IntroductionThere are three main sources of internal conflict inIndia and one of the sources of internal violence inIndia comes from incidents brought to effect by leftwing Extremist groups movements in many states ofIndia. This has been identified by Prime MinisterManmohan Singh as the single biggest securitychallenge to the India. The origin of these violentmovements is often credited to a 1967 peasantuprising in West Bengal, when peasants attacked thelocal landlords in the village of Naxalbari. The left-wing extremist movements are popularly knownNaxalite movements and the people involved in themare called „Naxalites‟. (Iyer, K. 2009)
What is Naxalism. Naxalism is the most significant political movement since independence (1947). It has been the most long-lasting though it has had its ups and downs. Despite its fragmented nature a continuing thread with some variations can be seen in the ideological thrust, strategy and tactics of mobilization of different groups within its fold. It is the only movement which having started in one police station of a single district in West Bengal in 1967 has expanded its activities covering over 460 police stations in 160 districts across 14 states despite the police force and infrastructure having grown manifold during this period. The movement’s capacity to challenge the state has also enormously increased considering the incidents of violence and casualties resulting from them. The movement is viewed with greater anxiety in the government because it is most intense precisely in areas which are rich in natural resources and, therefore, targeted for fast-track industrial development.(Iyer, K. 2009)
History The government responded with a heavy use of force, and the movement splintered into many different extremist groups in the 1970s. In 1980, the formation of the People‟s War Group (PWG) in Andhra Pradesh marked the renewal of left-wing violent movements. The leading extremist group is the Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist), formed by the merger of the People‟s War Group with the Maoist Communist Center (MCC) in 2004. They were most distructive in the year 2010.(“Govt at war with Naxals to aidMNCs:Arundhati”,2011.)
Major Naxalite Attacks in 2010 On 15th Feb. 2010, Naxalite attacked on a paramilitary camp in West Bengal, killed 24 paramilitary personnel, with many more reported missing. On 18th Feb. 2010, At least 12 villagers were killed and 12 injured in indiscriminate firing by the Maoists in Jamui district of Bihar. 25 village houses were also burned down. On 4th April 2010, 11 policemen were killed and ten wounded when rebels blew up a police bus in Orissas Koraput district and Naxalite rebels killed 75 Indian paramilitary personnel and 1 state police constable in a series of attacks on security convoys in Dantewada district in the central Indian state of Chattisgarh. On 17th May 2010, Naxalite killed 44 by bus bombing near Dante wada. On 28th may 2010, the naxalites derailed Gyaneshwari Express killing more than 150. On 29th june 2010 they attacked narayanpura killing 26.(Vaidya, S. 2011)
What Naxalites want According to naxals they represent deprived classes comprising of poorest, tribals, dalit, landless workers. At local level naxals fight rich land owners , at state level they target police, IAS(Indian Administrative Services) , Politicians. Naxals believe that India didn‟t get freedom in 1947, What they consider as freedom or independence were mere transfer of power from British to rich landowners , capitalist and their agents called politicians. Ultimate goal of naxalites is to dismantle current Indian System of governance and establish what they call as true people government and a class less society. They are against present form of democracy and political system. Naxal‟s concept is right in principal. Tribals , dalits and deprived form large part of Indian population and any development must be not be just for making rich more richer but at same time uplifting the deprived classes. (“what do naxals want?,” 2012)
Demands The government should not prevent agitations, peaceful demonstrations and meetings. Lift the ban on the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) P.W. and other organisations. Release all political prisoners. Scrap the system of giving acceleratory promotions and unofficial incentives to police officers who kill naxalites in fake encounters and order a judicial probe into all fake encounters and punish the police officers responsible. Withdraw all World Bank projects and schemes supported by imperialists. Stop the retrenchment of workers and the privatisation of public sector enterprises (PSEs). Withdraw user charges on drinking water, education and health services. Scrap all agreements with the World Bank, MNCs and other countries. Recognise the tribal peoples rights on forest. Lift all cases registered against workers of mass organisations and other revolutionary parties.
Demands cont. Waive all private loans taken by the farming community to stop suicides by farmers. Initiate steps to develop and support tribal languages. Form a separate Telangana State. Prepare a permanent and integrated plan for tackling the drought situation. Provide job reservation for Dalits in the private sector. Equal property rights for women. Reservation for women in the private sector. Stringent punishment for those who commit atrocities on women. Order a probe into the illegal amassing of wealth by officials, politicians and capitalists; corruption scandals by officials and politicians. Recover money from the affluent who evade taxes. Complete all pending irrigation projects. Farmers should be given irrigation facilities and supplied adequate power.(“what do naxals want?,” 2012)
Indian governments say The naxal issue in Central and Eastern Indian has become a major obstacle to development. While it is argued by many that deprivation and displacement of tribals breed violence, if requires no argument that fear and insecurity retard development. The Prime Minister said, “The Naxal Problem is the greatest concern now”. It is also true that it is proving to a major contradiction in our democracy which is appreciated across the world for its tenacity and elasticity. The Naxals have to be brought to the ballot from the bullet, so that their grievances are resolved in a negotiated way. But how to do this not clear, It requires political sagacity and negotiating ingenuity to resolve the conflict. A negotiation is urgently needed. What have been the negotiating positions so far? The state says, you stop violence, and we talk, the Naxals say, you solve problems or we use more violence. Both these positions put the cart before the horse; these positions should actually be the outcomes of a negotiated resolution of the conflict, without preconditions. But, for sure, there have to be some guiding principles for resolving a conflict through negotiations. (Prasad, 2010).
Congress‟s SayThe debate in Congress over the right approach todeal with Naxalism, party president Sonia Gandhihas issued the final word. "While we must addressacts of terror decisively, we have to address theroot causes of Naxalism. The rise of Naxalism is areflection of the need for our developmentinitiatives to reach the grassroots, especially in ourbackward tribal districts," Sonia Gandhi said inthe latest issue of party journal Congress Sandesh.(“Address root causes of Naxalism: Sonia,” 2011)
Negotiations A special force was appointed to deal with the Naxal terrorist activities. A group of leaders from crongress is working on the fulfilment of the demands. Tribal welfare authority is placed to work on the welfare of the backward tribal population in central and eastern india. An enquiry is seated up on the fake encouters.(Giri,D. 2012)
Recommendations One needs to go back to the first principles; what is the real issue? What is the heart of the matter? What should be a framework for principle, as the basis of negotiation? The framework is peace, and a win-win situation. The framework will be the reference point, the guiding path. What would make the naxalites accept peace as a framework before they come to the negotiating table, so that the peace becomes permanent? The negotiation has to be relentless till a solution is found, not intermittent. A conducive climate needs to be built for talks by addressing the small issues. The Government and the naxalites need third party assistance. This third party has to be anyone committed and capable, and should have confidence of both. It is important to realize that resolving a conflict is a journey, a process not an event, a one-time achievement. We need to leave the past behind, give up stereotype images that nexals are terrorists, or the Government is ruthless, exploitative and brutal.
RefrencesIyer, l. (2009). The Bloody Millennium: Internal Conflict in South Asia (Harvard BusinessSchool).Retrieved fromhttp://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/09-086.pdfGiri, D. (2012). Negotiating with the Naxals. Retrieved fromhttp://www.livenewsbee.com/negotiating-naxals/What do naxals want?. (2012). Retrieved fromhttp://indiansawaal.com/what-do-naxals-want/Address root causes of Naxalism: Sonia. (2011). Retrieved fromhttp://www.ndtv.com/article/india/address-root-causes-of-naxalism-sonia-25645Prasad, P. (2009). In anti-Naxal war, beware turning state into a destructive power.Retrieved fromhttp://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-05-13/all-that-matters/31690411_1_naxalites-maoists-greyhoundsGovt at war with Naxals to aid MNCs:Arundhati. (2011). Retrieved fromhttp://ibnlive.in.com/news/govt-at-war-with-naxals-to-aid-mncs-arundhati/103627-3.htmlVaidya, S. (2011). Resource: Naxal war. Retrieved fromhttp://naxaliterage.com/?p=290