TECHNIQUES USED INTECHNIQUES USED IN
USES OF BIOINFORMATICSUSES OF BIOINFORMATICS
Bioinformatics isBioinformatics is
o A field of science in which biology, computer science andA field of science in which biology, computer science and
information technology merge to a single disciplineinformation technology merge to a single discipline
oA science of managing and analyzing biological data usingA science of managing and analyzing biological data using
advanced computing techniqueadvanced computing technique
What is done in bioinformatics?What is done in bioinformatics?
Analysis and interpretation of various types of biological data.Analysis and interpretation of various types of biological data.
Development of new algorithms and statistics with which toDevelopment of new algorithms and statistics with which to
assess biological information, such as relationships amongassess biological information, such as relationships among
members of large data sets.members of large data sets.
Techniques in bioinformaticsTechniques in bioinformatics
Sequence AnalysisSequence Analysis
Local and global PairwiseLocal and global Pairwise
sequence alignmentsequence alignment
3D Structure determination3D Structure determination
Gene Expression analysisGene Expression analysis
• Identification and isolation of the desired gene or DNA
• Fragmentation with restriction enzyme
• Isolation of plasmids and it’s fragmentation
• Incorporation of DNA into plasmids
• Use of DNA ligase to form bonds
• Incorporation of plasmids into host cells
• Growth of transgene
• Identification and isolation of desired gene
DNA recombinant technologyDNA recombinant technology
Joining together of DNA molecules from two different
species that are inserted into a host organism to produce
new genetic combinations that are of value to science,
medicine, agriculture, and industry.
DNA recombinantDNA recombinant
PROCESS OF DNA-RECOMBINANTPROCESS OF DNA-RECOMBINANT
Other uses of Recombinant technologyOther uses of Recombinant technology
synthesis of human insulinsynthesis of human insulin
Identification of mutationsIdentification of mutations
Diagnosis of affected and carrier states forDiagnosis of affected and carrier states for
hereditary diseaseshereditary diseases
Transferring of genesTransferring of genes
Mapping of human genesMapping of human genes
• the process of producing populations of genetically-
•refers to processes used to create copies of DNA
fragments, cells or organisms.
•creation of an organism that is an exact genetic
copy of another.
What happens actually?What happens actually?
Isolation donor nucleusIsolation donor nucleus
Obtaining the unfertilized eggsObtaining the unfertilized eggs
Removal the egg's nucleusRemoval the egg's nucleus
Insertion donor nucleusInsertion donor nucleus
Placement of the egg into wombPlacement of the egg into womb
Human CloningHuman Cloning
• Cloning can be also performed in human
beings. There are 3 types of cloning namely;
cloning use cloning
cells from an adult
for use in medicine
and is an active
area of research
is a theoretical
possibility, and would
be a combination of
reproductive cloning.reproductive cloning
USES OF CLONING
Improved Animal Varieties
Improved plant varieties
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