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Animal cell be

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  • 1. Animal Cell Structure and Function Done by Vanamala Vaasanthika L ECE “B” I year
  • 2. Cells • Smallest living unit • Most are microscopic
  • 3. Discovery of Cells • Robert Hooke (mid-1600s) – Observed sliver of cork – Saw “row of empty boxes” – Coined the term cell
  • 4. Cell Types • Prokaryotic • Eukaryotic
  • 5. Prokaryotic Cells • First cell type on earth • Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
  • 6. Eukaryotic Cells • Nucleus bound by membrane • Include fungi, protists, plant, and animal cells • Possess many organelles Protozoan
  • 7. Representative Animal Cell
  • 8. Plasma Membrane • Contains cell contents • Double layer of phospholipids & proteins
  • 9. Movement Across the Plasma Membrane • A few molecules move freely – Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen • Carrier proteins transport some molecules – Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer – Fluid mosaic model – describes fluid nature of a lipid bilayer with proteins
  • 10. Cytoplasm • Viscous fluid containing organelles • components of cytoplasm – Interconnected filaments & fibers – Fluid = cytosol – Organelles (not nucleus) – storage substances
  • 11. Cytoskeleton • Filaments & fibers • Made of 3 fiber types – Microfilaments – Microtubules – Intermediate filaments • 3 functions: – mechanical support – anchor organelles – help move substances
  • 12. Nucleus • Control center of cell • Double membrane • Contains – Chromosomes – Nucleolus
  • 13. Nuclear Envelope • Separates nucleus from rest of cell • Double membrane • Has pores
  • 14. DNA • Hereditary material • Chromosomes – DNA – Protiens – Form for cell division • Chromatin
  • 15. Nucleolus • Most cells have 2 or more • Directs synthesis of RNA • Forms ribosomes
  • 16. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Helps move substances within cells • Network of interconnected membranes • Two types – Rough endoplasmic reticulum – Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • 17. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • Ribosomes attached to surface – Manufacture protiens – Not all ribosomes attached to rough ER • May modify proteins from ribosomes
  • 18. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • No attached ribosomes • Has enzymes that help build molecules – Carbohydrates – Lipids
  • 19. Golgi Apparatus • Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall • Packaging & shipping station of cell
  • 20. Lysosomes • Contain digestive enzymes • Functions – Aid in cell renewal – Break down old cell parts – Digests invaders
  • 21. Mitochondria • Have their own DNA • Bound by double membrane
  • 22. Mitochondria • Break down fuel molecules (cellular respiration) – Glucose – Fatty acids • Release energy – ATP