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Stack : an isolated pillar of rock detached from a headland by wave erosion Stages : Joints Cave Arch Stack Needle Stump Processes : Hydraulic action Corrasion/abrasion Attrition Corrosion/solution Also : Weathering Mass movement Examples : Needles (Isle of Wight) Examples : Old Harry Rocks (Jurassic Coast) The Needles (Isle of Wight Deil’s Heid (Arbroath)
Image courtesy of Andrew Stacey www.stacey.peak-media.co.uk Wave-cut platform : a sloping rocky shelf found at the foot of a retreating cliff and exposed at low tide. This is Broad Bench in Kimmeridge Bay on the Jurassic Coast Processes : Hydraulic action Corrasion Undercutting Rockfall headland Words to use: angle under 4 degrees Wave-cut notch Inter-tidal feature Wave energy dissipated abrasion Retreating cliff Future raised beach?
Blowhole : an eroded vertical joint in a headland which may allow sea water to spout Example : Gaylet Pot at Auchmithie Processes : Hydraulic action Corrasion/abrasion Attrition Corrosion/solution Words to use: Vertical joints Cave roof Lines of weakness clifftop High tides/storm tides exploit Marine erosion processes
Spit : a long, narrow accumulation of sand or shingle formed by longshore drift with one end attached to the land Examples: Dawlish Warren (below),Spurn Head, Orford Ness, Blakeney Point Processes: Longshore drift Transportation Deposition Words to use: recurved Direction of longshore drift Prevailing winds Change in coastline direction/estuary Second dominant wind direction beach Stabilised shingle and sand saltmarsh dunes Zig zag movement Silt and mud accumulates
Bar and lagoon: a spit linking two headlands and trapping water on the landward side such as at Slapton Ley in Devon (below) Processes: Longshore drift Transportation Deposition Words to use: bay headland bar lagoon brackish silting and infilling beach Direction of longshore drift
Beach : a zone of deposited sand and shingle above the low water mark Processes : Constructive waves Destructive waves Deposition Transportation Longshore drift Sediment grading Words to use: storm beach berm gradient sand shingle swash backwash cusps beach profile
PODZOL BROWN EARTH WHY are they different? climate natural vegetation type of humus How much leaching? precipitation and temperature soil biota activity How much mixing? THINK! drainage eluviation organic sorting illuviation translocation
Psammosere : THINK stages, conditions, named plants, adaptations! Foreshore Mobile dunes Grey dunes and slacks Climax vegetation windy sheltered alkaline Increasingly acid No humus More humus dry More soil moisture Saltwort Couch grass Sea rocket Marram Sea holly Sand sedge Marram Mosses Fescue (grass) Ragwort Dandelions Lichens Sea Buckthorn Heather Rushes Reeds Willow Flag iris Pine Birch Mixed woodland tap roots fleshy leaves salt tolerant low growing xerophytic rhizomes inrolled leaves deep roots sand tolerant xerophytic Hydrophytic (water tolerant) 1 3 4 5 2 1 2 3 4 5
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