Animal Cell Structure and
Function
Done by
Vanamala Vaasanthika L
ECE “B” I year
Cells
• Smallest living unit
• Most are microscopic
Discovery of Cells
• Robert Hooke (mid-1600s)
– Observed sliver of cork
– Saw “row of empty boxes”
– Coined the term cell
Cell Types
• Prokaryotic
• Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic Cells
• First cell type on earth
• Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
Eukaryotic Cells
• Nucleus bound by membrane
• Include fungi, protists, plant,
and animal cells
• Possess many organelles
...
Representative Animal Cell
Plasma Membrane
• Contains cell contents
• Double layer of phospholipids & proteins
Movement Across the Plasma Membrane
• A few molecules move freely
– Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen
• Carrier prote...
Cytoplasm
• Viscous fluid containing organelles
• components of cytoplasm
– Interconnected filaments & fibers
– Fluid = cy...
Cytoskeleton
• Filaments & fibers
• Made of 3 fiber types
– Microfilaments
– Microtubules
– Intermediate filaments
• 3 fun...
Nucleus
• Control center of cell
• Double membrane
• Contains
– Chromosomes
– Nucleolus
Nuclear Envelope
• Separates nucleus from rest of cell
• Double membrane
• Has pores
DNA
• Hereditary material
• Chromosomes
– DNA
– Protiens
– Form for cell division
• Chromatin
Nucleolus
• Most cells have 2 or more
• Directs synthesis of RNA
• Forms ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Helps move substances within cells
• Network of interconnected membranes
• Two types
– Rough endop...
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Ribosomes attached to surface
– Manufacture protiens
– Not all ribosomes attached to rough E...
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
• No attached ribosomes
• Has enzymes that help build molecules
– Carbohydrates
– Lipids
Golgi Apparatus
• Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall
• Packaging & shipping station of cell
Lysosomes
• Contain digestive enzymes
• Functions
– Aid in cell renewal
– Break down old cell parts
– Digests invaders
Mitochondria
• Have their own DNA
• Bound by double membrane
Mitochondria
• Break down fuel molecules (cellular respiration)
– Glucose
– Fatty acids
• Release energy
– ATP
Animal cell be
Animal cell be
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Animal cell be

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Animal cell be

  1. 1. Animal Cell Structure and Function Done by Vanamala Vaasanthika L ECE “B” I year
  2. 2. Cells • Smallest living unit • Most are microscopic
  3. 3. Discovery of Cells • Robert Hooke (mid-1600s) – Observed sliver of cork – Saw “row of empty boxes” – Coined the term cell
  4. 4. Cell Types • Prokaryotic • Eukaryotic
  5. 5. Prokaryotic Cells • First cell type on earth • Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
  6. 6. Eukaryotic Cells • Nucleus bound by membrane • Include fungi, protists, plant, and animal cells • Possess many organelles Protozoan
  7. 7. Representative Animal Cell
  8. 8. Plasma Membrane • Contains cell contents • Double layer of phospholipids & proteins
  9. 9. Movement Across the Plasma Membrane • A few molecules move freely – Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen • Carrier proteins transport some molecules – Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer – Fluid mosaic model – describes fluid nature of a lipid bilayer with proteins
  10. 10. Cytoplasm • Viscous fluid containing organelles • components of cytoplasm – Interconnected filaments & fibers – Fluid = cytosol – Organelles (not nucleus) – storage substances
  11. 11. Cytoskeleton • Filaments & fibers • Made of 3 fiber types – Microfilaments – Microtubules – Intermediate filaments • 3 functions: – mechanical support – anchor organelles – help move substances
  12. 12. Nucleus • Control center of cell • Double membrane • Contains – Chromosomes – Nucleolus
  13. 13. Nuclear Envelope • Separates nucleus from rest of cell • Double membrane • Has pores
  14. 14. DNA • Hereditary material • Chromosomes – DNA – Protiens – Form for cell division • Chromatin
  15. 15. Nucleolus • Most cells have 2 or more • Directs synthesis of RNA • Forms ribosomes
  16. 16. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Helps move substances within cells • Network of interconnected membranes • Two types – Rough endoplasmic reticulum – Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  17. 17. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • Ribosomes attached to surface – Manufacture protiens – Not all ribosomes attached to rough ER • May modify proteins from ribosomes
  18. 18. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • No attached ribosomes • Has enzymes that help build molecules – Carbohydrates – Lipids
  19. 19. Golgi Apparatus • Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall • Packaging & shipping station of cell
  20. 20. Lysosomes • Contain digestive enzymes • Functions – Aid in cell renewal – Break down old cell parts – Digests invaders
  21. 21. Mitochondria • Have their own DNA • Bound by double membrane
  22. 22. Mitochondria • Break down fuel molecules (cellular respiration) – Glucose – Fatty acids • Release energy – ATP
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