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Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil
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Issues in Consumer Behavior: Brazil

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  • 1. Class Topic: Current Issues in Consumer Behavior Team Topic: Chapter 6 TitleConsumer Preception________________________ Based on Schiffman, L., and L. Kanuk, Consumer Behavior, 10th Edition, (Prentice Hall, 2010) ISBN-10: 0135053013, ISBN-13: 9780135053010 Team Name Dubois Harris, Denzel, Senior, Major Hazeur, Nia, Standing Senior, Major Henderson, Valerie, Senior, Marketing Mitchell, Marialle, Senior, Marketing Riathin, Mayol, Senior, Management Information Systems Faculty Sponsor: Dr. K. Joonas Associate Professor of Marketing Department of Management and Marketing Approved by Center for Business Communications ________________________________ __________________________ ____________ Print name Signature Date This research paper was submitted in partial completion of the requirements of Spring 2012 MRKT 3333.P01 Consumer Behavior eCourse Supported College of Business Prairie View A&M University Submitted on Date: __February 26, 2013___
  • 2. NEW DUE DATE: 2/28 FOR HARD COPY- BINDER AND PEER EVALS
 NEW DUE DATE: 3/1 11:00 AM FOR ASSIGNMENT DROP BOX- ECOURSE ISSUES
 
 
 See instructions given syllabus and orientation package.
 DUE IN ECOURSES DROP BOX BY 2/26/2013, 3 P.M. TEAMRESEARCH PAPER SECTION 1 DUE IN MGMT/MRKT DEPARTMENT OFFICE BY 2/26/2013, 4 P.M: TEAMRESEARCH PAPER SECTION 1 SIGNED, HARD COPIES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- TEAM RESEARCH PAPER-I CHEKLIST OF SUBMISSIONS ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION, INSTRUCTIONS AND SAMPLES ARE IN SYLLABUS TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26TH- TEAM RESEARCH PAPER-I DUE IN ECOURSE DROP BOX BY 3 P.M. TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26TH - TEAM RESEARCH PAPER-I SIGNED HARD BINDER DUE IN MGMT/ MRKT DEPARTMENT OFFICE OR STUDENT ASSISTANT BY 4 P.M. A.IN THE DROP BOX, UPLOAD THESE ATTACHMENTS: This Checklist- see eCourse Resources Instructions and assignment description- see eCourse Resources All Team Summaries- ONE WORD DOCUMENT with Cover Sheet followed by all article summaries, for every paper, of all team members. Order- first author's last name (not student's last name!).That means EVERY student will submit the same document. 
 
 Self-Evaluation document- see eCourse Resources
 
 Turnitin Report in .pdf format- YOUR summary- not the whole team 
 Word documents- YOUR ORIGINAL article selection, not the whole team- with all important points highlighted.
 
 Last but not least, Confidential Team Peer Evaluation- see eCourse Resources
 B. TEAM - ONE 3-RING BINDER ONLY This Checklist- see eCourse Resources- one printout
  • 3. Instructions and assignment description- from syllabus- see eCourse Resources- one printout All Team Summaries- TWO PRINTOUTS with Cover Sheet followed by all article summaries, for every paper, of all team members. Order- first author's last name (not student's!). Remember to number the pages- first summary starts Page 1.
 
 Self-Evaluation document from Team- one printout
 
 Turnitin Report- ONE PRINTOUT OF EVERY MEMBER'S REPORT
 
 All original articles- with approval signature- ONE PRINTOUT OF EACH with important points highlighted. 
 C. DR. JOONAS’ ARCH MAILBOX: Confidential Team Peer Evaluation- one printout TUESDAY 2/26/2013 BY 4:00 PM
  • 4. TEAM RESEARCH PAPERS (additional resources on eCourse) Class Theme: Current Issues in Consumer Behavior Research Paper Title: See assigned chapter Based on Schiffman and Kanuk 10th Edition ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Objective: The objective of this exercise is to encourage an exploration of current academic/scholarly literature in the field of consumer behavior, which is an important basis of marketing communications. Note: Direct quotation from an author’s original work is not allowed. Description: Each team must identify articles relating to consumer behavior. Two articles must be selected per team member (e.g. four team members= 8 papers). Source: Coleman Library’s electronic resources Requirements of the original article: ABI Inform Global Full-text Scholarly journals including peer reviewed Article length- minimum 8-12 original pages Usually based on a research study, and include statistics, charts, and graphs. CITATION OR ABSTRACT/CITATION OR TEXT: Key words (see below) AND PUBLICATION TITLE: marketing OR consumer OR advertising OR promotion AND DOCUMENT TYPE: Feature AND NOT
  • 5. DOCUMENT TYPE: book OR review OR case AND DATE: 09/01/2012- 12/31/2012 Check: Scholarly and Peer Reviewed -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- List of Key Words and Terms: See assigned Chapter from Schiffman and Kanuk Credit and Due Dates: Coleman Library Training- Databases, Fair Use (5 Bonus Points) Ms. Kimberly Gay, TBA LAB; but no later than TBA date Research Paper Section-1- 100 points Each student- submit on Turnitin in eCourses: TBA Each student- submit in the assignment drop box: TBA A Cover Sheet, followed by article summaries IN ORDER OF LAST NAME OF FIRST AUTHOR- one file (see sample below) (full check list will be provided) Team- submit hard submission in 3-ring binder to Office- by TBA in ARCH office/Miss Kesee/Student Worker OR Dr. Tandon. Two copies- Cover Sheet, followed by article summaries One copy- Self-evaluation MyResearch results list Complete article with important points highlighted (every article) Turnitin Report This assignment description Research Paper Section-2- 100 points, including PowerPoint and Presentation Each student- submit on Turnitin in eCourses: TBA Each student- submit in drop box on eCourses: Cover Sheet, followed by PPT presentation and literature review- one file (sample below) (full check list will be provided) TBA
  • 6. Team- submit hard copy in 3-ring binder to Office - by TBA, in ARCH office/Miss Kesee/Student Worker OR Dr. Tandon Two copies- A Cover Sheet, followed by PPT Presentation, then literature review- one file One copy-Turnitin Report, supporting material RETURN FULL ORIGINAL PACKAGE FROM RESEARCH SECTION 1 Late submissions will not be accepted. RESEARCH PAPER SECTION - 1 Research Paper Section-1 Requirements and Guidelines: Team must make a summary of each article, about 900 words (see format). Each team is required to: 1. Select a current article from peer-reviewed academic/scholarly journals, relating to the assigned chapter in the text (date: 09/01/2012- 12/31/2012).  PVAMU Homepage  Library  A-Z list of article collections  ABI Inform Global  Advanced Search  Enter key subject words from assigned chapter, publication title (marketing OR consumer), publication title (journal or review), date range, select scholarly/peer reviewed, select full text file, select Scholarly. Save and submit the results list (MyResearch). Select article from results list. Save and submit the article, after highlighting the important points listed below (such as citation, purpose of the article…. and so on) 2. Get approval for the article selection from Coleman Library, Kim Gay (contact details in syllabus). Submit the FULL-TEXT file of the article (NOT PDF OR OTHER). She will sign on your cover sheet in approval of article selection. 3. Complete a summary of each article in about 900 words, no more than two pages single- spaced, in the given format (see sample). Five or more words from the original must be placed within quotation marks and duly cited within the paper. The summary should reflect the points made in the article, in your own words. The following should be included, and should cite page numbers from the article: Cover Page Citation Purpose of the Article Theory/Model/Framework used Study Setting (DO NOT INCLUDE METHODOLOGY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS) Summary of Findings
  • 7. Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature (i.e., what the authors inform us, that we did not know earlier) Limitations of the Study Directions for Future Research Reflections: -Which course Learning Objectives were met by this research article (see Syllabus- Learning Objectives) -How did this research article help understand Consumer Behavior? 4. Complete an originality check on Turnitin on eCourses; print and submit the Turnitin report along with your article summary. For questions regarding Turnitin, contact Mr. Major Stewart (see Syllabus- Important PVAMU Contacts). Page Format and Text Font: Word 2010, one inch margins on all sides, single spaced, left aligned, Times New Roman 12 pt. ordinary font. Citation must be in APA style. RESEARCH PAPER SECTION- 2 Research Paper Section-2 Team must make a literature review of covering the highlights of all papers from Section 1 (Cover sheet, Acknowledgements, Contents, Key Words, Declarations, Reference List, and Reflections- not counted): 5 members= 5 papers= about 1000 words 6 members= 6 papers= about 1200 words. will comprise a summary “literature review” based on Section 1 article selections. For guidelines on literature review, see ABI Inform on Coleman Library web page: Richard J Torraco. (2005). Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 356-367. Retrieved September 16, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 887946431). For a sample of literature review, see ABI Inform on Coleman Library web page: SengunYeniyurt. (2003). A literature review and integrative performance measurement framework for multinational companies. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 21(3), 134- 142. Retrieved September 16, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 349379671). Review by Center for Business Communications: It is recommended that Mrs. Garcia (see syllabus for contact information), given sufficient advance notice, be consulted in reference to style and formatting. Team work: For best results, each student needs to review any work done by other team members.
  • 8. Team Peer Evaluations: Each team member will complete and submit a peer evaluation in the drop box under Assignments- rating themselves as well as team members. PowerPoint Presentation- 8-10 content slides covering important points of lit review- sample in class. NO PEER EVALUTION SUBMITTED= NO GRADE Grading considerations will include among other things, accurate representation of the article, originality (no plagiarism), word count limit, style and format, grammar, language and spelling check, timely submission, and average of team peer evaluations. IN-CLASS PRESENTATIONS Teams will make in-class PowerPoint presentation, about 10 minutes each, on TBA. NO ATTENDANCE AND PARTICIPATION= NO GRADE GOOD LUCK WITH YOUR WORK!
  • 9. Current Issues in Consumer Behavior: Consumer Perception Team Name: Dubois Haris, Denzel, Senior, Marketing Hazeur, Nia, Senior, Marketing Henderson, Valerie, Senior, Marketing Mitchell, Marialle, Senior, Marketing Riathin, Mayol, Senior, Management Information Systems Based on consumers in Brazil Faculty Sponsor: Dr. K. Joonas Associate Professor of Marketing Department of Management and Marketing Submitted in partial completion of research project part II Submitted on May 10, 2013 Acknowledgements Team Dubois would like to acknowledge the following individuals in the completion of this research paper: *Dr. Munir Quddus, Dean, College of Business *Dr. Sudhir Tandon, Acting Head, Department of Management and Marketing *Ms. Kimberly Gay, Coleman Library, Coleman Library Liaison to the College of Business *Mrs. Edwina Garcia, Program Assistant, Center for Business Communication, College of Business
  • 10. Abstract *The objective of this research is to explore current academic/scholarly literature in the field of marketing communications. Also, to achieve goals of the Course, COB, PV and students *Validation by Ms Kim Gay *Article Summaries- feedback from Dr. Joonas *Literature Review- Guidance from Dr. Joonas Introduction, major findings, directions for future research, references, reflections *Style and formatting review- Mrs. Garcia
  • 11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would first like to acknowledge Ms. Kim Gay with helping us select our articles and approving them to make sure they were relevant to our chapter. Next, we wish to acknowledgeMs. Edwina Garcia for analyzing our literature review to make sure it was of the highest standards. Last but not least, we would like to acknowledge Dr. Joonas for teaching us the necessary knowledge for us to reach our full potential as business students and take what we have learned with us in our careers. She was very helpful in telling our group what we needed to do for the project and how to do it.
  • 12. DECLARATION We, the members of Team Dubois, hereby declare that this research paper constitutes original work, representing fair use of copyrighted material under law. If at any time, evidence is found to the contrary, we submit to the fullest penalties under the official University Policy on Student Conduct and Academic Dishonesty presented in full in the Undergraduate Catalog (http://www.pantherconnect.com/catalog/catalog.undergrad.swf). Further, we accept individual as well as collective responsibility as to the originality of this research paper. Harris, Denzel, Senior, Marketing ________________________________ _____________________ Hazeur, Nia, Senior, Marketing ________________________________ _____________________ Henderson, Valerie, Senior, Marketing ________________________________ _____________________ Mitchell, Marialle, Senior, Marketing ________________________________ _____________________ Riathin, Mayol, Senior, MIS ________________________________ _____________________ Spring 2013 MRKT 3333.P01 Consumer Behavior College of Business Prairie View A&M University
  • 13. KEY TERMS Consumer Roles Personality Actual self-image Brand personification Cognitive personality factors Compulsive consumption Consumer dogmatism Consumer ethnocentric Consumer innovativeness Consumer innovators Consumer materialism Expected self Extended self Freudian theory Ideal self-image Ideal social self-image Inner directedness Multiple selves Need for cognition Neo-Freudian theory Optimum stimulation levels Ought-to self Other-directness Psychoanalytic theory of personality Sensation seeking Social self-image Trait theory
  • 14. CONTENTS Section Topic Page 1.Consumer complaining behavior in developing countries 7 2.Consumer reaction to service failure and recovery 7-8 3.Retailers' internationalization in emerging markets 8 4. Marketing Trends in value strategies and capabilities 9 5. Extended theoretical model of fashion clothing involvement 9-10
  • 15. Abstract The nature of the research paper is to determine consumers’ behavioral perspectives and attitudes towards different brands. Consumer purchasing and characteristics of their attitude were observed in various circumstances regarding how they felt about the evaluation of different brands and product placement. Most of the data was received through questionnaires that consisted of personality types and demographics, disposing of products and services, and consumers’ approach toward certain situations. The findings were that the opinion of brands changes between qualities such as; age, values, gender. Corporations and scholars can confess that marketing their merchandise toward their target market’s behaviors will produce more revenue as well as aiding in constructing the loyalty of consumers. In conclusion, undergraduates are able to grasp the consumer behavior class goals and relate it to their normal life by engaging in different behavioral patterns in connection to consumer’s attitudes and purchasing power. Introduction Consumer Behavior is “ The behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating , and disposing of products, services, and ideas” (Schiffman and Kanuk 1997). When focusing on consumer complaining marketers must always think about the consumer first. You can have products, and or services, but with no consumer to utilize the product or service you have nothing. From a business state of mind it has always been a known fact that the consumer is always right. Whenever there is a consumer complaint the first question should always ask what caused the complaint. In order to understand a consumers complaint or feelings, you have to put yourself inside of their shoes and imagine how you would feel If you weren’t getting or receiving superior service/ product that you paid for
  • 16. Consumer complaining behavior in developing countries Fernandes and Santos, (2007) analyze and examine why dissatisfied consumers are making complaints and what it is that’s leaving consumers dissatisfied. While conducting the study, researchers examined a model that had been put together by an analyst dealing with customer service and consumers take on the customer service received. Hirschman model entitled “Exit, Voice and Loyalty” focused in on the customers characteristics and reaction to different types of customer service. By using this model, they examined the body language and response to the restaurant service from the respondents. Most respondents assumed that the study taking place would be simple seeing if not half, all the respondents ate at the restaurant before. Along with the study of the “Exit, Voice and Loyalty model, researchers hypothesized that the higher the impact of the level of dissatisfaction would determine the height of complaining from consumers. The results were parallel with the researchers prediction of what would be expected from the service that the respondents received while participating in the study. Majority of the individuals who were dissatisfied with the service took a mental note and did not return to the establishment, whereas others complained while present. Consumer reaction to service failure and recovery According to the Journal of Services Marketing, companies realized that it is quite difficult to measure a customers’ attitude toward complaining (ATC) accurately. These theories lead to two options of studies that were designed to help accumulate a random score using two distinctive items. For example, if the failure was with a male at clothing store designed for women, the test results were thrown out. Though this is a very bias approach to filter out results
  • 17. companies felt this would narrow down the findings to something useful. There were many results that interest the companies; the correlations between theories that the customers experience will have an effect on their attitude toward the company after services have been rendered, and the connections between word of mouth and the failure of services. When the results were tabulated the outcome proved that a failure of service severely affects a customer’s thoughts, emotions, and attitude towards the company, and business as a whole. Since the surveys found direct relationships of the services they provide to the attitude of the consumers this concludes that the questionnaire was successful. Companies can now use this information to construct a new plan n satisfying clients and focus on them revisiting the business. Retailers' internationalization in emerging markets Diallo (2012) compares and contrasts two retailers’ success and failure factors in the emerging retail markets of Brazil. The two retailers that were used as study subjects were the French retailer Carrefour and the local Brazilian retailer Extra. According to Diallo there are certain “push” and “pull” factors that are prevalent and create direct correlation to the success of retailers. Diallo explains that it is vital that retailers grasp the core competence and the organizational culture theory. The study was done in three parts; first there was a synthetic literature review that was done covering the core competence theory and the organizational structure theory. The second study internally based on both retailers and community perceptions. The third study; an internal audit, was a further analysis of both companies internal structures. These findings showed that Carrefour was able to grasp key concepts of both theories thus making it easy for the retailer to thrive. Extra however did not acquire these understanding. His study is limited to only using a select sample size that was purposely chosen and not selected
  • 18. random. The article contributes to understanding the arrangement of the organizational structure theory and the core competence theory which creates aframework for successful companies. Marketing Trends in Value, Strategies and Capabilities This paper examines and summarizes the studies from the article, Marketing Relationships in Brazil: Trends in Value Strategies and Capabilities. The article provides insight and statistical data for the trends in value strategies for businesses across the world, including the United States and Brazil. This paper seeks to identify and capture business and value strategies in order to provide value of adoption. The term value represents economic gains. Value strategies are heavily embedded within an economic perspective. These perspectives pinpoint resources as assets between others to gain access to other resources in business relationships. This builds value through a network while turning organizational knowledge to widely accepted strategies. The central theme of these relationships involves trading of ideas, resources, and methodologies which are essential when exchanging. Exchange relationships have been around forever. The ways in which we exchange and how frequently we trade are factors involved in trade relationships. The challenge is maintaining all the efficiencies on a larger scale. Because of strategies business use to gain profits success of businesses around the world who have adopted strategies from other parts of the world and the speed at which they are adopting them. Theoretical Model of Fashion Clothing Involvement Marketers are mindful of how customers view clothing and the way various groups make assorted decisions regarding similar branding of fashions. Less pressure has been put on consumers to follow the norms; consequently, the customer is open to choose what price they are willing to spend for fashion items. The meaning of generalized concept of fashion can be broadly distinct based on a behavioral phenomenon that can be shown from a variety of material.
  • 19. The second way to view fashion is as an item and as a process of behavior. With all the ways of viewing involvement, each marketer possibly views involvement from a different perspective. The way this article was formulated could be misconstrued and mislead the reader or it did not flow well enough for the reader to understand. The hypotheses could have explained in detail as to why the theoretical model was of any importance and how to measure its accuracy. It is highly unlikely that marketers will use this information from this model for secondary research. However, this article will be beneficial for further research and studies; the specificity of any new studies will be a perfect match for marketers for secondary research. Directions for Future Research and Conclusion The scientist only used anapproach checking for intentions on complaining behaviors instead of the act of complaining. The variables theresearchers used should have been of different age groups to determine whether age groups play a factor in customer complaining behavior. There should have also been a survey to show an approach that causes the initial irritability. Another tactic the researchers should try is to compare emerging markets to established markets. Also, measuring more retailers would help in the comparison rather than showing the competition between two retailers. This would lead to unbiased data. Marketers could even use this information to go more in depth with the previous research. In conclusion learning the different attitude of the consumer is important because it can affect how they react to the different brands. By indulging in how diverse buyers and their different outlooks can observe brands, vendors will be able to not onlyincreasetheir customer loyalty, but it will also increase sells, with further understanding of the complaints.
  • 20. References Áurea Helena, P. R., Brashear, T. G., Plinio Rafael, R. M., & Luciana, F. D. (2009). Marketing relationships in Brazil: Trends in value strategies and capabilities. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 24(5), 449-459. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08858620910966327 Diallo, M. F. (2012). Retailers' internationalization in emerging markets: A comparative study of a French and a local retailer's key success factors in Brazil.International Business Research, 5(10), 91-99. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.pvamu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1222689928?ac countid=7062 Fernandes, D. V. H., & Santos, C. P. (2007). Consumer complaining behavior in developing countries: The case of Brazil. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 20, 86-109. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.pvamu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/204704890?acc ountid=7062 Matos, A. D., Vargas, R., Alberto, C., Veiga, R. T., & Vieira, V. A. (2009). Consumer reaction to service failure and recovery: The moderating role of attitude toward complaining. The Journal of Services Marketing, 23(7), 462- 475.doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08876040910995257
  • 21. Schiffman, L. G., & Kanuk, L(1997). Consumer behavior. Upper Saddle River, N J: Prentice Hall. Valter, A. V. (2009). An extended theoretical model of fashion clothing involvement. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 13(2), 179-200. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13612020910957707
  • 22. Citation Daniel Von der, H. F., & Cristiane Pizzutti, d. S. (2007). Consumer complaining behavior in developing countries: The case of Brazil. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 20, 86-109. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.pvamu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/204704890?accountid= 7062 Article Word Count: 8761 Purpose of the Article- Page 1 The purpose of this article is to understand why dissatisfied consumers are making complaints and what is it that is leaving the consumers dissatisfied. Throughout the article the author explains the different attitude and characteristic traits that could possibly be the reason that leads consumers to complain in developing countries such as Brazil. Theory/Model/ Framework used- Page 6-7 Daniel used many hypotheses to determine the results of the study. Some of the hypotheses included, the higher the level of dissatisfaction, the high the impact on intent to complain. The higher the level of dissatisfaction, the higher the impact on spreading negative word of mouth. It was perceived dissatisfaction is hypothesized to be an emotional state that motivates consumers to undergo a process according to Day. It was found that only 15% of complaint reports could be explained by the intensity level of dissatisfaction. The author often compares and contrasts the behavior of Brazilian consumers and their attitudes versus US American consumers. Study Setting- Page 7-8 This study took place in two different stages. In a primary investigative phase, interviews were conducted with a number of 20 college students who were pursuing graduate degrees. The study was set in place to take survey of the beliefs of the students dealing with the research of the hypothesis. Students were taken to a group of restaurants and each individual rated the service they received. During the visit students acted as if they were out for a normal dinner and observed the service and made complaints if necessary. Students were asked numbers of questions such as what actions do restaurant customers perform in response to horrible service experiences. They were also asked if as the customer, were complaints made to the restaurant or was it just negative word of mouth that was spread amongst the customers and individuals they knew. With the help of the questions being asked, the response made things possible for researchers to better understand customer complaining behavior which lead the researchers to the next phase of the research. Customer complaints and service failures in a restaurant atmosphere were rated on two levels, high or low. In the second stage of investigating, a total of 480
  • 23. graduate level students from two different universities south of Brazil. Once results were back it was said that students who experienced a higher level of service failure made more complaints to the restaurant versus students with a lower level of complaints and service failure. Summary of Findings-Page 9-12 After close examining the behavior of restaurant customers and their dissatisfaction with the restaurant and the services they received and didn’t receive, results showed that depending on how big of a deal it was to the customer of the service failures they had encountered determined how much complaining the customer did after receiving bad service. Majority of the interviewers were people who dined in at restaurants more than four times a month, with 23.4 % eating in restaurants once a month and 20% less than one month. At least more than half, sixty percent to be exact had unsatisfactory experiences with some of the same restaurants prior being to the collection of data. Researchers also pointed out that about 28 percent of surveyors only complained, where as seventeen percent complained about the service and didn’t return but used negative word of mouth in regards to the restaurant leaving forty-eight percent of individuals who complaints weren’t direct but did not make a return and also passed on negative word of mouth experiences. It was also said to believe that from observing customer complaint behavior, each surveyor personality played a part in the ways complaints were made. Surveyors who complained and made their complaints known to the company which followed no return visit and negative word of mouth were customers with a lot of personality and self confidence versus other surveyors with a more conservative personality who complained about the service received but never complained to the actually company, but did not return and gave negative word of mouth. Overall dissatisfaction levels were high but only so many complained and made it a big deal to the company. Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature-Pages 11-12 Researchers have found that through the study of restaurants and their services, it has shown how important excellent customer service can be. With restaurants not providing top notch service to its customers, as studies have shown customer will complain if they aren’t happy with the service they received during their visit. Without the business of customers it would be impossible for restaurants to stay open and run a business. This study shows how customer’s reaction to bad service could play a major role on business especially with negative word of mouth spreading about a business which will take away more customers than the customers experiencing it hands on. Limitations of the Study-Page 13
  • 24. Limitations of the study that took place were service providers and their consideration for the customers and their emotion and feelings of complaining behavior. Many customers felt that it’s the service providers fault for not taking into consideration of how one would want to be treated if they were a guest at a restaurant. Another limitation would be to use more than on sample of studies to determine the behavior of customers. Instead of using just restaurants to us a variety of different services and rating the customers experience. Directions for Future Research- Page 13 In the future I feel as if researchers should use more surveyors of all types of age groups to determine whether age groups play a factor in customer complaining behavior. Also as mentioned early, future research should study more service areas besides restaurants. This study should also take place not only in developing countries like Brazil, but so many other developing countries where entrepreneurs are starting to building businesses. Article Summary Word Count: 982 words
  • 25. Citation Matos, A. d., Vargas, R., Alberto, C., Veiga, R. T., & Vieira, V. A. (2009). Consumer reaction to service failure and recovery: The moderating role of attitude toward complaining. The Journal of services Marketing, 23(7), 462-475. Retrieved February 4, 2013, form ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID 08876045). Article Word Count: 7062 Purpose of the Article- Page 1 The article serves the purpose to show the connection between consumer satisfaction and how the company responds. Within the article the authors break down the customers’ satisfaction into different groups; service failure and recovery. The authors also explore how different customers have unique satisfactions and how that can influence their support for the company, the way they tell a friend about the corporation, and their initial attitude toward complaining. (ATC) Theory/Model/Framework used-Page 1-2 By using a design method approach the author speaks about the traits of the technique being able to incorporate and predict the expected direction of the relationship between customers failure and recovery rate for a product. The company can recover more effectively and efficiently with these results and can potentially prevent future failures for the business. This particular model constructs data to show the altered levels of consumer satisfaction. This can be a negative or positive result. This differentiation will be determined by the change in variables of failure during the original test. From these responses the customer and the company can detect the problem, and determine if one is present and can predict if the same problem will arise again in the future. Study Setting- Page 6-7 A number of companies gave surveys to graduate and undergraduate students at the surrounding universities. The survey consisted of a questionnaire asking about recent experiences, which
  • 26. reflected in a negative way, or a positive way. The opinion poll wanted to find information about the service provider, and the customers’ reactions to the service. The examination also found information on whether the service was successful or a failure for the consumer. Out of the four hundred and fifty students that participated in the poll two hundred and fifty-two stated that they had experienced some form of service failure with a company in the last three to four months. After the poll was completed the final results showed that about fifty-five percent of the contributors were college males and the remaining forty-five percent were female collegiate students. Majority of the applicants were young adults under the age of twenty-five and the remaining few were middle aged; around the ages of early thirties to the mid-forties. The test demographics showed that the bulk of undergraduate candidates experienced some form of service failure between the years of 2004 to 2006. Summary of Findings-Page 6-9 Because companies realize that it is quite difficult to measure the customers ATC accurately they have conducted a separate test with two alternatives for receiving the correct information. The two options of studies were designed to help accumulate a random score using two distinctive items that remained after the elimination process of the first survey. Even though two factors were taken out to help filter the survey there was still a second step that the companies needed to take to make a current and adequate testing that could benefit the industry in a positive way. The other elimination option was the gender of the participant and the type of business failure that was presented. For example, if the failure was with a male at clothing store designed for women, the test results were thrown out due to lack of good judgment. Though this is a very bias approach to filter out results companies felt this would narrow down the findings to something useful. The administers of the surveys decided to keep the original content of the survey with the initial findings, in hope to have an accurate report to give the companies that participated. There were many results that interest the companies; the correlations between theories that the customers experience will have an effect on their attitude toward the company after services have been rendered, and the connections between word of mouth and the failure of services. When the results were tabulated the outcome proved that a failure of service severely affects a customer’s thoughts, emotions, and attitude towards the company, and business as a whole. For example, if someone has a problem with one McDonalds they will have a problem with the entire chain. Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature- Page 10 Since the surveys found direct relationships of the service they provide to the attitude of the consumers this concludes that the questionnaire was successful. Companies can now use this information to construct a new plan n satisfying clients and focus on them revisiting the business.
  • 27. Limitations of the Study-Page 10 One limitation of this study is that the predictions and the responses are variables that are measured at the same time. The other limitation is that the results can be unreliable for the variations of complaints and predicting the possibility of future complaints. Directions for Future Research- Page 8 In the future there should be a test to show and approach that checks for intentions on complaining behaviors and the actual act of complaining and the variables to be tested. This will allow the researchers to have a detailed response from the affected consumers’ viewpoint. Article Summary Word Count: 895 words
  • 28. Citation Mbaye, F. D. (2012). Retailers' internationalization in emerging markets: A comparative study of a French and a local retailer's key success factors in Brazil. International Business Research, 5(10), 91-99. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.pvamu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1222689928?accountid =7062 Article Word Count: 4873 Purpose of the Article- Page 2 The purpose of the article is to compare and contrast two retailers’ success and failure factors in the emerging country of Brazil. The two retailers are the French retailer Carrefour and the local Brazilian retailer Extra. The author explains within the article that the “core competence theory and organizational culture theory” are two areas in which a retailer must succeed in to make their location in Brazil successful. Theory/ Model/ Framework used- Page 2-3 Over the last twenty- five years in the retail industry certain “push” and “pull” factors have become prevalent to the success of certain retailers. These factors effect the macro and micro environments of a business. Push factors include industry competition, economy, and the country’s legislation; where as pull factors include economic stability, political stability of global markets, and international opportunities for growth. The “core competence theory and organizational culture theory” are two areas where these push and pull factors can be identified as a strength and/or weakness and are extremely relevant for this research. The core competence theory is based on a manager’s ability to assess a strategy that correlates resources, capabilities, and competences. As where, the organizational culture theory is the structure within the organization which includes values, beliefs, taboos, symbols, rituals, and myths. Brazil was used because it is known as an emerging market, social and business activities are rapidly growing and increasing industrialization. Study Setting- Page 3-4
  • 29. The study was done in three parts; first there was a synthetically literature review that was done covering the core competence theory and the organization culture theory. The study of the Brazilian retailer Extra it is the second largest retailer in Latin America after Wal-Mart, and has operations in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia. It was the first foreign retailer to find its place in Brazilian stores in 1975. It is now the largest retailer in the country. Carrefour is the largest grocery retailer in Europe and has about 14,990 stores running in 30 countries, $102.442 billion during the 2007 fiscal year were the recorded sales and provides jobs to more than 400,000 employees. The third part of the study was to analyze both companies’ internal structures and how the managers ran them in comparison to one another to deduce the reasons why the international seller was preforming better than the local chain. METHODOLOGY AND DATA ANALYSIS- NOT NEEDED Summary of Findings- Page 4-7 The hypothesis was that for businesses to thrive in emerging countries a business must focus on the international aspect of sales this theory was indeed proven by the findings from the studies. There were four features related to the two theories that were proven to be the key components of why the French establishment thrived and the local establishment was constantly playing catch up. One of the four features was where the stores were located and the how they were laid out. Carrefour is a hypermart sort of like Wal-Mart in the United Sates and they merged with a group of discounted products and now can offer high end and discounted products of equal proportion. Consumer relations were noted as being a key element of success. Carrefour has taken much pride in the fact that they are aware of how important the relationship that they maintain with their customers. They use these types of relationships to find and attract new clients and the mere fact that they care so much gives the returning clients reason to say. It has for instance launched own store brands, credit cards earlier than its competitors in the Brazilian market. Carrefour showed competitive strengths over other stores such as Extra the company used competitive pricing to bring in new customers who might have initial thought the store was pricey for their economic level. Carrefour has implemented a system within the storefront will cut cost and to charge prices that suit all consumers without sacrificing quality. Carrefour puts also an emphasis on respect for the law on workers' remuneration, paid holidays, etc.
  • 30. Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature- Page 7 Researchers have found a correlation between thriving retails in emerging countries and retail internationalization. The core competence theory and the organizational structure theory create frameworks of key strategic issues in emerging markets. The study preformed provided research for a better understanding of what an emerging market must go through to prevail. Limitations of the Study- Page 7 This study is limited itself to only using a select sample size that was purposely chosen and not selected random thus not representing a more diverse population. The study was carried out through one Brazilian city and managers from only two different retailers. The data collected were also statements from managers that might have wanted to personally fabricate some of their findings to make their store seem better. Directions for Future Research- Page 7 In the future I think it would be better if they compared the emerging market to an established market to compare. Also, taking more than two retailers would help in the comparison to an overall market rather than the competition between two retailers. Finally, I feel that it would be beneficial for data to be collected on an unbiased basis. Word Count: 907
  • 31. Citation Ribeiro, Á. H. P., & Brashear, T. G. (2009). Marketing relationships in Brazil: trends in value strategies and capabilities. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing , 1-1 Article Word Count:5,624 Purpose of the Article-page1 This article provides insight and statistics for the trends in value strategies for businesses across the world, the United States and Brazil to name a few. Value strategies are heavily embedded within an economic perspective. Such perspectives pinpoint resources as assets and the interaction between others to gain access to other resources, thus improving value through a network as well as build upon it. Theory/Model/Framwork used- page3 Four forms of generated value are presented and examined in the article. In order of most basic values to most complex forms of value the authors explain exchange cost value, added value, performance value, and value co creation. Exchange cost value assumes the value of the actual cost or scarcity of the good being traded. Added value includes enhancements to the product that are of no significant cost to the producer but add to the benefit of buying a product or service from the particular seller. This gives companies a competitive advantage. Performance value is the value shared and gained between buyer and seller through a new or continuing relationship and causes the customer to return to a particular seller. Value of co-creation is considered the highest level of value and innovation because it creates new competencies between buyer and seller through a better understanding of the relationship. Each level requires greater resources and competencies as they develop higher levels of interaction and integration with their markets. Explore practices in strategies of business to business relationships within developed countries like the U.S. and those in Europe and compare them to developing countries like Brazil and Argentina to exhibit the pace of current trends and display how rapidly developing countries are picking up on developed country trends. Through careful monitoring, by a company in one region, of corporate success in other regions of the world that country can quickly follow the trend. This is true, especially if they have adapted the methodologies of a learning organization. Study setting page3 The article describes necessary capabilities to implement such strategies as relational and transactional. The necessary capabilities include four perspectives. They look at transactional marketing, database marketing, interactive marketing and network marketing as a means explaining the different perspectives in developing a business’s structured capabilities or competencies. The first, transactional marketing, deals with marketing’s fundamentals which is centered on the four P.’s of marketing price, place, product, promotion and the last three perspectives listed handle the customer’s profile, including their network/environment resources and buying patterns Relational strategies are viewed as delivering more long term relationships and thus are more effective in the long run. Relational strategies require a mutual dependence of the buyer and seller it integrates the two through higher value added exchanges. Transactional strategies deal solely with business practices and the use of better business practices to improve
  • 32. performance. Examples of transactional strategies would be those strategies related to logistics, a corporations decision to ship on land and not through the airways would be a transactional strategy. Study Setting-Page 5 The authors conclude that 42 percent of revenues will come from performance value and value co-creation strategies this statistical forecast assumes that Brazil will be picking up the trend and relying on it for a significant amount of revenue. Argentina’s relational strategies excel in local and small businesses for Brazil these competencies display great review in large businesses. Ribeiro and Brashear maintain that currently Brazil receives 26% of revenue from value added strategies and 32% from commodity strategies this will be quite a change in the direction towards more complex value strategies and is expected to show huge rewards for businesses that adopt this practice. The expected trend across the board is in relational strategies over transactional strategies. Industry still shows progress in both, but there is a definite increase in relational strategies used by more industry as well as more complex strategies within the spectrum of relational. These trends are true especially within the more advanced market economies. Contribution of the Article to the body of Literature-5 Through recent developments in industry and globalization, corporations and even small businesses are able to benefit from such specific strategies as value strategies to promote and be more productive in their businesses. It is interesting to see the exchange of working ideas from country to country. The pace of the exchange is becoming increasingly faster, which is even more fascinating. This exchange of ideas so rapidly creates value for all subjects involved. Value is something that both sellers and producers are seeking through trade. One value is exchanged for another value in hopes of achieving satisfaction. This is now done on an international level which is increasing the body of information exchanged from country to country. The adoption of strategies may be seen by one country as valuable; however another country may not agree that the value produced by the exchange method is satisfactory. This can be the result of many cultural or regional differences. There is a positive correlation between innovation that works and the expansion of the work. If the innovation does not work for one country it may be as simple as tweaking the idea to the needs of another demographic group. Word Count: 895
  • 33. Citation Valter, A. V. (2009). An extended theoretical model of fashion clothing involvement.Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 13(2), 179-200 Article Word Count: 7,691 Purpose of the Article- Page 1-2 Being aware of how customers view clothing and in what way various groups make assorted decisions regarding similar branding of fashions is crucial to marketers. Recently, consumers have become more independent and less pressure has been put on them to follow the norms. Therefore, the customer is open to decide what price they are prepared to spend for fashion items. Theoretically, it is not easy to comprehend fashion consumption, because diverse meanings of the concept appear. For this reason, it is best to describe theory of fashion in three ways: Generalized concept of fashion, Fashion as an object and a process, and mechanisms of the fashion process. Theory/ Model/ Framework used- Page 3-5 What is meant by generalized concept of fashion is that fashion can be broadly distinct based off of a behavioral phenomenon that can be shown form a variety of material. Also, a second way of defining fashion is viewing it as an item and as a process of behavior. The last way to view fashion is as a mechanic process of diffusion and social influence. The types of characteristics for measuring fashion involvement is product involvement, consumption involvement, advertising involvement, and purchase decision involvement. Additionally, the characteristics of involvement should not be confused for the dimensions of involvement, which are challenged moderate, knowledge enthusiast, indifferent moderate, challenged enthusiast, and cautious moderate. Though, little exploration has been done on the fashion involvement. A theoretical model was proposed, if was found out that involvement is highly caused by a customer’s grade of materialism, and that knowledge is influenced by age and gender. Time, commitment and loyalty are variables in consumer behavior that have not been applied to this phenomenon. There are various hypotheses that are stated in this article; they are all related in a way. First, materialism has an important direct association with clothing involvement of fashion. Next, Females are closely related with the fashion clothing involvement. Younger ages of consumers have a significant indirect association with the clothing involvement of fashion. Consumers’ perception for the knowledge of fashion has a significant association with the clothing involvement of fashion. Consumers’ confidence to make the right decision about clothing is closely related with the relationship of fashion clothing knowledge. Next, Consumers’ confidence to make the right decision about clothing is closely related with the relationship of fashion clothing involvement. Also, Clothing involvement dealing with fashion has a substantial direct relationship with consumers continuing to be committed. The time it takes shopping is
  • 34. closely related with the involvement with clothing in fashion. Lastly, patronage has a direct relationship with involvement in the clothing of fashion. Study Setting- Page 7-9 To measure involvement, three scales were used. A pretest Questionnaire was done on 53 business students, but they were not included in the final sample. Two of the instruments were not good, patronage and materialism. Because of this, the study used different instruments. The sample consisted of undergraduate and postgraduate students from San Juan, Brazil; there was 315 respondents. Forty-Six percent of the participants were female. What kind of data analysis that was done was: family income values, age range, average age, males interested in buying jeans that were not on sale, how long spent buying normal jeans, and how long spent buying fashionable jeans. Summary of Findings- Page 8-12 It has been shown in research that strong feelings for possession desire, create people that spend extra intervals consuming. Some researchers understand possessions as product involvement. Making improvements to the environment of the store might have an impact on commitment consumers give to that store or product. The purpose of this article is to propose that intervals spent choosing and commitment are the reasons for involvement and that the clothing involvement build is a huge arbitrator variable with this model. The hypotheses in the article are what will propose structure for the extended model. The way that the opposite sex perceives cues in advertising differs. Women are more in to fashion than men are in the traditional sense. When it comes to age, it is assumed that younger consumers are more fashion conscience than older consumers. Another assumption that can be made is that confidence has something to do with certainty and if the consumer made the right choice. It is thought that the more involved with a product a consumer is, the more confident they will be. Cognitive aspects might be used more when it is related to involvement. Because materialism achieved low values in the study, the first hypothesis could not be tested. Maybe a materialism instrument might need to be created in Brazil. There were three hypothesis that were rejected, gender related to fashion involvement, confidence related to involvement, and patronage related to involvement. The other five hypotheses were supported. Future research in variables in involvement might use a different model. Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature- Page 13-14 This article can be used to learn more about the fashion clothing involvement. It is helpful to know certain theories to market to current consumers and attract consumers.I do believe that this article has helped a lot of people understand more about involvement.Lastly, this article found evidence that other theories did not find or research. Limitations of the Study-Page 13-14
  • 35. However, not all the theories could be proven or tested.Also, more investigation should still be done on all theories to get more insight of involvement. Directions for Future Research- Page 14 Marketers could use this information to go more in debt of the research already given in this article. In the future, the article needs to be less redundant. Article Summary Word Count: 899
  • 36. Report Information from ProQuest
  • 37. February 14 2013 21:48 _______________________________________________________________ John B. Coleman Library Table of Contents 1. Retailers' Internationalization in Emerging Markets: A Comparative Study of a French and a Local Retailer's Key Success Factors in Brazil......................................................................................................... 1 Bibliography...................................................................................................................................... ................ 9 14 February 2013 ii ProQuest Document 1 of 1 Retailers' Internationalization in Emerging Markets: A Comparative Study of a French and a Local Retailer's Key Success Factors in Brazil Author: Diallo, Mbaye Fall Publication info: International Business Research 5. 10 (2012): 91-99. ProQuest document link Abstract: The internationalization of retail operations in emerging markets is today one of the most important decisions of mass retailers. This phenomenon has been highlighted by past research, at the micro level as well as the macro-environment. In this paper, we will focus on the key success factors of a retail company in an emerging economy (Brazil). In this respect, we used a case study to compare the key success factors of a foreign and a local retailer considering two increasingly interesting theories in strategic marketing: the core competences theory and the organizational culture theory. The results showed that the international retailing success on the Brazilian market can be well explained by these two theories. Factors for this international retailing success that have been underlined are store format and localization, customer relationship, competitive strengths and organizational culture. However, the local retailer's challenge is now to do as well as the foreign retailer, or better, taking into account the two theories mentioned above. Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings will be provided. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] Links: Check SFX for Availability, Base URL to Journal Linker:,Click here to order from Interlibrary Loan Illiad Full Text: Headnote Abstract The internationalization of retail operations in emerging markets is today one of the most important decisions of mass retailers. This phenomenon has been highlighted by past research, at the micro level as well as the macro-environment. In this paper, we will focus on the key success
  • 38. factors of a retail company in an emerging economy (Brazil). In this respect, we used a case study to compare the key success factors of a foreign and a local retailer considering two increasingly interesting theories in strategic marketing: the core competences theory and the organizational culture theory. The results showed that the international retailing success on the Brazilian market can be well explained by these two theories. Factors for this international retailing success that have been underlined are store format and localization, customer relationship, competitive strengths and organizational culture. However, the local retailer's challenge is now to do as well as the foreign retailer, or better, taking into account the two theories mentioned above. Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings will be provided. Keywords: retail internationalization, core competence theory, organizational culture, Brazil 1. Introduction According to Pederzoli (2006), over the past few years, the trend in the retailing sector has been a global standardization of consumption behaviors and lifestyles. Considering this development, retailers are focusing on a global-scale effort. Actually, as far as a retail strategy is concerned, it is wise, maybe essential, to think "international". Dawson (1994, p.267), defined international retail operations as "Operations, by a single firm or an alliance, of shops or other forms of retail distribution in more than one country". Early studies and empirical ones have listed several factors motivating retail firms to internationalize their activities, and have illustrated the complexity and the influences prevailing in the international retail decision-making process. To be more specific, Treadgold (1988) identified various "push" and "pull" factors associated with both the macro and micro environments. Among the push factors prevail industry competition, economy, legislation, and domestic saturation, while the pull factors include, for instance, economic and political stability of global markets and profit opportunities in the oversea market (Hutchinson et al., 2007). In the 1990s, pull factors, i.e. international opportunities for growth, were considered as more important for the retail internationalization. As a consequence, a study on the reasons for such a retail internationalization should focus on both internal factors specific to the organization, and external environmental 14 February 2013 Page 1 of 9 ProQuest
  • 39. motives (Alexander &Myers, 2000; Vida &Fairhust, 1998). Other authors also noted that, most of the time, retailers tend to internationalize their activities in order to exploit a competitive or a differential advantage (Vida &Fairhust, 1998; Dupuis &Fournioux, 2005). As Burt &Mavrommatis (2006, p.398) noted: "an original concept or a unique and distinctive retail product is the source of competitive advantage for global retailers". In this respect, we can distinguish two main kinds of retailers in the international markets: mass retailers (e.g. Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Tesco, etc.) and smaller specialty retailers dealing with international operations (e.g. H&M, Zara, Decathlon, etc.). Mass retailers' target segments may be premium segment, mass market segment or mass market and premium segment (Meyer &Yen, 2006). As for the others, "differentiation is marked by a niche strategy and brand recognition, which focuses on a narrow group of products, a clearly defined market sector, or a specific customer segment" (Hutchinson, Alexander, Quinn, &Dohery, 2007, p. 98). The main objective of this research is to compare a French retailer's key success factors (Carrefour) with those of a local chain (Extra) on the Brazilian market mainly based on 'core competence' and organizational culture frameworks. In fact, previous research has investigated firms' internationalization in emerging markets. However, the impacts caused by both 'core competence' and organizational culture have not been studied together regarding retailers' key success factors in these markets. According to Fleury (2009, p. 2), "culture and competence are fairly wellknown topics; both are part of the academic agenda and are widely discussed in day-to-day debates within organizations". Yet, the combination of these two frameworks can bring interesting insights into the retail internationalization in emerging markets. This research is also a reaction to scholars' call for more research in emerging markets (see Diallo, 2012). For these researchers, emerging markets "present significant socioeconomic, demographic, cultural, and regulative departures from the assumptions of theories developed in the Western world and challenge our conventional understanding of constructs and their relations" (Burgess &Steenkamp, 2006, p.337). This study will be divided as follows: first, we will make a synthetical literature review regarding the 'core competence' theory and the organizational culture theory in relation with international
  • 40. retail strategies. Then, we will use a case study focused on the Brazilian retail market. In the third part, we will present and discuss the results. To finish, we will emphasize the theoretical and managerial benefits of this study, point out its limits and suggest future research orientations. 2. Literature Review Two general theories developed in the international business area are particularly relevant in this research. On the one hand, the 'core competence' theory can be a starting point to understand the retailers' internationalization and their success in emerging markets. On the other hand, based on the strategic field, organizational culture can be seen as a key factor explaining retailers' success in emerging markets. 2.1 Core Competences Increasing attention has recently been given to the concept of 'core competence' by managers, decision makers and scholars. The 'core competence' theory is part of the strategy theory introduced by Prahalad&Hamel (1990) in the business literature. The basic premise of this concept is that the strategy has to be directed inside the corporation toward resources, capabilities and competences. The concept of core competence may be considered as a complex one as some authors used a wider term in the literature to explain this same reality (i.e., resource-based theory) while other authors preferred another concept close but different (i.e., capabilities). The idea behind the concept of core competence is that a "firm's ability to gain and keep profitable markets segments depends on its ability to gain and defend advantageous positions in underlying resources important to production and distribution" (Conner, 1991, p. 121-122). Prahalad&Hamel (1990) defined core competences as "the collective learning in the organization, especially how to coordinate diverse production skills and integrate multiple streams of technologies". As for the resource-based theory, it is a tool that allows us to know what resources are available to a company. This theory is criticized in a sense that the basis for a competitive advantage of a firm lies mainly in the application of the set of valuable resources available for this firm. Resources can be defined as "all assets, capabilities, organizational processes, firm attributes, information, knowledge, etc, controlled by a firm that enable the firm to conceive and implement strategies that improve its efficiency and effectiveness" (Daft, 1983; Barney, 1991, p.101). In this sense, there are many ways of creating a
  • 41. 14 February 2013 Page 2 of 9 ProQuest competitive advantage. For instance, Barney (1991) supported that a firm resource must have four main attributes: it must be valuable, rare among the firm's current and potential competition, imperfectly imitable, and there cannot be any strategically equivalent substitutes. Capabilities must also be differentiated from the concept of 'core competence'. "The capabilities of a firm are what it can do as a result of teams of resources working together and most of the time, higher capabilities of a firm is likely those which derive from an integration of individual functional capabilities"(Grant, 1991). For instance, in the retailing sector, Wal-Mart has a high quality team management, a strong ability to practice aggressive price competition and to avoid labor unions. However, for Prahalad&Hamel (1990), the central concept of corporate strategy is 'core competence'. They believe that a core competence has many characteristics: it is easier to enter many markets; it increases the profits generated by customers; and it is difficult for competitors to imitate. Besides, use is not a factor that diminishes 'core competence'. In fact, "unlike physical assets, which do deteriorate over time, competencies are enhanced as they are applied and shared" (Prahalad&Hamel, 1990). However, we must stress that competences still need to be nurtured and protected from competitors. The concept of 'core competence' has recently been applied to the retail sector (Cao &Dupuis, 2009). The authors distinguished between 'resources' and 'competences' as it was done in past research, defining the core competence of a retailer as "a way of deploying the firm's resources that allow it to perform better, in a similar environment, than its direct or potential competitors, and to create value perceived as such by consumers and the other players involved in the retail chain" (p.351). 2.2 Organizational Culture Organizational culture refers to the general culture within a company or organization, and it is also often referred to as corporate culture even though the two concepts are different as corporate culture encompasses a blend of the values, beliefs, taboos, symbols, rituals and myths all companies develop over time. There are many organizational culture classifications. For instance, Hofstede (1981) identified five dimensions of culture in his study of national influences: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/ femininity and long/short term orientation.
  • 42. Power distance expresses the degree to which a society expects differences in terms of power. Uncertainty avoidance reflects the extent to which a society accepts uncertainty and risk. Individualism and collectivism are opposed and refer to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves, or alternatively act predominantly as a member of the group or organization. Masculinity vs. femininity refers to the value placed on traditional male or female values. Male values, for instance, include competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions. Long vs. short term orientation describes a society's "time horizon" or the importance attached to the future versus the past and present. Furthermore, according to Deshpande, Farley, &Webster (1993), organizations can have four cultures: first, the hierarchical culture emphasizes established procedures, rules and uniformity. Second, the clan culture stresses loyalty, tradition and commitment to the firm. Third, the market culture focuses on competitive actions and achievement. Finally, an organization with an adhocracy culture is entrepreneurial, creative and flexible. According to these authors, an organization can be classified in one of those four cultures. Morgan (1997) puts forward four essential strengths of the organizational culture approach. First, it stressed the human side of organizational life, and found significance and learning in its most mundane aspects. Second, it explains the importance of creating appropriate systems of shared meaning to help people work together for a common goal. Third, it makes the members acknowledge the impact of their behavior on the organization's culture. Finally, it reinforces the idea that the perceived relationship between an organization and its environment is also affected by the organization's basic assumptions. 3. Methodology: Case Study This paper includes a case study research to explore the key success factors of a retailer's internationalization in an emerging market. The reasons for such a methodology are, first of all, that it gives us rich insights of these processes (Yin, 1994). Then, the exploratory nature of this research suggests that a case study may be a relevant methodology. Finally, this research is applied to a specific context (i.e. Brazil). 3.1 Study Units 3.1.1 Retailers Investigated Two mass retailers are involved in this research: Carrefour and Extra (Group PaoAçucar). Carrefour is the largest
  • 43. grocery retailer in 14 February 2013 Page 3 of 9 ProQuest Europe. It operated about 14,990 stores in 30 countries, with sales of US$102.442 billion during the 2007 fiscal year and has 490,042 employees (Carrefour annual report, 2007). Retailer Extra is the second largest retailer in Latin America after Wal-Mart, and has operations in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia. It was the first foreign retailer to find its place in Brazilian stores in 1975. It is now the largest retailer in the country. Brazil is the third largest contributor of Carrefour in terms of operating income. In order to have a more precise idea of the retail success of Carrefour on the Brazilian market, we compare its strategy to that of its competitor PaoAçucar, a local retailer. The Group PaoAçucar is now the second biggest retailer on the Brazilian market in terms of retail market shares. 3.1.2 The Market Study This research is based on a survey undertaken on the Brazilian market. Brazil is an emerging market and a BRIC nation which remains one of the first market concerned by retail expansion (Alexander &de Lira e Silva 2002; AT Kearney 2010; Diallo, 2012). The Brazilian retail market is today attractive for global retailers "considering the country's large population and the relatively stable macroeconomic conditions that had emerged in recent years" (De Angelo, Eunni&Fouto, 2010, p.204). Brazil is an emerging market and a part of what is called BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China). It is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's tenth largest economy at market exchange rates and the ninth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), with $1,313.590 billion of GNP, according to the International Monetary Fund (2008). Brazil, and indeed South America as a whole, is becoming more important on the global retail stage. With the consumer market growing, an increasing number of foreign retailers are expanding there (Diallo, 2009; Planet Retail, 2007). Brazil's top retailers are leading multinational retailers who are investing huge sums in this increasingly competitive market. In fact, Brazil's foodservice industry is facing significant changes as global companies continue to invest in the market which has benefited from economic recovery, political stability and growth in tourism. A report published by Planet Retail, The Brazilian Foodservice Market, shows that foodservice sales in Brazil will keep on increasing, reaching BRL103 billion (USD47.2 billion) in 2012
  • 44. (Planet retail, 2007). 3.2 Data Collection We used two kinds of data: primary and secondary data. The primary data are composed of in-depth interviews with managers of the international retailer Carrefour and its local competitor retailer Extra (hypermarket chain of the Group PaoAçucar). As for the secondary data, it includes the annual reports of the retailers involved and the specialized economic press. Secondary data analysis's aim is to know more about the retailers involved in the study whereas the purpose of the interviews with managers is to identify the key success factors of Carrefour and those of Extra on the Brazilian market. The interviews were conducted using an in-depth interview guide. We also used a technique usually adopted by researchers: the method of direct quotations. Four in-depth interviews were conducted in Brasilia with store managers and department's managers of Carrefour. Four other in-depth interviews were conducted in the same city with managers and department's managers of Extra (hypermarket chain of the PaoAçucar group). These two retailers were chosen for their representativeness at a national level and for their success in the Brazilian retail industry. Each interview lasted about an hour and was fully recorded and transcribed. 3.3 Data Analysis Data was analyzed using content analysis. One of the main advantages of content analysis is the condensation of data to get a simplified representation. Krippendorff(2004, p.18) defined content analysis as "a technique for making replicable and valid inferences from texts (or other meaningful matter) to the contexts of their use". For researchers who consider using content analysis, several advantages can be associated to it. In this research, content analysis is used for three main reasons. First, content analysis allows both quantitative and qualitative operations. Second, content analysis can provide valuable historical/cultural insights over time through texts analysis. Third, it permits to stay close to the text which can alternate between specific categories and relationships. The Sphinx Lexica software was chosen as an assisting tool for our data analysis. In the open coding phase, we first identified the activities where Carrefour was successful and then tried to see whether there was a link between these successful activities and our theoretical frameworks, i.e. 'core competence' theory and organizational culture theory. The same process was performed for the local retailer Extra. The
  • 45. results are analyzed in the next section. 4. Results and Comments 4.1 The Key Success Factors of Carrefour in 14 February 2013 Page 4 of 9 ProQuest Brazil The success of Carrefour in the Brazilian market is based on several factors. Among these factors, four features related to 'core competence' theory and organizational culture can be mentioned. - Store Formats and Localization Carrefour has historically seen most of its internationalization strategy rooted in a single format, the hypermarket (Burt, Davies, Dawson, &Sparks, 2008). However, after a merger with another retailer in 1999, Carrefour clearly shifted into a multi-format internationalization strategy. The merger also brought the limited line discount format into this group. Carrefour also is the first mover in the Brazilian market. This is why it was able to settle in the heart of Brasilia. Table 1 shows some quotations from the interviews explaining how it was relevant for the success of Carrefour on the Brazilian market. - Consumer Relationship Relationship with consumers is a key element in the success of any mass retailer. Customer relationship management is a broadly recognized, widely-implemented strategy for managing and nurturing a company's interactions with clients and sales prospects. Carrefour has always been aware of the importance of customer relationship and is using it in order to find, attract, and win new clients, nurture and retain those the company already has, entice former clients back into the fold, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. It has for instance launched own store brands, credit cards earlier than its competitors in the Brazilian market (see table 1). - Competitive Strengths Being competitive is a critical issue for retailers evolving in the retail environment as more and more retailers are in competition in the retail market. Competition may give incentives for selfimprovement. For example, if two retailers are competing, they will hopefully improve their products and service to increase sales. Carrefour's success is mainly due to several key competitive points. For example, launching its store brands has been a key strategy to attract consumers in the segments C and D in the Brazilian market. The strategy aimed to support and to strengthen an aggressive pricing strategy. The focus on its image has also been a key element in the competitive tools of Carrefour (see table 1). - Organizational Culture The concept of organizational culture has now gained wide acceptance in the marketing literature. It is a way to
  • 46. understand human systems. For Carrefour, each aspect of its organizational culture can be seen as an important environmental condition affecting its system and subsystems. Carrefour has for instance a high level of standardization as the latter is a part of its history in retail markets. This allows it to be consistent with its will to cut cost and to charge prices that suit all consumers without sacrificing quality. Carrefour puts also an emphasis on respect for the law on workers' remuneration, paid holidays, etc. Table 1 gives quotations from the interviews about this dimension on the success of Carrefour in Brazil. 4.2 Comparing Carrefour to the Local Chain Extra In order to have a more precise idea of the success of Carrefour in the Brazilian market, we explored the success of Extra (local challenger of Carrefour). The results are shown in table 1. Several comments can be made when comparing the success of the two retailers investigated in the Brazilian market. First, regarding 'store format and localization', Carrefour and Extra are now almost in the same situation. In fact, Carrefour uses supermarket as a key format for its internationalization whereas Extra is doing very well in this format today in Brazil. In terms of localization, Carrefour keeps an advantage as the first big mover on the Brazilian market. However, Extra is trying to be present everywhere in Brasilia. It also adopts the strategy of changing the positioning of its retail formats depending on consumers' income in a given area. Second, regarding 'customer relationship', the success of the two retailers is based on similar facts. For instance, they both adopted a customer orientation and tried to build loyalty and reach customer satisfaction by launching their own brands and store credit cards. However, Extra has an advantage as it offers its leisure outlets for kids inside its hypermarkets whereas Carrefour built its leisure outlets for kids outside its stores. It's obviously more secure for clients to be able to see their kids while shopping. Third, with reference to competitive strengths', the two retailers have a similar strategy. For example, they both own brands that try to attract every customer segment in the Brazilian market. However, where Carrefour put forward its aggressive pricing policy with its own brands, Extra emphasized the price-quality ratio of its own brands. Finally, concerning 'organizational culture', the two retailers have two main differences. On the one hand, Carrefour lays the emphasis mainly on standardization in order to
  • 47. make economies of scale and to offer low prices to consumer while Extra focuses on a higher level of adaptation to 14 February 2013 Page 5 of 9 ProQuest the local culture. On the other hand, Extra seems to be more concerned than Carrefour about the behavior of its employees even outside the working hours. 5. Conclusions: Implications, Limitations and Future Research Retail internationalization is now a key element for most of the retail firms. Many factors lead to retail internationalization and are likely to influence the business strategy adopted in emerging markets. The main objective of this research was to investigate key success factors of an international retailer in the Brazilian market based on two increasingly interesting theories, i.e., 'core competence' theory and organizational cultural theory. Several implications can be highlighted from our analysis. 5.1 Discussion and Research Implications In terms of theoretical implications, this research helps to better understand factors influencing international retail success factors in an emerging market. First, it's generally recognized that retail internalization is now a key strategic issue for retailers. This research showed that 'core competence' theory and organizational culture theory are, among other theories, relevant frameworks that can explain a retailer's success in an emerging market, especially in the Brazilian market. Second, this research contributes to a better understanding of emerging market countries. Following Burgess and Steenkamp (2006), we think that emerging market countries should devote more attention on market researchers. Several managerial implications of this study must be noted. First of all, managers must be aware that there are many different factors that can explain retailers' success in an emerging market. The 'core competence' theory and the organizational culture theory's facets highlighted here are part of these factors. Relevant store format, a good localization, a good management of customer relationship and competitive strengths are key factors to be taken into account in an emerging market like Brazil. Besides, following Prahalad and Hamel's recommendation to diversify an organization's staffas well as to review values and beliefs through an unlearning process, we recommend diversifying the retail staffin this emerging market (Brazil). Actually, emerging market countries are most of the time multi- cultural and it would be
  • 48. a mistake to pass over the multi-cultural nature of these markets, especially the Brazilian one. As for Carrefour, its strategy seems to have been relevant in the past. However, today, the strategy of Extra becomes more appropriate and more in line with consumer expectations. If Carrefour wants to keep itself in first position in the Brazilian market, it has to be more innovative regarding both 'core competence' and organizational culture. 5.2 Limitations and Future Research The relevance of the Brazilian market as a field of study for the problems mentioned in our research and its objectives is obvious. However, this study is limited in that it was carried out in only one Brazilian city and includes managers from only two different retailers. This is why caution should be paid in generalizing the results of other emerging markets. Also, data collected in this research are partly based on the perceptions and statements of managers, assessing their firm's key success factors: they may have been tempted to embellish things in order to highlight their success on the Brazilian market. Our findings permitted to define some directions of future studies. On the one hand, it would be useful to carry out more investigations about 'core competence' and organizational culture theories in the Brazilian market. This would help to figure out which one performs better in Brazil. Fleury (2009) investigated the effect of organizational culture and competence in this country but her research did not deal with the retail sector. Consequently, we could not generalize her results to the retail sector. On the other hand, it would be interesting to conduct this same study in other emerging markets. As emerging markets have different economic, political and institutional contexts, one could imagine that key success factors may differ from one country to another. Cao and Dupuis (2009) showed that 'core competences' was one of the best theories explaining retail internationalization in China. But how about organizational culture theory in China? References References Alexander, N., &de Lira e Silva, M. (2002). Emerging markets and the internationalization of retailing: The Brazilian experience. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 30(6), 300-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09590550210429513 ATKearney. (2010). Expanding opportunities for global retailers. The 2010 ATKearney Global Retail Development Index, AT Kearney report. (accessed July 10, 2012) available at: http://www.atkearney.com/images/global/pdf/2010_Global_Retail_Development_Index.pdf
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  • 51. International expansion of retail firms: A theoretical approach for future investigations. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 5(3), 143-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6989(96)00056-2 AuthorAffiliation Mbaye Fall Diallo1,2 1 The Univ Lille Nord de France, Skema Business School, France 2 Lille School of Management Research Center (LSMRC), France Correspondence: Mbaye Fall Diallo, IMMD, 6 rue de l'Hôtel de ville, BP59 59051, Roubaix Cedex, France. Tel: 33-6-3069-8587. E-mail: mbayediallo2003@yahoo.fr Received: May 2, 2012 Accepted: May 15, 2012 Online Published: September 3, 2012 doi:10.5539/ibr.v5n10p91 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v5n10p91 Subject: Comparative studies; Retailing industry; Emerging markets; Globalization; Corporate culture; Success factors Location: Brazil, France Classification: 9175: Western Europe, 9173: Latin America, 9130: Experimental/theoretical, 8390: Retailing industry Publication title: International Business Research Volume: 5 Issue: 10 Pages: 91-99 Number of pages: 9 Publication year: 2012 Publication date: 2012 Year: 2012 Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education Place of publication: Toronto Country of publication: Canada Journal subject: Business And Economics--International Commerce ISSN: 19139004 Source type: Scholarly Journals Language of publication: English Document type: Feature Document feature: Tables;References ProQuest document ID: 1222689928 Document URL: http://ezproxy.pvamu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1222689928?accountid =7062 Copyright: Copyright Canadian Center of Science and Education 2012 Last updated: 2012-12-06 Database: ABI/INFORM Complete,ProQuest Research Library 14 February 2013 Page 8 of 9 ProQuest Bibliography
  • 52. Citation style: APA 6th - American P sychological Association, 6th Edition Diallo, M. F. (2012). Retailers' internationalization in emerging markets: A comparative study of a french and a local retailer's key success factors in brazil. International Business Research, 5(10), 91-99. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.pvamu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1222689928?accountid =7062; http://linkresolver.tamu.edu/?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&sid=ProQ:ProQ%3Aabiglobal& atitle=Retailers%27 +Internationalization+in+Emerging+Markets%3A+A+Comparative+Study+of+a+French+and+a +Local+Retailer %27s+Key+Success+Factors+in+Brazil&title=International+Business+Research&issn=1913900 4&date=2012- 10- 01&volume=5&issue=10&spage=91&au=Diallo%2C+Mbaye+Fall&isbn=&jtitle=International+ Business+Researc h&btitle=; http://MV3RH7MD4D.search.serialssolutions.com?genre=article&sid=ProQ:&atitle=Retailers% 27+Internationali zation+in+Emerging+Markets%3A+A+Comparative+Study+of+a+French+and+a+Local+Retail er%27s+Key+Su ccess+Factors+in+Brazil&title=International+Business+Research&issn=19139004&date=2012- 10- 01&volume=5&issue=10&spage=91&author=Diallo%2C+Mbaye+Fall; http://pvamu.illiad.oclc.org/illiad/illiad.dll/OpenURL?ctx_ver=Z39.88- 2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF- 8&rfr_id=info:sid/ProQ%3Aabiglobal&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=arti cle&rft.jtitle=Internatio nal+Business+Research&rft.atitle=Retailers%27+Internationalization+in+Emerging+Markets%3 A+A+Comparati ve+Study+of+a+French+and+a+Local+Retailer%27s+Key+Success+Factors+in+Brazil&rft.au= Diallo%2C+Mba ye+Fall&rft.aulast=Diallo&rft.aufirst=Mbaye&rft.date=2012-10- 01&rft.volume=5&rft.issue=10&rft.spage=91&rft.title=International+Business+Research&rft.iss n=19139004 _______________________________________________________________ Contact ProQuest Copyright Ó 2012 ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. - Terms and Conditions 14 February 2013 Page 9 of 9 ProQuest
  • 53. Turnitin Originality Report Article Sub by Denzel Harris From DropBoxOriginalityCheckArticleSummary - Part 1 (Moodle 18960693) (Spring2013_MRKT3333P01-20426 (Moodle 6036170)) Processed on 26-Feb-2013 12:55 AM CST ID: 307590663 Word Count: 1027 Similarity Index 3% Similarity by Source Internet Sources: 3% Publications: 3% Student Papers: 2% sources: 1 2% match (student papers from 20-Oct-2012) Submitted to Keiser University on 2012-10-20 2 1% match (Internet from 20-Dec-2012) http://www.hightechwriting.org/2012/03/ paper text: Citation Daniel Von der, H. F., &CristianePizzutti, d. S. 1(2007). Consumer complaining behavior in developing countries: The case of Brazil. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 20, 86-109. Retrieved from http://2ezproxy.pvamu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/ 204704890 ?accountid= 706 2 Article Word Count: 8761 Purpose of the Article- Page 1 The purpose of this article is to understand why dissatisfied consumers are making complaints and what is it
  • 54. that is leaving the consumers dissatisfied. Throughout the article the author explains the different attitude and characteristic traits that could possibly be the reason that leads consumers to complain in developing countries such as Brazil. Theory/Model/ Framework used- Page 6-7 Daniel used many hypotheses to determine the results of the study. Some of the hypotheses included, the higher the level of dissatisfaction, the high the impact on intent to complain. The higher the level of dissatisfaction, the higher the impact on spreading negative word of mouth. It was perceived dissatisfaction is hypothesized to be an emotional state that motivates consumers to undergo a process according to Day. It was found that only 15% of complaint reports could be explained by the intensity level of dissatisfaction. The author often compares and contrasts the behavior of Brazilian consumers and their attitudes versus US American consumers. Study Setting- Page 7-8 This study took place in two different stages. In a primary investigative phase, interviews were conducted with a number of 20 college students who were pursuing graduate degrees. The study was set in place to take survey of the beliefs of the students dealing with the research of the hypothesis. Students were taken to a group of restaurants and each individual rated the service they received. During the visit students acted as if they were out for a normal dinner and observed the service and made complaints if necessary. Students were asked numbers of questions such as what actions do restaurant customers perform in response to horrible service experiences. They were also asked if as the customer, were complaints made to the restaurant or was it just negative word of mouth that was spread amongst the customers and individuals they knew. With the help of the questions being asked, the response made things possible for researchers to better understand customer complaining behavior which lead the researchers to the next phase of the research. Customer complaints and service failures in a restaurant atmosphere were rated on two levels, high or low. In the second stage of investigating, a total of 480 graduate level students from two different universities south of Brazil. Once results were back it was said that students who experienced a higher level of service failure made more complaints to the restaurant versus students with a lower level of complaints and service failure. Summary of Findings-Page 9-12 After close examining the behavior of restaurant customers and their dissatisfaction with the restaurant and the services they received and didn’t receive, results showed that depending on how big of a deal it was to the customer of the service failures they had encountered determined how much complaining the customer did after receiving bad service. Majority of the interviewers were people who dined in at restaurants more than four times a month, with 23.4 % eating in restaurants once a month and 20% less than one month. At least more than half, sixty percent to be exact had unsatisfactory experiences with some of the same restaurants prior being to the collection of data. Researchers also pointed out that about 28 percent of surveyors only complained, where as seventeen percent complained about the service and didn’t return but used negative word of mouth in regards to the restaurant leaving forty-eight
  • 55. percent of individuals who complaints weren’t direct but did not make a return and also passed on negative word of mouth experiences. It was also said to believe that from observing customer complaint behavior, each surveyor personality played a part in the ways complaints were made. Surveyors who complained and made their complaints known to the company which followed no return visit and negative word of mouth were customers with a lot of personality and self confidence versus other surveyors with a more conservative personality who complained about the service received but never complained to the actually company, but did not return and gave negative word of mouth. Overall dissatisfaction levels were high but only so many complained and made it a big deal to the company. Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature- Pages 11-12 Researchers have found that through the study of restaurants and their services, it has shown how important excellent customer service can be. With restaurants not providing top notch service to its customers, as studies have shown customer will complain if they aren’t happy with the service they received during their visit. Without the business of customers it would be impossible for restaurants to stay open and run a business. This study shows how customer’s reaction to bad service could play a major role on business especially with negative word of mouth spreading about a business which will take away more customers than the customers experiencing it hands on. Limitations of the Study-Page 13 Limitations of the study that took place were service providers and their consideration for the customers and their emotion and feelings of complaining behavior. Many customers felt that it’s the service providers fault for not taking into consideration of how one would want to be treated if they were a guest at a restaurant. Another limitation would be to use more than on sample of studies to determine the behavior of customers. Instead of using just restaurants to us a variety of different services and rating the customers experience. Directions for Future Research- Page 13 In the future I feel as if researchers should use more surveyors of all types of age groups to determine whether age groups play a factor in customer complaining behavior. Also as mentioned early, future research should study more service areas besides restaurants. This study should also take place not only in developing countries like Brazil, but so many other developing countries where entrepreneurs are starting to building businesses. Article Summary Word Count: 982 words
  • 56. Turnitin Originality Report Part 2-Retailers' internationalization in emerging markets: A comparative study of a French and a local retailer's key success factors in Brazil by Valerie Henderson From DropBoxOriginalityCheckArticleSummary - Part 2 (Moodle 18960694) (Spring2013_MRKT3333P01-20426 (Moodle 6036170)) Processed on 26-Feb-2013 10:38 AM CST ID: 307661219 Word Count: 910 Similarity Index 35% Similarity by Source Internet Sources: 8% Publications: 24% Student Papers: 18% sources:121% match (publications) Diallo, Mbaye Fall. "Retailers’ Internationalization in Emerging Markets: A Comparative Study of a French and a Local Retailer’s Key Success Factors in Brazil", International Business Research, 2012. 25% match (student papers from 14-Oct-2011)
  • 57. Submitted to Prairie View A&M University on 2011-10-14 33% match (student papers from 11-Oct-2012) Submitted to Prairie View A&M University on 2012-10-11 43% match (student papers from 29-Nov-2012) Submitted to British University in Egypt on 2012-11-29 51% match (student papers from 08-Oct-2012) Submitted to Prairie View A&M University on 2012-10-08 61% match (Internet from 16-Sep-2012) http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ibr/article/view/20263 paper text:Citation Mbaye, F. D. 4(2012). Retailers' internationalization in emerging markets: A comparative study of a French and a local retailer's key success factors in Brazil. International Business Research, 5(10), 91-99. 3Retrieved from http://ezproxy.pvamu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/ 1222689928 ?ac countid=7062 Article Word Count: 4873 Purpose of the Article- Page 2 The purpose of the article is to compare and contrast two retailers’ success and failure factors in the emerging country of Brazil. The two retailers are the French 1retailer Carrefour and the local Brazilian retailer Extra. The author explains within the article that the 1“core competence theory and organizational culture theory” are two areas in which a retailer must succeed in to make their location in Brazil successful. Theory/ Model/ Framework used- Page 2-3 Over the last twenty- five years in the retail industry certain “push” and “pull” factors have become prevalent to the success of certain retailers. These factors effect the
  • 58. 1macro and micro environments of a business. Push factors include industry competition, economy, and the country’s legislation; where as 1pull factors include economic stability, political stability of global markets, and international opportunities for growth. The 1“core competence theory and organizational culture theory” are two areas where these push and pull factors can be identified as a strength and/or weakness and are extremely relevant for this research. The core competence theory is based on a manager’s ability to assess a strategy that correlates resources, capabilities, and competences. As where, 1the organizational culture theory is the structure within the organization which includes 1values, beliefs, taboos, symbols, rituals, and myths. Brazil was used because it is known as an emerging market, social and business activities are rapidly growing and increasing industrialization. Study Setting- Page 3-4 The study was done in three parts; first there was a synthetically literature review that was done covering 6the core competence theory and the organization culture theory. The study of the Brazilian 1retailer Extra it is the second largest retailer in Latin America after Wal-Mart, and has operations in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia. It was the first foreign retailer to find its place in Brazilian stores in 1975. It is now the largest retailer in the country. Carrefour is the largest grocery retailer in 1Europe and has about 14,990 stores running in 30 countries, 1$102.442 billion during the 2007 fiscal year were the recorded sales and provides jobs to more than 400,000 employees. The third part of the study was to analyze both companies’ internal structures and how the managers ran them in comparison to one another to deduce the reasons why the international seller was preforming better than the local chain. 5METHODOLOGY AND DATA ANALYSIS- NOT NEEDED Summary of Findings- Page 4- 7 The hypothesis was that
  • 59. for businesses to thrive in emerging countries a business must focus on the international aspect of sales this theory was indeed proven by the findings from the studies. There were four features related to the two theories that were proven to be the key components of why the French establishment thrived and the local establishment was constantly playing catch up. One of the four features was where the stores were located and the how they were laid out. Carrefour is a hypermart sort of like Wal-Mart in the United Sates and they merged with a group of discounted products and now can offer high end and discounted products of equal proportion. Consumer relations were noted as being a key element of success. Carrefour has taken much pride in the fact that they are aware of how important the relationship that they maintain with their customers. They use these types of relationships to find and attract new clients and the mere fact that they care so much gives the returning clients reason to say. 1It has for instance launched own store brands, credit cards earlier than its competitors in the Brazilian market. Carrefour showed competitive strengths over other stores such as Extra the company used competitive pricing to bring in new customers who might have initial thought the store was pricey for their economic level. Carrefour has implemented a system within the storefront will 1cut cost and to charge prices that suit all consumers without sacrificing quality. Carrefour puts also an emphasis on respect for the law on workers' remuneration, paid holidays, etc. 2Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature- Page 7 Researchers have found a correlation between thriving retails in emerging countries and retail internationalization. 1The core competence theory and the organizational structure theory create frameworks of key strategic issues in emerging markets. The study preformed provided research for 1a better understanding of what an emerging market must go through to prevail. 2Limitations of the Study- Page 7 This study is limited itself to only using a select sample size that was purposely chosen and not selected random thus not representing a more diverse population. The study 1was carried out through one Brazilian city and managers from only two different retailers.
  • 60. The data collected were also statements from managers that might have wanted to personally fabricate some of their findings to make their store seem better. Directions for Future Research- Page 7 In the future I think it would be better if they compared the emerging market to an established market to compare. Also, taking more than two retailers would help in the comparison to an overall market rather than the competition between two retailers. Finally, I feel that it would be beneficial for data to be collected on an unbiased basis. Word Count: 907
  • 61. Turnitin Originality Report Summary Review of Marketing Relationships in Brazil: by MayolRiathin From DropBoxOriginalityCheckArticleSummary - Part 2 (Moodle 18960694) (Spring2013_MRKT3333P01-20426 (Moodle 6036170)) • Processed on 17-Feb-2013 8:50 PM CST • ID: 305267004 • Word Count: 819 Similarity Index 7% Similarity by Source Internet Sources: 1% Publications: 7% Student Papers: 2% sources: 1 5% match (publications) Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Volume 24, Issue 5-6 (2009-07- 26) 2 2% match (student papers from 25-Dec-2012) Submitted to Higher Education Commission Pakistan on 2012-12-25 3 1% match (Internet from 09-Oct-2012) http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1805459&show=abst ract paper text: MayolRiathin Consumer Behavior 02/11/2013 Summary Review of 3Marketing Relationships in Brazil: Trends in Value Strategies
  • 62. and Capabilities This article provides insight and statistics for the trends in value strategies for businesses across the world, the United States and Brazil to name a few. Value strategies are heavily embedded within an economic perspective. Such perspectives pinpoint resources as assets and the interaction between others to gain access to other resources, thus improving value through a network as well as build upon it. Four forms of generated value are presented and examined in the article. In order of most basic values to most complex forms of value the authors explain exchange cost 2value, added value, performance value, and value co creation. Exchange cost value assumes the value of the actual cost or scarcity of the good being traded. Added value includes enhancements to the product that are of no significant cost to the producer but add to the benefit of buying a product or service from the particular seller. This gives companies a competitive advantage. Performance value is the value shared and gained between buyer and seller through a new or continuing relationship and causes the customer to return to a particular seller. Value of co- creation is considered the highest level of value and innovation because it creates new competencies between buyer and seller through a better understanding of the relationship. 1“Each level requires greater resources and competencies as they develop higher levels of interaction and integration with their markets” (Áurea Helena PugaRibeiro; Brashear, 2009, p. 3) Ribeiro and Monteiro (2009) explore practices in strategies of business to business relationships within developed countries like the U.S. and those in Europe and compare them to developing countries like Brazil and Argentina to exhibit the pace of current trends and display how rapidly developing countries are picking up on developed country trends. Through careful monitoring, by a company in one region, of corporate success in other regions of the world that country can quickly follow the trend. This is true, especially if they have adapted the methodologies of a learning organization. The article describes necessary capabilities to implement such strategies as relational and transactional. The necessary capabilities include four perspectives. They look at 1transactional marketing, database marketing, interactive marketing and network marketing as a means explaining the different perspectives in developing a business’s
  • 63. structured capabilities or competencies. The first, transactional marketing, deals with marketing’s fundamentals which is centered on the four P.’s of marketing price, place, product, promotion and the last three perspectives listed handle the customer’s profile, including their network/environment resources and buying patterns (Ribeiro& Brashear, 2009, p. 3). Relational strategies are viewed as delivering more long term relationships and thus are more effective in the long run. Relational strategies require a mutual dependence of the buyer and seller it integrates the two through higher value added exchanges. Transactional strategies deal solely with business practices and the use of better business practices to improve performance. Examples of transactional strategies would be those strategies related to logistics, a corporations decision to ship on land and not through the airways would be a transactional strategy. The authors conclude that “42 percent of 1revenues will come from performance value and value co- creation strategies” (Ribeiro& Brashear, 2009, p. 5). This statistical forecast assumes that Brazil will be picking up the trend and relying on it for a significant amount of revenue. Argentina’s relational strategies excel in local and small businesses for Brazil these competencies display great review in large businesses. Ribeiro and Brashear maintain that currently “Brazil receives 26% of revenue from value added strategies and 32% from commodity strategies” (2009, p. 5). This will be quite a change in the direction towards more complex value strategies and is expected to show huge rewards for businesses that adopt this practice. The expected trend across the board is in relational strategies over transactional strategies. Industry still shows progress in both, but there is a definite increase in relational strategies used by more industry as well as more complex strategies within the spectrum of relational. These trends are true especially within the more advanced market economies. Through recent developments in industry and globalization, corporations and even small businesses are able to benefit from such specific strategies as value strategies to promote and be more productive in their businesses. Value is something that both sellers and producers are seeking through trade. One value is exchanged for another value in hopes of achieving satisfaction. The adoption of strategies may be seen by one country as valuable; however another country may not agree that the value produced by the exchange method is satisfactory. There is a
  • 64. positive correlation between innovation that works and the expansion of the work. References Ribeiro, Á. H. P., & Brashear, T. G. (2009). Marketing relationships in Brazil: trends in value strategies and capabilities. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing , 1-11.
  • 65. 2% match (student papers from 22-Nov-2011) Submitted to University of North Texas 2 1% match (publications) ImanNaderi. "Beyond the fad: a critical review of consumer fashion involvement : Fashion involvement review", International Journal of Consumer Studies, 10/2011 3 1% match (Internet from 18-Apr-2012) http://www.ijtef.org 4 1% match (publications) ArpitaKhare. "Predictors to fashion clothing involvement among Indian youth", Journal of Targeting Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 10/04/2010 Citation Valter, A. 1V. (2009).An extended theoretical model of fashion clothing involvement. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 13(2), 179-200 Article Word Count: 7,691 Being aware of how customers view clothing and in what way various groups make assorted decisions regarding similar branding of fashions is crucial to marketers. Recently, consumers have become more independent and less pressure has been put on them to follow the norms. Therefore, the customer is open to decide what price they are prepared to spend for fashion items. Theoretically, it is not easy to comprehend fashion consumption, because diverse meanings of the concept appear. For this reason, it is best to describe theory of fashion in three ways: Generalized concept of fashion, Fashion as an object and a process, and mechanisms of the fashion process. What is meant by generalized concept of fashion is that fashion can be broadly distinct based off of a behavioral phenomenon that can be shown form a variety of material. Also, a second way of defining fashion is viewing it as an item and as a process of behavior. The last way to view fashion is as a mechanic process of diffusion and social influence. The types of characteristics for measuring fashion involvement is product involvement, consumption
  • 66. 4involvement, advertising involvement, and purchase decision involvement. Additionally, the characteristics of involvement should not be confused for the 2dimensions of involvement, which are challenged moderate, knowledge enthusiast, indifferent moderate, challenged enthusiast, and cautious moderate. Though, little exploration has been done on the fashion involvement. A theoretical model was proposed, if was found out that involvement is highly caused by a customer’s grade of materialism, and that knowledge is influenced by age and gender. Time, commitment and loyalty are variables in consumer behavior that have not been applied to this phenomenon. It has been shown in research that strong feelings for possession desire, create people that spend extra intervals consuming. Some researchers understand possessions as product involvement. Making improvements to the environment of the store might have an impact on commitment consumers give to that store or product. The purpose of this article is to propose that intervals spent choosing and commitment are the reasons for involvement and that the clothing involvement build is a huge arbitrator variable with this model. The hypotheses in the article are what will propose structure for the extended model. There are various hypotheses that are stated in this article; they are all related in a way. First, materialism has an important direct association with clothing involvement of fashion. Next, Females are closely related with the fashion clothing involvement. Younger ages of consumers have a significant indirect association with the clothing involvement of fashion. Consumers’ perception for the knowledge of fashion has a significant association with the clothing involvement of fashion. Consumers’ confidence to make the right decision about clothing is closely related with the relationship of fashion clothing knowledge. Next, Consumers’ confidence to make the right decision about clothing is closely related with the relationship of fashion clothing involvement. Also, Clothing involvement dealing with fashion has a substantial direct relationship with consumers continuing to be committed. The time it takes shopping is closely related with the involvement with clothing in fashion. Lastly, patronage 3has a direct relationship with involvement in the clothing of fashion. The way that the opposite sex perceives cues in advertising differs. Women are more in to fashion than men are in the traditional sense. When it comes to age, it is assumed that younger consumers are more fashion conscience than older consumers. Another assumption that can be made is that confidence has something to do with certainty and if the consumer made the right choice. It is thought that the more involved with a product a consumer is, the more confident they will be. Cognitive aspects might be used more when it is related to involvement. To measure involvement, three scales were used. A pretest Questionnaire was done on 53 business students, but they were not included in the final sample. Two of the instruments were not good, patronage and materialism. Because of this, the study used different instruments. The sample consisted of undergraduate and postgraduate students from San Juan, Brazil; there was 315
  • 67. respondents. Forty-Six percent of the participants were female. What kind of data analysis that was done was: family income values, age range, average age, males interested in buying jeans that were not on sale, how long spent buying normal jeans, and how long spent buying fashionable jeans. Because materialism achieved low values in the study, the first hypothesis could not be tested. Maybe a materialism instrument might need to be created in Brazil. There were three hypothesis that were rejected, gender related to fashion involvement, confidence related to involvement, and patronage related to involvement. The other five hypotheses were supported. Future research in variables in involvement might use a different model. This article can be used to learn more about the fashion clothing involvement. It is helpful to know certain theories to market to current consumers and attract consumers. However, not all the theories could be proven or tested. Marketers could use this information to go more in debt of the research already given in this article. I do believe that this article has helped a lot of people understand more about involvement. Lastly, this article found evidence that other theories did not find or research. However, more investigation should still be done on all theories to get more insight of involvement. In the future, the article needs to be less redundant. Article Summary Word Count: 899
  • 68. TEAM RESEARCH PAPER 1 ARTICLE SUMMARY SELF EVALUATION EACH STUDENT TO SUBMIT TO DROP BOX (ALSO SUBMIT ONE COPY IN HARD FILE) A. HOW WE SELECTED THE ARTICLE FROM ABI INFORM GLOBAL 1. Our assigned chapter is # __6_, title Consumer Perception_______________ 2. We have read the instructions listed under “Selecting an article” through remote access to Coleman Library _x__ Yes ___ No 3. Our route to access Advanced Search on ABI Inform Global Index in Coleman Library:  PVAMU Homepage  John Coleman Library  A-Z List  Resource- ABI Inform Global  Proquest- Advanced Search __x_ Yes ___ No 4. We were seeking a marketing-oriented journal related to Schiffman and Kanuk Chapter # _6_ Chapter Title __Consumer Perception____________________________________________. Therefore, we selected drop menu “Publication Title”, and entered “marketing OR consumer” _x__ Yes ___ No 5. Below is the list of key words (bolded in the textbook): (List all key words here) Sensation Stimulus Sensory receptors Absolute threshold Sensory adaptation Difference threshold Just noticeable difference Webers law Perceptual selection Organization Interpretation of stimuli Expectations Selective perception
  • 69. Selective exposer Selective attention Perceptual defense Perceptual blocking Gestalt psychology Figure and ground Grouping Closure Physical appearance Descriptive terms First impression Halo effect Positioning Product repositioning Perceptual mapping External reference price Internal reference price Perceived quality Intrinsic Extrinsic Intrinsic ques Expected service Assessment of the service actually delivered Outcome Process Price quality relationship Perceived risk Functional risk Physical risk Financial risk Social risk Psychological risk Time risk High risk perceivers Narrow categorizers Low risk perceivers Broad categorizers 6. We placed a check mark to select “Full Text” _x__ Yes ___ No 7. We placed a check mark to select “Scholarly” _x__ Yes ___ No 8. We entered the date range 1/1/2011 to 8/31/2012. __x_ Yes ___ No
  • 70. 9. As a check, we clicked on the selected article, and confirmed the subject under Indexing (document details). _x__ Yes ___ No Indexing (document details) are: _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ______These match the key words we were seeking. 10. In Proquest- Advanced Search we check-marked the selected article, and saved the MyResults file. __x_ Yes ___ No 11. Our Results file is being submitted in hard copy. We have saved a Word file, submitted to drop box. _x_ Yes ___ No 12. The article selection was approved by Kim Gay, Coleman Library, documentation is attached in hard copy _x__ Yes ___ No B. WE HIGHLIGHTED THE ARTICLE TEXT FILE 13. In the article text, we have highlighted the important points that relate to the Article Summary requirements: a. Citation __x_ Yes ___ No b. Purpose of the Article __x_ Yes ___ No c. Theory/Model/Framework used _x__ Yes ___ No d. Study Setting _x__ Yes ___ No e. Summary Findings and Conclusions _x__ Yes ___ No f. Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature__x_ Yes ___ No g. Limitations of the Study __x_ Yes ___ No h. Directions for Future Research __x_ Yes ___ No 14. The highlighted article is being submitted in hard copy; a Word text file is submitted to drop box __x_ Yes ___ No C. ABOUT OUR ARTICLE SUMMARY 1. Our article summary contains 895 to 905 words __x_ Yes ___ No 2. Our Article Summary is: a. Single-spaced _x _ Yes ___ No b. One inch margins on all sides _x__ Yes ___ No c. Left aligned __x _ Yes ___ No d. In Times New Roman 12 pt. ordinary font __x_ Yes ___ No e. Citation is in APA style __x_ Yes ___ No f. Pages are numbered __x_ Yes ___ No
  • 71. 3. Our Article Summary includes the following: a. Cover Page __x_ Yes ___ No b. Citation __x_ Yes ___ No c. Original Article Word count __x_ Yes ___ No d. Purpose of the Article __x_ Yes ___ No e. Theory/Model/Framework used _x__ Yes ___ No f. Study Setting __x_ Yes ___ No g. Summary Findings and Conclusions _x__ Yes ___ No h. Contribution of the Article to the Body of Literature__x_ Yes ___ No i. Limitations of the Study _x__ Yes ___ No j. Directions for Future Research __x_ Yes ___ No k. Grade the Article on a 10-point scale __x_ Yes ___ No l. Article Summary Word count __x_ Yes ___ No 4. The Article Summary was submitted to Turnitin__x_ Yes ___ No D. WE COMPLETED AN ORIGINALITY CHECK 5. We have completed plagiarism check for Article Summaries on Turnitin_x_ Yes ___ No 6. The turnitin originality check report is being submitted in hard copy; a Word file is submitted to Drop Box _x__ Yes ___ No E. WE COMPLETED A LANGUAGE CHECK 7. We have completed a spelling, grammar and usage check from GradeMark, on each Article Summary. _x__ Yes ___ No F. OUR FINAL CHECKLIST 21. We are submitting the following hard copies FOR EACH OF ARTICLES (submitted to drop box): a. Assignment description and instructions _x__ Yes ___ No b.Self-Evaluation Article Summary _x__ Yes ___ No c.Article Summaries __4_ team members X 1= total __8_ summaries _x_ Yes ___ No d.MyResearchfile ___ Yes ___ No e.Complete original articles with important points highlighted _x__ Yes ___ No f. Turnitin report _x__ Yes ___ No ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SUBMITTED BY TEAM ___Dubois___ DATE February 26, 2012___ Members: _________________________________________________
  • 72. Denzel Harris______________________________________ Marialle Mitchell___________________________________ MayolRiathin _____________________________________ NiaHazeur________________________________________ Valerie Henderson__________________________________

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