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Biosphere : Sand Dune Succession
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Biosphere : Sand Dune Succession






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    Biosphere : Sand Dune Succession Biosphere : Sand Dune Succession Presentation Transcript

    • Higher Geography Pupil Conference Dalkeith HS 23 rd March 2007 BIOSPHERE Val Vannet High School of Dundee
    • The Biosphere Sand Dune Succession
    • Plant Succession
      • Evolution of plant communities
      • From pioneer species to climax vegetation
      • Related to change in the environment
      • Change brought about by the plants themselves
      • This change then favours new species
      • ‘ Plants are the architects of their own demise’
    • Sand Dune Systems
      • Conditions
      • Supply of sand
      • On-shore winds
      • Colonising plants
      • Processes
      • Sand blown landwards
      • Sand trapped by plants
      • Plant growth assists dunes to grow
      • Process repeated on seaward side
      • Older dunes stop growing
      • System grows seawards
    • Tentsmuir :W W2 shore defence These tank traps were at the high water mark in 1940
    • Seaward growth of the sand dunes at Tentsmuir since 1940
    • Sample sand dune systems
    • Tentsmuir
    • Buddon Ness
    • St Cyrus
    • Forvie
    • Culbin sands
    • Sand Dune Transect
    • The Foreshore Blowing sand Salty Dry
    • Saltwort Fleshy leaves store water Deep tap roots Low growing
    • Sandwort Waxy leaves
    • Sea Rocket Fleshy, waxy leaves Tap roots
    • Frosted orache ‘ Mealy’ leaves are salt repellant Long tap roots
    • Couch grass Leaves prostrate Withstands modest burial Tolerates salt
    • Saltwort Frosted orache Couch Grass
    • Embryo Dunes Scattered foreshore plants Seaweed (humus) On shore winds Sand builds up Highest tide line
    • Level of built-up sand
    • Frosted orache Embryo dune
    • Foredunes Couch grass (salt tolerant) Lyme grass (salt tolerant)
    • Mobile (yellow) dunes Marram grass
    • Marram grass
      • Cannot tolerate salt
      • ‘ Thrives’ on being buried by sand
      • Inrolled leaves
      • Long tap roots
      • Underground rhizomes stabilise dunes
    • Much bare sand hence ‘yellow’
    • Ragwort Marram
      • Less bare sand
      • More humus
      • Lower pH
      • Less Marram
      • More ‘competitors’
    • Fixed (grey) dunes Marram more sparse and weaker Other species dominate
    • Increasing floristic diversity Harebells Bedstraw Restharrow
    • Parasol mushrooms More humus and soil moisture
    • Why ‘grey’? Lichens
    • Marram now very sparse Ground cover almost complete
    • Dune slacks Main dune ridge Lower relief intersects water table
    • Phragmites reeds
    • Rushes
    • Seasonal slack Rushes Creeping willow
    • Main dune ridge Slack Dune heath Cotton grass
    • Final stages of succession Alkaline shell sand Grassland Heathland Acid mineral sand
    • Dune Scrub (often spinous!) Gorse Buckthorn Dog rose
    • Sea Buckthorn is well named!
    • Mixed Woodland Climax
    • Vegetation Surveys
      • Transect lines
      • Ranging rods
      • Tape measure
      • Clinometer to measure angle of slope
    • Vegetation Surveys
      • Quadrats
      • % occurrence recorded
    • Easy ! 100% Marram
    • Minimum Need-to-Know!
      • Definition of succession
      • Definition of climax vegetation
      • Stages of the succession on sand dunes
      • One or two named plants for each stage
      • How are these plants adapted to the environment?