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FIRST LANGUAGE  ACQUISITION
DEFINITIONS 1) “First language” (L1):2) “Second language” (L2):3) “Foreign language” (FL)4) “Target language” (TL)
CHARACTERISTICS OF        CHILDREN S LANGUAGETheir language development shows a high  degree of similarity among children ...
Before First Words -• The earliest vocalizations  –Involuntary crying  –Cooing and gurgling – showing   satisfaction or ha...
Before First Words -“Babbling”  –Babies use sounds to reflect the   characteristics of the different   language they are l...
First Words Around 12 months (“one-word”              stage):–one or two recognizable words (esp. content word);–Single-wo...
By the age of 2 (“two-word” stage):  1) at least 50 different words  2) “telegraphic” sentences (no function    words and ...
By the age of 4– Most children are able to: ask questions,give commands,report real events, create stories about imagi...
By the age of 4–basic structures of the language–less frequent and more complex linguistic structures.–use of the language...
• Development of Metalinguistic Awareness• Development of Vocabulary
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO L1              ACQUISITION1) Behaviorism: Say what I say2) Innatism: It’s all in your mind3) In...
1) BEHAVIORISM: SAY WHAT I SAYSkinner: language behaviour is the production of correct responses to stimuli through reinfo...
Language learning is the result of: imitation (word-for-word repetition), practice (repetitive manipulation of form),fe...
The quality and    quantity of the  language that the     child hears                         as well as the              ...
Children’s imitations are not          random Their imitation is selective andbased on what they are currently            ...
Children’s practice of new       language forms– substitution drills.– It is selective and reflects what they would like  ...
2) INNATISM: IT’S ALL IN YOUR           MIND
Chomsky (1959) argues that  behaviorism cannot provide   sufficient explanations forchildren’s language acquisition   for ...
–Children come to know more    about the structure of their   language than they could be expected to learn on the basis o...
– The language children are exposed to    includes false starts, incomplete sentences and slips of the tongue, and  yet th...
Children are                  In the same                 Language biologically                 way of other              ...
language     learning toacquisition      walk.
LAD: LANGUAGE ACQUISITION   DEVICE ( or BLACK BOX)– It contains all and only the principles which are  universal to all hu...
If children are pre-   equipped with UG.What they have to learn isThe ways in which theirown language make use  of those p...
They                                  By matchingchildren need   discover the       the innate access only     structure o...
CONCLUSION• Children’s acquisition of grammatical rules   is guided by principles of an innate UG      which could apply t...
Evidence used to support Chomsky’s         innatist position:           Virtually all childrensuccessfully learn their nat...
–Language is separate from    other aspects of cognitive           developments(e.g., creativity and social grace)and may ...
The language children areexposed to does not contain           examplesof all the linguistic rules and            patterns.
Animals cannot learnto manipulate a symbol system       as complicated as      the natural language   of a 3- or 4-year-ol...
Children acquire grammatical rules without getting explicit          instruction.
The biological basis for the innatist               position: The Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) –Lenneberg:• There is a...
ONLY BY               STRONG                           PUBERTYTwo versions                        AFTER PUBERTY           ...
Virtually every child learns language on a    similar schedule in spite of different               environments. – Three c...
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTFCiG  I5wJA• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T_Oavg  lDkn0&feature=related• http://www.y...
3) INTERACTIONIST/DEVELOPMENTAL          PERSPECTIVES:  LEARNING FROM INSIDE AND OUT
Problems of Innatism: Too much emphasis on     the “final state”  but not enough on thedevelopmental aspects of   language...
• Language was         ONE manifestationof the cognitive and affective ability        to deal with the world             •...
INTERACTIONISM: Bruner         Language acquisitionis an example of children’s ability to learn            from experience...
the innate learning ability of children                        LANGUAGE                       DEVELOPMENTthe environment  ...
MODIFIED SPEECH      CRUCIAL ELEMENTin language acquisition process
CARETAKER TALK• It is the way adults modify their speech       when communicating with kids.       • Slower rate of speech...
Developmental psychologists    attribute more importance to the               environmentBut they recognize a powerful lea...
PIAGET“Children’s cognitive development     determines their language           development.”
The interaction                   between the child     the developing  cognitiveunderstanding                 things whic...
Language  was one of a number of  symbol systems  developed in childhood,     rather than a separate     module of the mind.
Language      can be used to represent knowledge           that children have acquiredthrough physical interaction with th...
VYGOTSKY  Sociocultural theory of human mental                 processing.He argued that language develops primarily      ...
Zone of proximal development           (ZPD):• A level that a child is able to do when there is  support from interaction ...
Vygotsky observed the importance  of conversations which children  have with adults and with other     children and saw in...
ESSENTIALLY THOUGHT      INTERANALIZED                 SPEECH EMERGED IN   SOCIAL        SPEECHINTERACTION
The Childs Language Environment• There is NO DIRECT PRESSURE to learn  • There is NO TIME LIMIT for learning.• There is NO...
The Childs Language Environment• There is LOTS OF REPETITION• Both the LANGUAGE AND THE WORLD ARE NEW.• All the language i...
The Childs Language Environment • The child has MANY OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING the language to communicate            to tho...
The Childs Learning Strategies • The child in NOT INTERESTED IN      LANGUAGE for its own sake.• The child is NOT DISTURBE...
The Childs Learning Strategies     • The child USES HIS PRIMARY       INTERESTS to help him learn.• The child directs his ...
The Childs Learning Strategies• The child adds words to his speakingvocabulary more easily IF HE ALREADYKNOWS HOW TO PRONO...
The Childs Learning Strategies• The child uses his natural desire TOPARTICIPATE IN THE LIFE AROUND HIM to help him learn n...
First language acquisition
First language acquisition
First language acquisition
First language acquisition
First language acquisition
First language acquisition
First language acquisition
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First language acquisition

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Transcript of "First language acquisition "

  1. 1. FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS 1) “First language” (L1):2) “Second language” (L2):3) “Foreign language” (FL)4) “Target language” (TL)
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN S LANGUAGETheir language development shows a high degree of similarity among children all over the world. • PREDICTABILITY • LEARNING THROUGH IMITATION • CREATIVITY
  4. 4. Before First Words -• The earliest vocalizations –Involuntary crying –Cooing and gurgling – showing satisfaction or happiness
  5. 5. Before First Words -“Babbling” –Babies use sounds to reflect the characteristics of the different language they are learning.
  6. 6. First Words Around 12 months (“one-word” stage):–one or two recognizable words (esp. content word);–Single-word sentences.
  7. 7. By the age of 2 (“two-word” stage): 1) at least 50 different words 2) “telegraphic” sentences (no function words and grammatical morphemes) e.g., “Mommy juice”, “baby fall down” 3) reflecting the order of the language. e.g., “kiss baby”, “baby kiss” 4) creatively combining words. e.g., “more outside”, “all gone cookie”
  8. 8. By the age of 4– Most children are able to: ask questions,give commands,report real events, create stories about imaginary ones with correct word order and grammatical markers most of the time.
  9. 9. By the age of 4–basic structures of the language–less frequent and more complex linguistic structures.–use of the language in a widening social environment.
  10. 10. • Development of Metalinguistic Awareness• Development of Vocabulary
  11. 11. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO L1 ACQUISITION1) Behaviorism: Say what I say2) Innatism: It’s all in your mind3) Interactionist/Developmental perspectives: Learning from inside and out Bibliography: Lightbown, Patsy. Spada, Nina. “How languages are learned” 1993
  12. 12. 1) BEHAVIORISM: SAY WHAT I SAYSkinner: language behaviour is the production of correct responses to stimuli through reinforcement.
  13. 13. Language learning is the result of: imitation (word-for-word repetition), practice (repetitive manipulation of form),feedback on success (positive reinforcement) habit formation.
  14. 14. The quality and quantity of the language that the child hears as well as the consistency of the reinforcement offered by others in the environmentwould shape thechild’s language behaviour.
  15. 15. Children’s imitations are not random Their imitation is selective andbased on what they are currently learning.
  16. 16. Children’s practice of new language forms– substitution drills.– It is selective and reflects what they would like to learn.– They pick out patterns/rules and then generalize or overgeneralize them to new contexts.
  17. 17. 2) INNATISM: IT’S ALL IN YOUR MIND
  18. 18. Chomsky (1959) argues that behaviorism cannot provide sufficient explanations forchildren’s language acquisition for the following reasons:
  19. 19. –Children come to know more about the structure of their language than they could be expected to learn on the basis ofthe samples of language they hear.
  20. 20. – The language children are exposed to includes false starts, incomplete sentences and slips of the tongue, and yet they learn to distinguish between grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. – Children are by no means systematically corrected or instructed on language by parents.
  21. 21. Children are In the same Language biologically way of other develops inprogrammed biological the childfor language functions
  22. 22. language learning toacquisition walk.
  23. 23. LAD: LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE ( or BLACK BOX)– It contains all and only the principles which are universal to all human languages (i.e.. Universal Grammar – UG).
  24. 24. If children are pre- equipped with UG.What they have to learn isThe ways in which theirown language make use of those principles
  25. 25. They By matchingchildren need discover the the innate access only structure of knowledge ofto samples of the basic a natural language to grammatical language be learned principles (UG) which serve Once the to the structures of as a trigger LAD is the particular to activate the device. activated language in the environment.
  26. 26. CONCLUSION• Children’s acquisition of grammatical rules is guided by principles of an innate UG which could apply to all languages. • Children “know” certain things of the language just by being exposed to a limited number of samples.
  27. 27. Evidence used to support Chomsky’s innatist position: Virtually all childrensuccessfully learn their native language at a time in life when they would not be expected to learn anything else so complicated (i.e. biologically programmed).
  28. 28. –Language is separate from other aspects of cognitive developments(e.g., creativity and social grace)and may be located in a different “module" of the brain.
  29. 29. The language children areexposed to does not contain examplesof all the linguistic rules and patterns.
  30. 30. Animals cannot learnto manipulate a symbol system as complicated as the natural language of a 3- or 4-year-old child.
  31. 31. Children acquire grammatical rules without getting explicit instruction.
  32. 32. The biological basis for the innatist position: The Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) –Lenneberg:• There is a specific and limited time period (i.e., “critical period”) for the LAD to work successfully. • Only when it is stimulated at the right time
  33. 33. ONLY BY STRONG PUBERTYTwo versions AFTER PUBERTY IT WILL BE MORE WEAK DIFFICULT AND INCOMPLETE
  34. 34. Virtually every child learns language on a similar schedule in spite of different environments. – Three case studies of abnormal language development - evidence of the CPH •Victor – a boy of about 12 years old (1799) •Genie – a girl of 13 years old (1970) •Deaf signers (native signers, early learners, vs. late learners)
  35. 35. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTFCiG I5wJA• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T_Oavg lDkn0&feature=related• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Tchn_ DXs4o&feature=related
  36. 36. 3) INTERACTIONIST/DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVES: LEARNING FROM INSIDE AND OUT
  37. 37. Problems of Innatism: Too much emphasis on the “final state” but not enough on thedevelopmental aspects of language acquisition.
  38. 38. • Language was ONE manifestationof the cognitive and affective ability to deal with the world • Innatistsdealt with FORMS of the language, not with the FUNCTIONAL levels of meaning constructed from SOCIAL INTERACTION
  39. 39. INTERACTIONISM: Bruner Language acquisitionis an example of children’s ability to learn from experience. What children need to know is essentially available in the language they are exposed to.
  40. 40. the innate learning ability of children LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENTthe environment in which they develop
  41. 41. MODIFIED SPEECH CRUCIAL ELEMENTin language acquisition process
  42. 42. CARETAKER TALK• It is the way adults modify their speech when communicating with kids. • Slower rate of speech • Higher pitch • More varied intonation • Shorter simpler sentence patterns • Frequent repetition • Paraphrase
  43. 43. Developmental psychologists attribute more importance to the environmentBut they recognize a powerful learning mechanism in the human brain.
  44. 44. PIAGET“Children’s cognitive development determines their language development.”
  45. 45. The interaction between the child the developing cognitiveunderstanding things which can be observed, touched, and manipulated
  46. 46. Language was one of a number of symbol systems developed in childhood, rather than a separate module of the mind.
  47. 47. Language can be used to represent knowledge that children have acquiredthrough physical interaction with the environment.
  48. 48. VYGOTSKY Sociocultural theory of human mental processing.He argued that language develops primarily from social interaction.
  49. 49. Zone of proximal development (ZPD):• A level that a child is able to do when there is support from interaction with a more advanced interlocutor.• A supportive interactive environment enables children to advance to a higher level of knowledge and performance than s/he would be able to do independently.
  50. 50. Vygotsky observed the importance of conversations which children have with adults and with other children and saw in these conversations the origins of both language and thought.
  51. 51. ESSENTIALLY THOUGHT INTERANALIZED SPEECH EMERGED IN SOCIAL SPEECHINTERACTION
  52. 52. The Childs Language Environment• There is NO DIRECT PRESSURE to learn • There is NO TIME LIMIT for learning.• There is NO WAY OF ESCAPING into a different language (no vacations). • The language is NOT SEQUENCED BY GRAMMAR OR VOCABULARY (no textbook).
  53. 53. The Childs Language Environment• There is LOTS OF REPETITION• Both the LANGUAGE AND THE WORLD ARE NEW.• All the language is spoken IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SURROUNDING WORLD.• THE LANGUAGE IS ALL AROUND.
  54. 54. The Childs Language Environment • The child has MANY OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING the language to communicate to those around him.• Much of THE LANGUAGE IS SIMPLIFIED to the level of understanding of the child.
  55. 55. The Childs Learning Strategies • The child in NOT INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE for its own sake.• The child is NOT DISTURBED by the language he does not understand.• The child ENJOYS THE REPETITIVEevents of his life, and uses this enjoyment to help him learn.
  56. 56. The Childs Learning Strategies • The child USES HIS PRIMARY INTERESTS to help him learn.• The child directs his attention to things that are EASY TO UNDERSTAND. • The child possesses a natural desire TO CALL AN OBJECT BY ITS NAME.
  57. 57. The Childs Learning Strategies• The child adds words to his speakingvocabulary more easily IF HE ALREADYKNOWS HOW TO PRONOUNCE THEM.• The child IMMEDIATELY USES the language, and his SUCCESS IN COMMUNICATION BUILDS CONFIDENCE.
  58. 58. The Childs Learning Strategies• The child uses his natural desire TOPARTICIPATE IN THE LIFE AROUND HIM to help him learn new language. • The child brings TREMENDOUS INGENUITY to the task of learning.
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