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  • 1.
    • Global Trade and Finance
    • Prof. Bryson, Marriott School
    The World Trade Organization
  • 2. What Is the WTO?
    • The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
    • WTO agreements are negotiated and signed by the trading nations and ratified in their parliaments.
    • The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct and grow their business.
  • 3. The Goal
    • To improve the welfare of the peoples of the member countries.
  • 4. Past, Present, Future The WTO came into being in 1995. The WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), established in the wake of the Second World War.
  • 5. The Past 50 Years: Exceptional Growth in World Trade
    • Merchandise exports grew on average 6% annually
    • Total trade in 1997 was 14 times the level of 1950
    • In 1997, 40 governments concluded negotiations for tariff free trade.
  • 6. The Organization Chart
  • 7. The Organization Committees on Trade and Environment Trade and Development… Working parties on Accessions Working groups Committees Committees Textiles Monitoring Body Working parties on General Council Council for Trade in Goods Council for Intellectual Property Rights in Trade Council for Trade In Servfices GC: Dispute Settlement Body GC: Trade Policy Review Body Ministerial Conference
  • 8. The WTO must teach the world the benefits of trade
    • We have seen what Ricardo had to say about comparative advantage, and the strong consensus among those who seriously consider trade issues.
    • Trade provides nearly 100% of an economy’s jobs. Global trade provides a large and growing share of these jobs.
    • .
  • 9. Major WTO Functions
    • Administering WTO trade agreements
    • Forum for trade negotiations
  • 10. Major WTO Functions
    • Handling trade disputes
    • Monitoring national trade policies
  • 11. Major WTO Functions
    • Technical assistance and training for developing countries
    • Cooperation with other international organizations 
  • 12. The Quad
    • Some of the most difficult negotiations have needed an initial breakthrough in talks among the four largest members
    • Canada  European union  Japan  United States
  • 13. How to Join the WTO: the Accession Process
    • First, “tell us about yourself” .
    • Second, “work out with us individually what you have to offer.” (Country to country negotiations bilaterally.)
    • Third, “let’s draft membership terms.”
    • Finally, “the decision.”
  • 14. Criticisms of the WTO
    • The WTO undermines state sovereignty
    • It undermines representative democracy
    • Member nations are prevented from protecting the environment
    • Members are unable to uphold laws guaranteeing workers’ rights
    • The WTO is controlled by the larger nations
    • The WTO represents the interests of large corporations and wealthy citizens
  • 15.
    • Some protesters have arguments fully worthy of consideration. They deserve a better venue for hearing than the streets.
    • Nihilistic anarchists usually capture the legal protest, along with
    • lugubrious labor Luddites
    • trade terrorists, and
    • the clueless
  • 16. The Doha, Qatar Initiatives
    • A new trade round was launched November, 2001
    • For the first time, developing countries demanded capacity-building and technical assistance to take part meaningfully.
  • 17. The Doha, Qatar Initiatives
    • The Pledging Conference was convened in accordance with the December 2001 decision of the WTO General Council.
    • In that decision, the General Council set a target for core funding of CHF 15 million plus support in kind, including training courses for trade officials.