera: Acalyptratae) </li></ul><ul><li>Sinolochmostylia sinica Yang, 1995 (China, Hangzhou) </li></ul>(C) To Chan (Hong Kong) (C) To Chan (Hong Kong)
  • 9. <ul><li>Barraclough (1994) A review of Afrotropical Ctenostylidae (Diptera: Schizophora: ?Tephritoidea), with redescription of Ramuliseta lindneri Keiser, 1952. Annals of the Natal Museum. 35: 5-14. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta lindneri Keiser, 1952 (+Uganda, SAR) Ramuliseta madagascariensis Hennig, 1961 (Madagascar) </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Barraclough (1995) Nepaliseta mirabilis , a remarkable new genus and species of Ctenostylidae (Diptera: Schizophora. Annals of the Natal Museum. 36: 135-139. </li></ul><ul><li>Nepaliseta Barraclough, 1995 Nepaliseta mirabilis Barraclough, 1995 (Nepal) </li></ul><ul><li>Barraclough (1998) The missing males of Ramuliseta Keiser (Diptera: Schizophora: Ctenostylidae). Annals of the Natal Museum. 39: 115-129. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta lindneri Keiser, 1952 (+Nigeria; synonymization with palpifera Keiser, 1951 ) Ramuliseta madagascariensis Hennig, 1961 (Madagascar) </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta ashleyi Barraclough, 1998 (Sulawesi) </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Korneyev (2001) New records of oriental Ctenostylidae (Diptera, Acalyptrata), with discussion of the position of the family. Vestnik Zoologii, 35(3): 47-63. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta thaica Korneyev, 2001 (Thailand) </li></ul><ul><li>Nepaliseta ashleyi (Barraclough, 1998) (Taiwan), transferred from Ramuliseta </li></ul><ul><li>Korneyev (2010) Ctenostylidae. Manual of Central American Diptera, 35(3): 47-63. </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology & Key to genera </li></ul>
  • 12. Taxonomic position <ul><li>Subfamily of Pyrgotidae (Curran, 1934; Aczel, 1956; Hennig, 1961, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ocelli entirely lost . </li></ul><ul><li>Hindtarsus incurved (like in Leptopyrgota , etc.) . </li></ul>
  • 13. Are ctenostylids Tephritoidea? ( pros and contras )
  • 14. contras <ul><li>Numerous autapomorphies breaking ctenostylids off the tephritoid “kit” (very large face, no proboscis, wide thorax with short notopleura, no taeniae, no spermathecae, no aculeus, no vanes of phallapodeme, no prensisetae) </li></ul><ul><li>Males in Ctenostylum , Lochmostylia and ? Tauroscypson with short phallus and additional tergite and sternite ( tergite and sternite 6 of D.K.McAlpine, 1989 ). </li></ul><ul><li>No aculeus. </li></ul>
  • 15. pros <ul><li>Picture-winged </li></ul><ul><li>Males in most genera (except Ctenostylum , Lochmostylia and ? Tauroscypson ) with 5 abdominal pregenital segments, no spiracles 6 and 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Females with the tergosternite 7 modified into oviscape </li></ul>
  • 16. Morphology <ul><li>! </li></ul>Peristomal cavity large, anterior part of head strongly oblique (in profile), mainly consisting of modified peristomal cavity (~as high as face in Furciseta & Ramuliseta or 2x as high as face in Lochmostylia , Tauroscypson and Ctenostylum ) Furciseta male Ramuliseta female Lochmostylia male Lochmostylia female
  • 17. Why holoptic eyes? In distantly related Furciseta, Nepaliseta and Ctenostylum . <ul><li>Eyes are optic devises . </li></ul><ul><li>What can an aphagous male do with holoptic eyes? </li></ul><ul><li>Swarming ? </li></ul><ul><li>General architecture (strong short thorax; simplified male genitalia) – show this hypothesis has some likelyhood! </li></ul>
  • 18. Antenna Furciseta sp. (from Korneyev, 2010) Tauroscypson andinum (from Aczel, 1956) Nepaliseta mirabilis (from Korneyev, 2001) Female: arista: (1) with two branches; (2) with more than two branches; (3) disk-like.
  • 19. Antenna M ale: arista : simple, moderately long pubescent . Furciseta sp. (from Korneyev, 2010) Tauroscypson andinum (from Aczel, 1956) Nepaliseta mirabilis (from Korneyev, 2001) Female needs very sensitive mechanoreceptors to feel air movements? that males do not need. To look for the host? Furciseta plaumanni (from Korneyev, 2010) Ramuliseta thaica (from Korneyev, 2001)
  • 20. Why membranous face? Lochmostylia lopesi female Lochmostylia borgmeieri female
  • 21. Thorax Scutellum : (1) with two setae ; (2) with more than two setae ; (3) with brush of setulae, but no setae . Furciseta sp. Ctenostylum sp. female Nepaliseta sp. strongly widened, short, as long as head; proepisternum entire, transverse, notopleural triangle shortened, with 1-2 p npl seta(-e) . Swarming ?
  • 22. Why short phallus? Ramuliseta thaica male Lochmostylia borgmeieri male Furciseta plaumanni male Swarming ? Copulation on the flight?
  • 23. Why no aculeus? Pyrgotomyia (Pyrgotini) Africa Teretrura (Teretrurinae) Chile Furciseta plaumanni male Epice (Toxurini) New Guinea
  • 24. Phylogenetic Relationships <ul><li>Synapomorphies? </li></ul><ul><li>Synapomorphies with Tephritidae + Pyrgotidae : </li></ul><ul><li>Vein R1 entirely setulose. </li></ul><ul><li>Ejaculatory apodeme fan-like. </li></ul><ul><li>Long coiled phallus in the rest on dorsal side, between tergite 5 and terminalia. </li></ul><ul><li>Synapomorphies with Pyrgotidae : </li></ul><ul><li>Hindtibia. </li></ul><ul><li>No ocelli. </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal habits (collected at MVL light). </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly parasitic. </li></ul>
  • 25. Phylogenetic Relationships <ul><li>Sister Group? </li></ul><ul><li>Synapomorphies (?) with Toxopyrgota (Africa): </li></ul><ul><li>Lateroclinate orbital setae. </li></ul><ul><li>Long oblique oral cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell bcu closed with arcuate vein. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedicel with long setae. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudimentary proboscis. </li></ul>
  • 26. Parsymony analysis
  • 27. New material accumulated by Doug Yanega (L.A., California) and myself. A new approach to the taxonomic revision of the ctenostylids is needed.
  • 28. 2. Genus Ramuliseta Keiser, 1951 <ul><li>Ramuliseta palpifera Keiser, 1951 Lesser Sunda Is. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta lindneri Keiser, 1952 Afrotropical Region. </li></ul>
  • 29. A brief survey of known ctenostylid species <ul><li>Genus Furciseta Aczel, 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Furciseta plaumanni (Hennig, 1952) S. Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>Furciseta “caribea” sp. n. Jamaica, Dominican Republic. </li></ul>
  • 30. 3. Clade Sinolochmostylia + Nepaliseta + R. thaica group R2+3 and R4+5 strongly divergent. Female with short round fl.1 & disk-like arista. (not known for “Ramuliseta ” spp.) <ul><li>Sinolochmostylia sinica Yang, 1995 SE China. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta thaica Korneyev, 2001 Thailand. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta “maklaii” sp. n. New Guinea. </li></ul><ul><li>Nepaliseta mirabilis Barraclough, 1995 Nepal; Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>Nepaliseta ashleyi ( Barraclough, 1996) Sulawesi; Taiwan; New Guinea. </li></ul>1 2 4 5 3
  • 31. 4. Ramuliseta madagascariensis group <ul><li>Ramuliseta madagascariensis Hennig, 1961 Madagascar. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramuliseta “dolini” sp. n. Madagascar. </li></ul>1 2
  • 32. 5. Lochmostylia Hendel, 1934 + Tauroscypson Curran, 1934 + Ctenostylum Macquart, 1851 <ul><li>Lochmostylia borgmeieri Hendel, 1934 Costa Rica. </li></ul><ul><li>Lochmostylia lopesi Keiser, 1952 Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>Lochmostylia sp. near lopesi Keiser, 1952 Peru. </li></ul>1 1 2 3
  • 33. 5. Lochmostylia Hendel, 1934 + Tauroscypson Curran, 1934 + Ctenostylum Macquart, 1851 <ul><li>Tauroscypson guiana Curran, 1934 Guyana. </li></ul><ul><li>Tauroscypson andinum Keiser, 1952 Bolivia, Peru, Brazil. </li></ul>1 2 2 2 1
  • 34. 5. Lochmostylia Hendel, 1934 + Tauroscypson Curran, 1934 + Ctenostylum Macquart, 1851 <ul><li>Ctenostylum rufum Macquart, 1851 Brazil; Venezuela; Costa Rica. </li></ul>
  • 35. Thank you for attention! 6. gen . sp.

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