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  • User profile information can be used for accessibility purposes but in many instances context or preference may be equally important. For example a car driver needing access to Web or PDA information may be in a similar position to a blind user in that neither can handle primarily visual material but could probably usefully access audible descriptions or instructions

Profiling For Accessibility Presentation Profiling For Accessibility Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Profiling for Accessibility Elaine Pearson & Voula Gkatzidou [email_address] [email_address]
  • Profiling for accessibility
    • Diversity of learner needs:
      • Alternative access systems
      • Content to be presented in different modalities
    • Profiling for accessibility is a complex issue
      • Learners with special needs require personalised access to e-learning
    • Learning resources accessible to:
      • All learners, despite their individual needs and preferences
    • Meeting the diverse needs of learners requires a different approach to ‘universal’ accessibility.
    • Metadata is data which describes data, or information about information.
    • Metadata describe the nature and content of web and e-learning resources.
    • Metadata provide invisible descriptive information about resources, and can therefore be used to catalogue, describe, search for and locate resources.
    The role of metadata for profiling(1)
    • Provides information on the accessibility features of a particular resource, such as audio content, subtitles, text transcripts, audio descriptions etc.
    • IMS AccessForAll Specifications
      • Accessibility for Learner Information Package (AccLIP)
        • Describes the content needs and preferences of a user.
        • Enables the description of user preferences in terms of visual, auditory and tactile components.
    The role of metadata for profiling(2)
  • IMS AccLIP
    • Describes the user in terms of accessibility needs
      • XML-based syntax
    • Accessibility preferences
      • Display information
        • decribes how information should be presented to user)
      • Control information
        • defines how a user prefers to control the device)
      • Content information
        • describes which enhanced, alternative or or equivalent contents are required by the learner)
  • PAL (1)
  • PAL (2)
  • Example profiles (Persona A)
    • George has low vision and has laptop for his course, which is fully equipped with a screen reader (Jaws) & a Braille embosser with refreshable Braille display, a combination of assistive technologies that enable him to interact with the programs he uses.
      • He needs alternatives to visual content
      • Preference for screenreader when at home
      • Preference for Braille when on campus
  • Example profiles (Persona A) in AccLIP
    • In George’s home profile he expresses the preference for screenreader use instead of Braille.
    • In this example, the screen reader (specified to be Jaws) would be required to read any links it encounters, with a speech rate of 180 words per minute.
    • < accessForAll xmlns:xsi =&quot; http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance &quot; xmlns:xsd =&quot; http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema &quot;>
    • < context identifier =&quot; Peter/Home &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot;>
    • < display >
    • < screenReader >
    • < screenReaderGeneric >
    •   < application name =&quot; Jaws &quot;>
      • < /application >
    •   < link usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; speakLink &quot; />
    •   < speechRate usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 180 &quot; />
    •   < pitch usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 0.5 &quot; />
    •   < volume usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 1 &quot; />
    •   </ screenReaderGeneric >
    •   </ screenReader >
    •   </ display >
    • < content >
    • < alternativesToVisual >
      • < audioDescription usage =&quot; preferred &quot; type =&quot; expanded &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot; />
    •   < altTextLang usage =&quot; preferred &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot; />
    •   < longDescriptionLang usage =&quot; preferred &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot; />
    •   </ alternativesToVisual >
    •   </ content >
    •   </ context >
    •   </ accessForAll >
  • Example profiles (Persona A) in AccLIP
    • In George’s ‘classroom’ profile PAL expresses his preference for Braille by using the <braille> element and turning off the screen reader’s volume by using the preferences under the <screenReader> element.
    • In this example, he requires uncontracted Braille (Grade 1), where each cell has 8 dots, and his display has 80 cells in a row.
    • < accessForAll xmlns:xsi =&quot; http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance &quot; xmlns:xsd =&quot; http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema &quot;>
    • < context identifier =&quot; Peter/Classroom &quot; lang =&quot; en &quot;>
    • < display >
    • < screenReader >
    • < screenReaderGeneric >
    •   < usage =&quot; notUse &quot; value =&quot; 0 &quot; />
    •   </ screenReaderGeneric >
    •   </ screenReader >
    • < braille >
      • < brailleGeneric >
    •   < grade usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 1 &quot; />
    •   < numDots usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 8 &quot; />
    •   < numCells usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 80 &quot; />
    •   < markHighlight usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; />
    •   < markBold usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; />
    •   < markUnderline usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; />
    •   < markItalic usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; />
    •   < markStrikeout usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; true &quot; />
    •   < markColor usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; false &quot; />
    •   < dotPressure usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; 0.5 &quot; />
    •   < statusCell usage =&quot; preferred &quot; value =&quot; off &quot; />
    •   </ brailleGeneric >
    •   </ braille >
    • </ display >
    •  
    •   </ accessForAll >
  • Profiling Devices
    • Device capabilities and preferences for profiling devices need to be known
      • Allow client devices to inform servers of their capabilities
    • RDF (Resource Description Framework) based profiles, recommended by the W3C
      • Composite Capabilities/Preference Profile (CC/PP)
      • User Agent Profile (UAProf)
    • Explore methods to provide a more detailed learner profile in PAL and include:
      • - Device capabilities
      • - Learning Styles
      • - Cognitive Factors
      • - Previous knowledge/background
    • Integrate PAL within a learning environment
    Challenges
    • PAL tool: http:// arc.tees.ac.uk /pal
    • IMS AccLIP: http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/acclipv1p0/imsacclip_infov1p0.html
    • Web-4-All Tool: http://web4all.atrc.utoronto.ca/html/english/w4a_home_e.html
    • CC/PP Profile: http://www.w3.org/Mobile/CCPP/
    • UaProf Profile: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/tech/affiliates/wap/wap-248-uaprof-20011020-a.pdf
    • Gkatzidou, S. & Pearson, E. (2009). A Transformation, Augmentation, Substitution Service (TASS) to Meet the Needs and Preferences of the Individual Learner . Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT). Riga, Latvia.
    • Salomoni, P., Mirri, S., Ferretti, S. & Rocetti, M. (2007). Profiling Learners with Special Needs for Custom e-Learning Experiences, a Closed Case? Proceedings of the International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4A). Banff, Canada.
    Resources