Lu & Overbaugh (2009) found technology should be used so students can benefit from improved learning environments, student and teacher motivation and enriching instructional activities.Cator (2011) found students who engage in learning activities with technology can connect with other students nationally and globally. Researchers have found students who engage in collaborative learning develop social and cognitive skills.
According to Murdock (2007) computer usage was minimal prior to 1958. Russia developed technology to launch the first spacecraft. In 1956, Russian sputnik to demonstrate their expertise in technology.
Following the launch of Sputnik, The National Defense Education Act was created.The legislators goal was to promote science, technology, and math within education. The main goal of this Act was promoting science, technology, and math within education. The focus was placed mostly on vocational education. (Science and Technology Communications)President Kennedy passed the vocational Education Act in 1963 (Vocational Education Act. As a result, states received money to create new technology in schools. Teachers and students were not receptive to computers because teachers were considered to be managers of learning in most classrooms. (Zuniga, 2010)According to Zuniga (2010) The entities that have driven computer production are federal, state and private companies who have collaborated to create computer integration in schools
Computers were produced and marketed for business and government prior to them being introduced into schools. Government and businesses used large bulky computers that were capable of handling large files for these organizations. Manufacturers had not developed a computer for use in K-12 schools before 1965. President Johnson passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act which supplied funds for schools to purchase mainframes and minicomputers for schools. Most of these computers were used for administrative and counseling purposes (Zuniga, 2010).Prior to 1965, computers were utilized by business and government officials. After 1965 computers were utilized as instructional tools in universities and k-12 schools.
The Apple computer was created by Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs founded Apple before made and sold a computer circuit board and named it Apple I. Steven Jobs used his parents’ home as a temporary manufacturing site. The first 50 units were manufactured by Bytes a computer retailing chain. Apple gained an excellent reputation after selling computers to Dow Jones in 1978. After this sale Apple became one of the fastest growing companies in the United States.Apple founded the Apple Education foundation to connect with schools. As a result, sales escalated 40 percent as a result of producing 35,000 units. By 1981 Apple had 800 distributors in the United States and Canada and over 1000 distributors overseas. Apple became the first PC company to earn $1billion. Apple continued to connect with schools by starting the “Kids Can’t Wait Program and as a result donated 10,000 computers to schools in the state of California.(Apple Computer Incorporated—Early History)
Rogers (2003) stated “Knowledge stage occurs when the individual is exposed to the innovation’s existence and gains an understanding of how it functions” (p.216). Prior to 1975 schools were using mainframes and minicomputers for administrative and counseling purposes. In 1975 Apple Company donated personal computers to schools; however, school officials rejected the PCs because they established a comfort level with mainframes. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Technology_Integration_In_K12_Education/Challenges_of_Technology_in_the_Classroom#History
In 1979 an estimated 15 million PCs are used in business worldwide. IBM developed a mainframe for schools to use as drill and practice. In 1981 IBM develops a personal computer and computer assisted instruction software for use in schools. Computer Assisted Instruction gains acceptance in schools.http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html
Apple II computers are widely accepted into classrooms because PCs fit the ongoing teaching concept by using simulation programshttp://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.htmlThe Apple II computer finds widespread acceptance in education because PCs better fit the teacher /manager model of instructional delivery (PCs can be used to "support" the ongoing teaching in the single classroom). Simple simulation programs are developed for personal computers.
Apple Macintosh computer is developed. Commercial software manufacturers develop tutorials and learning games. Twenty five percent of high schools used PCs for college and career guidance. K-8 use Apple II and Macintosh; high schools use DOS programs.http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html
Rogers (2003) found “Adopter categories are the classifications of the members of a social system on the basis of innovativeness, the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than others members of a system” (p.297). Rogers (2003) each category of adopters as following:Innovator are interested in new ideas which lead them from localite to cosmopolite relationships. Innovators find new uses for ideas within a social system.Early adopters are integral parts of local system who are respected for their advice and information about an innovation. Members of the early majority adopt innovations make up one-third of the members of a system. They follow in adopting innovations, but they seldom take the lead in doing so.Late majority adoptions will adoption after the average members of a social system . The late majority usually comprise one-third of the members of a system. Laggard adopters are last to adopt an innovation. They do not usually have an opinion when it comes time to adopt. The laggards usually communicate with others who have similar adoption principles.
Rogers (2003) said when groups consistently adopt new technologies, the market value will reach saturation level which is illustrated by the S-curve shown in yellow.Rogers, E. (1962) Diffusion of innovations. Free Press, London, NY, USA.
According to Rogers (2003) Because adoption rate (process) for personal computes has reached maturity, the S curve would resemble the data as shown.
According to Rogers (2003) the late majority make up one-third of the members of a system. Members of a late majority are skeptical to adopt due to financial barriers. They can be influenced by peer pressure if they are convinced the innovation is not necessary.Rogers (2003) also stated “laggards are the last in a social system to adopt an innovation” (p.284).
Rogers (2003) found “relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes” (p.229). Adopters should consider social and economic relative advantages. Potential adopters want to be assured a new innovation is better than its existing practice or predecessor.“Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters” (Rogers, 2003, p. 240). Rogers (2003) stated “trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis” (p.258).
Schools and universities have followed businesses and government in the process to integrate technology. Wilson (2001), stated “many people assume the move toward technology is inexorable–we really have no choice if we want to survive in our present age. The pace of change is often said to be accelerating, with technology a big part of that rapid change” (para 3).Students acquire new information and they also understand its usefulness, rememeber it and solve problems in the future. Problem solving can stimulate a student’s interest more than memorizing facts---which leads to positive learning. http://www.answers.com/topic/technology-in-education-current-trends#ixzz1KDV9NpugTechnology provides opportunities to students to enhance learning through a customized curriculum through online courses. Students may participate in asynchronous interaction among faculty and students. http://www.answers.com/topic/technology-in-education-current-trends#ixzz1KDWJ7UnyStudents may use computer programs to manage classroom assignments as well as personal and home-related tasks. http://technology-genie.blogspot.com/2009/03/benefits-of-computer-technology.htmlDrop out rates have lowered in universities and attendance rates have increased due to assess to computer technology. Students produce higher-quality work by using word processing tools to enhance writing skills. http://www.revolution-embedded.com/2011/01/the-history-and-benefits-of-educational-technology/Wilson, B., Sherry, L., Dobrovolny, J., Batty, M., & Ryder, M. (2001). Adoption factors and processes. In H. Adelsberger, B. Collis, & J. Pawlowski (Eds.), Handbook on information technologies for education & training (pp. 293-307). New York: Springer-Verlag.
The U.S. Department of Commerce should work with industry to expand opportunities for low-income families to acquire home computers and Internet access.http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/10_02_ExecSummary.pdf
According to Rogers (2003) centralized and decentralized can be combined to form a hybrid system which incorporates characteristics of centralized and decentralized approaches.I would appeal to local officials in each designated school system that does not currently have and utilize computer technology for instructional purposes. According to Rogers (2003) technical experts have provided knowledge on computer technology usage. I will present evaluations testimonials from schools in the same state who have adopted computer technology. I will present evaluations and reviews from principals and educators on the way they use technology for instructional purposes.
As a technology leader, I would target superintendents, curriculum directors, principals and teachers of systems that do not currently utilize computer technology for instructional purposes. According to Rogers (2003) these agents are knowledgeable about innovations that would be adopted. As technology coordinator I have background and research expertise to facilitate the flow of innovative needs to audiences. The audiences would be principals and teachers who have not adopted computer technology into their schools.
I will use administrators, technology coordinators and teachers to share evaluations with officials in neighboring school systems on integration of technology. Once an relationship has been established, these change agents will be viewed as credible. Principals, technology coordinators and teachers can encourage inter-personal communication among peers to seek technology adroption.
Apple and IBM personal computers dominated the market in the early 1980s and reached critical mass quickly.
Valeria shanks week eight storyboard update
INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT<br />Valeria Shanks<br />Education 8841 <br />Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education<br />
INTRODUCTION<br /> What is the significance of Innovation development for computer technology in K-12 schools?<br />
WHY WAS THERE A NEED TO INTRODUCE TECHNOLOGY?<br />Competition with Russia’s space program<br />
RESEARCH<br />What organization (people) developed a solution to the problem?<br />What were the findings?<br />Who were the lead thinkers for innovation of computer technology?<br />
DEVELOPMENT<br />What problems were encountered in the development process?<br />Who was the intended audience for computer technology?<br />
COMMERCIALIZATION<br />Process for production, manufacturing, packaging, marketing, and distribution for Apple which was the first company to donate computers to schools.<br />
Stage 1—KnowledgeComputer innovation<br />Apple I PC computers are donated to classrooms<br />
Stage II-Persuasion<br />1979 ---Personal computers popularity grows worldwide<br />1981---IBM develops drill and practice software for schools<br />
Stages 3 and 4Decision/Implementation<br />1983 Apple II computer gains acceptance into classrooms<br />
Stage 5--Confirmation<br />1984—Apple Macintosh computer is developed<br />1986– K-12 schools use computers for instruction and guidance purposes<br />1990—Multimedia PCs are developed<br />1994—multimedia capabilities are popularized in schools<br />1995—and beyond Internet gains popularity in schools<br />
Timeline for computer innovation decision process<br />
Innovativeness and Five Adopter Categories<br />Innovators: Venturesome<br />Early Adopters Respect<br />Early Majority Deliberate<br />Late Majority Skeptical <br />Laggards: Traditional Traditional<br />
Computer technology adoption(Benefits)<br />Connection with business and government<br />Enhances problem solving skills<br />Collaboration and distance education<br />Exposure to variety of computer programs and software (sharing data)<br />Meets challenges of global communication<br />Preparation for current and future job market<br />Students produce higher-quality work<br />
Predictability for future usage<br />Schools must alter teaching strategies<br />Generate support for technology from parents, community, and business personnel<br />Continual professional development activities for educators on technology usage<br />Equitable distribution of computers among socioeconomic groups<br />
Hybrid ---centralized and decentralized<br />combines centralized and decentralized<br />1. (overall control will rest with local experts) (Research)<br />2. Encourage diffusion through peer networks<br />Problem-centered approach created by needs<br />A high-degree of local adaptation <br />
Change Agents for adoption of computer technology<br />School Superintendents<br />Curriculum Directors<br />Principals<br />Teachers<br />
Change agent for technology integration<br />1) develop a need for change<br />2) establish an information exchange relationship<br />3) translate an intent into action<br />
Computer Technology Critical Mass<br />Computer technology has reached critical mass.<br />My proposal is to integrate technology in K-12 schools that has not adopted a school-wide plan for technology usage.<br />Every teacher and child have access to a computer for instructional purposes.<br />
REFERENCES<br />A brief history of computers in education (n.d.)Science and Technology Communications. Retrieved from http://mstf.org/a-brief-history-of-computers-in-education.htm<br />Apple Computer Inc. (n.d.) Early History Retrieved from <a href=http://ecommerce.hostip.info/pages/51/Apple-Computer-Inc-EARLY-HISTORY.html><br />Cator, K. (2011). Cator says national tech plan puts learning first. T.H.E. Journal, 38 (1).<br />Lu, R., Overbaugh, R. (2009). School environment and technology implementation in K-12 classrooms. Computers in the Schools, 26 89-106, DOI: 10.1080/07380560902906096.<br />Murdock, Everett (2007) History, the History of Computers, and the History of Computers in Education. Retrieved from http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html.<br />Rogers, E. (1962) Diffusion of innovations. Free Press, London, NY, USA.<br />Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.<br />Zuniga, R., (2010) Computer Technology Integration Into the Public School Classroom - A Qualitative Update. Academic Leadership the Online Journal. Retrieved from http://www.academicleadership.org/article/Computer_Technology_Integration_Into_the_Public_School_Classroom_-_A_Qualitative_Update<br />