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Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
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  • 1. Digitaliserenvan video
    Michel Merten
  • 2. Digitaliseren van video
    Ensure the physical preservation of audiovisual archives has the same meaning as restore our cathedrals Emmanuel Hoog (Pres. Fiat)
  • 3. Overview of Memnon Archiving Services
    • European leader in the mass digitization, migration, and semi-automated indexation and documentation of audiovisual archives, with facilities in:
    • 4. Belgium
    • 5. Sweden
    • 6. Also providing “in house” services (set-up, media architecture, training, project-management, … on site)
    • 7. Involved in the digitization of more than 700,000 hours of audiovisual archives of most analog and digital formats.
    • 8. Large scale audiovisual digitization and migration at a very competitive price through strong project management and optimized workflows
    • 9. Expertise in database and metadata management
    • 10. Outstanding client portfolio in Europe
  • Digitisationequipmentset-up
    • Optimizedset-up of large scaledigitisationlines
    Over 50 video lines covering most formats
    Over 90 audio lines covering most formats
    Running 16 hours a day / 7 days a week
    • In most cases parallel digitization is more economical than robotic approach, even for large volumes
    • 11. Most lines equipped with automated QA data analysis
    • 12. All digitization lines are interconnected with our PAM (Production Asset Management) system and our calculation farm for post-processing so that QA, process control and management can easily be distributed and accessed
  • Audiovisual archives in the world
  • 13. Audiovisual archives in the world
    The European audiovisual archives represent 50 million hours on a global estimate of 200 million hours.
    An estimated 80% of these materials are in danger.
  • 14. Major audiovisual archives in Europe
    INA (France) more than 2 million hours AV Archives.In 2015, Ina should have digitized all its archives
    BBC has 1 million hours of audiovisual archives (4 million of physical items)
    Beeld & Geluid (Holland) has 700,000 hours of AV archives
    VRT has 330,000 hours of video and 90,000 hours of audio
    SONUMA - RTBF (Belgium) more than 100,000 hours of AV archives
  • 15. Video tape typical carriers
  • 16. Video tape typical carriers
    2 inch Quadruplex
    1 inch
    DV CAM
    HD CAM
    ... ... ... ... ... ...
  • 17. 2 inch Quadruplex videotape
    It was developed and released for the broadcast television industry in 1956 by Ampex
    A typical 4,800-foot (1,500 m) reel of 2-inch quad tape holds approximately 1 hour of recorded material at 15 inches per second (381 mm/s or 1.37 km/h).
  • 18. 1 inch Type C
    Co-developed and introduced by Ampex and Sony in 1976.
    It became the replacement in the professional video and television broadcast industries for the then-incumbent Quadruplex open-reel format, due to the smaller size
  • 19. U-matic ¾ inches
    It was developed by Sony in 1971.
    It was among the first video formats to contain the videotape inside a cassette.
    known as 'three-quarter-inch‘
  • 20. Betamax
    It was developed by Sony in 1975.
    half-inch professional videotape products
  • 21. VHS (Video Home System)
    a consumer-level video standard developed by JVC released in 1976.
    Variation :
    Super VHS
    VHS C
  • 22. Betacam
    It was developed by Sony in 1982.
    half-inch professional videotape products.
    Variants : Betacam SP / Betacam SX / Digital Betacam / MPEG IMX / HDCAM
  • 23. DVCPRO
    developed by Panasonic and introduced in 1995
    DVCPRO uses locked audio and 4:1:1 chromasubsampling for both 50 Hz and 60 Hz variants to reduce generation loss.Audio is available only in the 16-bit/48 kHz variant.
    DVCPRO50 (video data rate 50 Mbit/s)
    DVCPRO Progressive
    DVCPRO HD (up to 100 Mbit/s for 50/60 frame/s modes)
  • 24. DV CAM
    It was launched in 1996 with joint efforts of leading producers of video camera recorders.
    DV is a format for recording
    and playing back digital video.
  • 25. Somevideo playback equipments
  • 26. Some video playback equipments
  • 27. Threats to the preservation of audiovisual heritage
    Deterioration of the carriers : chemical decomposition, physical deterioration
    No backup
    Obsolescence of formats and playback equipment
    Lack of information relating to the archives
    Loss of knowledge
    indifference: not cost effective, no interest in
    No budget
  • 28. Threats to the preservation of audiovisual heritage
  • 29. Most EndangeredAudiovisualCarriers
    They are all in danger if they are not stored in good condition
    It is clear that the most endangered carriers are not necessarily the oldest
    Magnetic digital tapes are similar in materials and construction to other magnetic tapes, and suffer from similar physical and chemical problems.
    Most endangered carriers : video -2”, 1”, U-Matic (1/2’’)
    Most endangered carriers : audio- Direct cut records (acetate)
    - DAT’s
  • 30. Specific preservation problems / recommendations for video (audio) carriers
    • Target digital format selection : no standard yet
    • 31. Audio : WAVE or BWF; 24bit/48 or 96 kHz
    • 32. Video : JPEG2000 LossLess compression is getting momentum (LOC, INA)
    • 33. Video : MXF IMX 50 (or 25) Mb/s OP 1A is much in use at broadcasters
    • 34. QualityA/D converters and encoders is key
    • 35. Cleaning of video tapes improve much playback quality
    • 36. Automated Quality Control : NOA/QUADRIGA for audio and InterraBaton for video (allow to monitor the digitization process)
    • 37. High quality equipment and experienced engineers are essential
    • 38. For outsourcing : try to regroup volumes to get lower prices
  • Memnon migration factory set-up Generic functional setup for audio & video
  • 39. Specific preservation problems / recommendations
    Digital files carriers selection
    There are no “best” carrier for digital files preservation
    CD-R, DVD-R, Blu-Ray… (whether standard, gold, platinum, glass, or whatever) are marketing tools, not archiving standards; LTO tapes is the standard carrier for video files. But it has also limited life time.
    The solution is continuous migration and regular quality control.
    If you cannot control the quality of your digital files (regular professional quality checks on the carriers) and prepare new migrations, you are at major risk to lose your digital archives.
    Semi-automated solution exist (robotic library)
    … or service providers
  • 40. Specific preservation problems / recommendations
    Metadata is the key in the digital world!
    Don’t transform your well documented analogue archive to a digital nightmare
    One of the keys of a preservation project is in the proper preparation / handling of the digital files database structure (UID, file structuring, …)
    Think about descriptive, administrative, technical metadata you will need in the future – think in term of OAIS model (Open Archival Information System)
    XML is a must to insure minimum interoperability;
    no standard metadata format yet in audiovisual. METS schema from the Library of Congress can be used as reference.
  • 41. DigitizationInhouse vs Outsourcing
    Advantages :
    • Cost effective (youdon’t have to buy the equipment and train your staff)
    • 42. Digitizationis made by experts in thisfield
    • 43. Archives are digitizedfaster (ingestwalls)
    • 44. Human and AutomatedQuality control
    • 45. Expertise in metadata
    Disadvantages :
    • Your archives leaveyourpremises
    • 46. Need close logistics control
    Advantages :
    • Your archives stayatyourpremises
    • 47. Cash out lower if you have the equipment and the people to make the digitization
    • 48. Easierlogistics
    Disadvantages :
    • Large investment if you have to buyequipment, hire staff, train staff)
    • 49. Once digitizationiscompleted, equipmentisuseless
    • 50. Maintenance of equipment (verydifficult)
  • Some more recommendations
    Regroup the digitization and preservation of audiovisual archives
    Createspecificcompetence center for audiovisual
    Insure global digital preservation
    Follow international guidelines (IASA TC04, PrestoCenter, ...)
    Involve the privatesector – PPP/Outsourcing
  • 51. THANK YOU ! : International association of sound and audiovisual archives : International federation of television archives