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INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT Valeria Shanks Education 8841 Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education
INTRODUCTION What is the significance of Innovation development for computer technology in K-12 schools?
WHY WAS THERE A NEED TO INTRODUCE TECHNOLOGY? Competition with Russia’s space program
RESEARCH What organization (people) developed a solution to the problem? What were the findings? Who were the lead thinkers for innovation of computer technology?
DEVELOPMENT What problems were encountered in the development process? Who was the intended audience for computer technology?
COMMERCIALIZATION Process for production, manufacturing, packaging, marketing, and distribution for Apple which was the first company to donate computers to schools.
Computers evolve through innovation-decision process Knowledge Persuasion Decision Implementation Confirmation
Stage 1—KnowledgeComputer innovation Apple I PC computers are donated to classrooms
Stage II-Persuasion 1979 ---Personal computers popularity grows worldwide 1981---IBM develops drill and practice software for schools
Stages 3 and 4Decision/Implementation 1983 Apple II computer gains acceptance into classrooms
Stage 5--Confirmation 1984—Apple Macintosh computer is developed 1986– K-12 schools use computers for instruction and guidance purposes 1990—Multimedia PCs are developed 1994—multimedia capabilities are popularized in schools 1995—and beyond Internet gains popularity in schools
Timeline for computer innovation decision process
Innovativeness and Five Adopter Categories Innovators: Venturesome Early Adopters Respect Early Majority Deliberate Late Majority Skeptical Laggards: Traditional Traditional
Computer technology adoption(Benefits) Connection with business and government Enhances problem solving skills Collaboration and distance education Exposure to variety of computer programs and software (sharing data) Meets challenges of global communication Preparation for current and future job market Students produce higher-quality work
Predictability for future usage Schools must alter teaching strategies Generate support for technology from parents, community, and business personnel Continual professional development activities for educators on technology usage Equitable distribution of computers among socioeconomic groups
Hybrid ---centralized and decentralized combines centralized and decentralized 1. (overall control will rest with local experts) (Research) 2. Encourage diffusion through peer networks Problem-centered approach created by needs A high-degree of local adaptation
Change Agents for adoption of computer technology School Superintendents Curriculum Directors Principals Teachers
Change agent for technology integration 1) develop a need for change 2) establish an information exchange relationship 3) translate an intent into action
Computer Technology Critical Mass Computer technology has reached critical mass. My proposal is to integrate technology in K-12 schools that has not adopted a school-wide plan for technology usage. Every teacher and child have access to a computer for instructional purposes.
Need for Computer Technology in education Students support technology in their learning activities Transforms the learning environment Support instruction across the curriculum Develops problem-based and collaborative learning Enhances student-teacher relationships Promotes a variety of instructional strategies
Support for Technology Speak Up Study: Lack of Technology in K-12 Limits Access to Educational Resources & Discourages Student Engagement
Resources for adoption of computer technology Enhancing Education through Technology (Ed-Tech) State Program “The National Education Technology Plan, Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology, calls for applying the advanced technologies used in our daily personal and professional lives to our entire education system to improve student learning, accelerate and scale up the adoption of effective practices, and use data and information for continuous improvement” (ED.gov U. S. Department of Education
Appeal for technology adoption Researchers have shown why integration of technology has a positive effect on students’ academic and social-based learning skills. Turner (2009) Lewis (2009) Davis, Edmonds & Kelly-Bateman (2008) Norris, Sullivan, Poirot & Soloway (2003
Thank you! Please support 21st Century learning by integrating technology into our schools.
REFERENCES A brief history of computers in education (n.d.)Science and Technology Communications. Retrieved from http://mstf.org/a-brief-history-of-computers-in-education.htm Apple Computer Inc. (n.d.) Early History Retrieved from <a href=http://ecommerce.hostip.info/pages/51/Apple-Computer-Inc-EARLY-HISTORY.html> Cator, K. (2011). Cator says national tech plan puts learning first. T.H.E. Journal, 38 (1). Davis, C, Edmunds, E, & Kelly-Bateman, V. (2008). Connectivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved May, 2011 from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/ Lu, R., Overbaugh, R. (2009). School environment and technology implementation in K-12 classrooms. Computers in the Schools, 26 89-106, DOI: 10.1080/07380560902906096. Murdock, Everett (2007) History, the History of Computers, and the History of Computers in Education. Retrieved from http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html. Norris, C., Sullivan, T., Poirot, J., & Soloway, E., (2003). No Access, No Use, No Impact: Snapshot Surveys of Educational Technology In K-12. Retrieved May, 2011 from http://www.stcloudstate.edu/tpi/initiative/documents/technology/No%20Access,%20No%20Use,%20No%20Impact.pdf Rogers, E. (1962) Diffusion of innovations. Free Press, London, NY, USA. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press. Zuniga, R., (2010) Computer Technology Integration Into the Public School Classroom - A Qualitative Update. Academic Leadership the Online Journal. Retrieved from http://www.academicleadership.org/article/Computer_Technology_Integration_Into_the_Public_School_Classroom_-_A_Qualitative_Update
References Zuniga, R., (2010) Computer Technology Integration Into the Public School Classroom - A Qualitative Update. Academic Leadership the Online Journal. Retrieved from http://www.academicleadership.org/article/Computer_Technology_Integration_Into_the_Public_School_Classro om_-_A_Qualitative_Update