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First language acquisition (innatism)
 

First language acquisition (innatism)

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    First language acquisition (innatism) First language acquisition (innatism) Presentation Transcript

    • 2) INNATISM: IT’S ALL IN YOUR MINDChomsky (1959) argues that behaviorism cannot provide sufficient explanations for children’s language acquisition for the following reasons:
    • Chomsky (1959) argues that behaviorism cannot provide sufficient explanations forchildren’s language acquisition for the following reasons:
    • –Children come to know more about the structure of their language than they could be expected to learn on the basis ofthe samples of language they hear.
    • – The language children are exposed to includes false starts, incomplete sentences and slips of the tongue, and yet they learn to distinguish between grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. – Children are by no means systematically corrected or instructed on language by parents.
    • Children are In the same Language biologically way of other develops inprogrammed biological the childfor language functions
    • language learning toacquisition walk.
    • LAD: LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE ( or BLACK BOX)– It contains all and only the principles which are universal to all human languages (i.e.. Universal Grammar – UG).
    • If children are pre- equipped with UG.What they have to learn isThe ways in which theirown language make use of those principles
    • They By matchingchildren need discover the the innate access only structure of knowledge ofto samples of the basic a natural language to grammatical language be learned principles (UG) which serve Once the to the structures of as a trigger LAD is the particular to activate the device. activated language in the environment.
    • CONCLUSION• Children’s acquisition of grammatical rules is guided by principles of an innate UG which could apply to all languages. • Children “know” certain things of the language just by being exposed to a limited number of samples.
    • Evidence used to support Chomsky’s innatist position: Virtually all childrensuccessfully learn their native language at a time in life when they would not be expected to learn anything else so complicated (i.e. biologically programmed).
    • –Language is separate from other aspects of cognitive developments(e.g., creativity and social grace)and may be located in a different “module" of the brain.
    • The language children areexposed to does not contain examplesof all the linguistic rules and patterns.
    • Animals cannot learnto manipulate a symbol system as complicated as the natural language of a 3- or 4-year-old child.
    • Children acquire grammatical rules without getting explicit instruction.
    • The biological basis for the innatist position: The Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) –Lenneberg:• There is a specific and limited time period (i.e., “critical period”) for the LAD to work successfully. • Only when it is stimulated at the right time
    • ONLY BY STRONG PUBERTYTwo versions AFTER PUBERTY IT WILL BE MORE WEAK DIFFICULT AND INCOMPLETE
    • Virtually every child learns language on a similar schedule in spite of different environments. – Three case studies of abnormal language development - evidence of the CPH •Victor – a boy of about 12 years old (1799) •Genie – a girl of 13 years old (1970) •Deaf signers (native signers, early learners, vs. late learners)