Lu & Overbaugh (2009) found technology should be used so students can benefit from improved learning environments, student and teacher motivation and enriching instructional activities.Cator (2011) found students who engage in learning activities with technology can connect with other students nationally and globally. Researchers have found students who engage in collaborative learning develop social and cognitive skills.
According to Murdock (2007) computer usage was minimal prior to 1958. Russia developed technology to launch the first spacecraft. In 1956, Russian sputnik to demonstrate their expertise in technology.
Following the launch of Sputnik, The National Defense Education Act was created.The legislators goal was to promote science, technology, and math within education. The main goal of this Act was promoting science, technology, and math within education. The focus was placed mostly on vocational education. (Science and Technology Communications)President Kennedy passed the vocational Education Act in 1963 (Vocational Education Act. As a result, states received money to create new technology in schools. Teachers and students were not receptive to computers because teachers were considered to be managers of learning in most classrooms. (Zuniga, 2010)According to Zuniga (2010) The entities that have driven computer production are federal, state and private companies who have collaborated to create computer integration in schools
Computers were produced and marketed for business and government prior to them being introduced into schools. Government and businesses used large bulky computers that were capable of handling large files for these organizations. Manufacturers had not developed a computer for use in K-12 schools before 1965. President Johnson passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act which supplied funds for schools to purchase mainframes and minicomputers for schools. Most of these computers were used for administrative and counseling purposes (Zuniga, 2010).Prior to 1965, computers were utilized by business and government officials. After 1965 computers were utilized as instructional tools in universities and k-12 schools.
The Apple computer was created by Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs founded Apple before made and sold a computer circuit board and named it Apple I. Steven Jobs used his parents’ home as a temporary manufacturing site. The first 50 units were manufactured by Bytes a computer retailing chain. Apple gained an excellent reputation after selling computers to Dow Jones in 1978. After this sale Apple became one of the fastest growing companies in the United States.Apple founded the Apple Education foundation to connect with schools. As a result, sales escalated 40 percent as a result of producing 35,000 units. By 1981 Apple had 800 distributors in the United States and Canada and over 1000 distributors overseas. Apple became the first PC company to earn $1billion. Apple continued to connect with schools by starting the “Kids Can’t Wait Program and as a result donated 10,000 computers to schools in the state of California.(Apple Computer Incorporated—Early History)
Rogers (2003) stated “Knowledge stage occurs when the individual is exposed to the innovation’s existence and gains an understanding of how it functions” (p.216). Prior to 1975 schools were using mainframes and minicomputers for administrative and counseling purposes. In 1975 Apple Company donated personal computers to schools; however, school officials rejected the PCs because they established a comfort level with mainframes. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Technology_Integration_In_K12_Education/Challenges_of_Technology_in_the_Classroom#History
In 1979 an estimated 15 million PCs are used in business worldwide. IBM developed a mainframe for schools to use as drill and practice. In 1981 IBM develops a personal computer and computer assisted instruction software for use in schools. Computer Assisted Instruction gains acceptance in schools.http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html
Apple II computers are widely accepted into classrooms because PCs fit the ongoing teaching concept by using simulation programshttp://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.htmlThe Apple II computer finds widespread acceptance in education because PCs better fit the teacher /manager model of instructional delivery (PCs can be used to "support" the ongoing teaching in the single classroom). Simple simulation programs are developed for personal computers.
Apple Macintosh computer is developed. Commercial software manufacturers develop tutorials and learning games. Twenty five percent of high schools used PCs for college and career guidance. K-8 use Apple II and Macintosh; high schools use DOS programs.http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html
Rogers (2003) found “Adopter categories are the classifications of the members of a social system on the basis of innovativeness, the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than others members of a system” (p.297). Rogers (2003) each category of adopters as following:Innovator are interested in new ideas which lead them from localite to cosmopolite relationships. Innovators find new uses for ideas within a social system.Early adopters are integral parts of local system who are respected for their advice and information about an innovation. Members of the early majority adopt innovations make up one-third of the members of a system. They follow in adopting innovations, but they seldom take the lead in doing so.Late majority adoptions will adoption after the average members of a social system . The late majority usually comprise one-third of the members of a system. Laggard adopters are last to adopt an innovation. They do not usually have an opinion when it comes time to adopt. The laggards usually communicate with others who have similar adoption principles.
Rogers (2003) said when groups consistently adopt new technologies, the market value will reach saturation level which is illustrated by the S-curve shown in yellow.Rogers, E. (1962) Diffusion of innovations. Free Press, London, NY, USA.
According to Rogers (2003) Because adoption rate (process) for personal computes has reached maturity, the S curve would resemble the data as shown.
Valeria's week 6 storyboard update
INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT<br />Valeria Shanks<br />Education 8841 <br />Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education<br />
INTRODUCTION<br /> What is the significance of Innovation development for computer technology in K-12 schools?<br />
WHY WAS THERE A NEED TO INTRODUCE TECHNOLOGY?<br />Competition with Russia’s space program<br />
RESEARCH<br />What organization (people) developed a solution to the problem?<br />What were the findings?<br />Who were the lead thinkers for innovation of computer technology?<br />
DEVELOPMENT<br />What problems were encountered in the development process?<br />Who was the intended audience for computer technology?<br />
COMMERCIALIZATION<br />Process for production, manufacturing, packaging, marketing, and distribution for Apple which was the first company to donate computers to schools.<br />
Stage 1—KnowledgeComputer innovation<br />Apple I PC computers are donated to classrooms<br />
Stage II-Persuasion<br />1979 ---Personal computers popularity grows worldwide<br />1981---IBM develops drill and practice software for schools<br />
Stages 3 and 4Decision/Implementation<br />1983 Apple II computer gains acceptance into classrooms<br />
Stage 5--Confirmation<br />1984—Apple Macintosh computer is developed<br />1986– K-12 schools use computers for instruction and guidance purposes<br />1990—Multimedia PCs are developed<br />1994—multimedia capabilities are popularized in schools<br />1995—and beyond Internet gains popularity in schools<br />
Timeline for computer innovation decision process<br />
Innovativeness and Five Adopter Categories<br />Innovators: Venturesome<br />Early Adopters Respect<br />Early Majority Deliberate<br />Late Majority Skeptical <br />Laggards: Traditional Traditional<br />
S Curve for Computers<br />The S Curve for the Personal computer has reached maturity. <br />
REFERENCES<br />A brief history of computers in education (n.d.)Science and Technology Communications. Retrieved from http://mstf.org/a-brief-history-of-computers-in-education.htm<br />Apple Computer Inc. (n.d.) Early History Retrieved from <a href=http://ecommerce.hostip.info/pages/51/Apple-Computer-Inc-EARLY-HISTORY.html><br />Cator, K. (2011). Cator says national tech plan puts learning first. T.H.E. Journal, 38 (1).<br />Lu, R., Overbaugh, R. (2009). School environment and technology implementation in K-12 classrooms. Computers in the Schools, 26 89-106, DOI: 10.1080/07380560902906096.<br />Murdock, Everett (2007) History, the History of Computers, and the History of Computers in Education. Retrieved from http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html.<br />Rogers, E. (1962) Diffusion of innovations. Free Press, London, NY, USA.<br />Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.<br />Zuniga, R., (2010) Computer Technology Integration Into the Public School Classroom - A Qualitative Update. Academic Leadership the Online Journal. Retrieved from http://www.academicleadership.org/article/Computer_Technology_Integration_Into_the_Public_School_Classroom_-_A_Qualitative_Update<br />