Over 50 video lines covering most formats Over 90 audio lines covering most formats Running 16 hours a day / 7 days a week
In most cases parallel digitization is more economical than robotic approach, even for large volumes
Most lines equipped with automated QA data analysis
All digitization lines are interconnected with our PAM (Production Asset Management) system and our calculation farm for post-processing so that QA, process control and management can easily be distributed and accessed
Audiovisual archives in the world
Audiovisual archives in the world The European audiovisual archives represent 50 million hours on a global estimate of 200 million hours. An estimated 80% of these materials are in danger.
Major audiovisual archives in Europe INA (France) more than 2 million hours AV Archives.In 2015, Ina should have digitized all its archives BBC has 1 million hours of audiovisual archives (4 million of physical items) Beeld & Geluid (Holland) has 700,000 hours of AV archives VRT has 330,000 hours of video and 90,000 hours of audio SONUMA - RTBF (Belgium) more than 100,000 hours of AV archives
Video tape typical carriers 2 inch Quadruplex 1 inch U-Matic BETAMAX VHS BETACAM SP / SX DIGITAL BETACAM DV CAM DVCPRO / DVCPRO HD HD CAM ... ... ... ... ... ...
2 inch Quadruplex videotape It was developed and released for the broadcast television industry in 1956 by Ampex A typical 4,800-foot (1,500 m) reel of 2-inch quad tape holds approximately 1 hour of recorded material at 15 inches per second (381 mm/s or 1.37 km/h).
1 inch Type C Co-developed and introduced by Ampex and Sony in 1976. It became the replacement in the professional video and television broadcast industries for the then-incumbent Quadruplex open-reel format, due to the smaller size
U-matic ¾ inches It was developed by Sony in 1971. It was among the first video formats to contain the videotape inside a cassette. known as 'three-quarter-inch‘
Betamax It was developed by Sony in 1975. half-inch professional videotape products
VHS (Video Home System) a consumer-level video standard developed by JVC released in 1976. Variation : Super VHS VHS C D9
Betacam It was developed by Sony in 1982. half-inch professional videotape products. Variants : Betacam SP / Betacam SX / Digital Betacam / MPEG IMX / HDCAM
DVCPRO developed by Panasonic and introduced in 1995 DVCPRO uses locked audio and 4:1:1 chromasubsampling for both 50 Hz and 60 Hz variants to reduce generation loss.Audio is available only in the 16-bit/48 kHz variant. Variants: DVCPRO50 (video data rate 50 Mbit/s) DVCPRO Progressive DVCPRO HD (up to 100 Mbit/s for 50/60 frame/s modes)
DV CAM It was launched in 1996 with joint efforts of leading producers of video camera recorders. DV is a format for recording and playing back digital video.
Threats to the preservation of audiovisual heritage Deterioration of the carriers : chemical decomposition, physical deterioration No backup Obsolescence of formats and playback equipment Lack of information relating to the archives Loss of knowledge indifference: not cost effective, no interest in No budget
Threats to the preservation of audiovisual heritage
Most EndangeredAudiovisualCarriers They are all in danger if they are not stored in good condition It is clear that the most endangered carriers are not necessarily the oldest Magnetic digital tapes are similar in materials and construction to other magnetic tapes, and suffer from similar physical and chemical problems. Most endangered carriers : video -2”, 1”, U-Matic (1/2’’) Most endangered carriers : audio- Direct cut records (acetate) - DAT’s
Specific preservation problems / recommendations for video (audio) carriers
Cleaning of video tapes improve much playback quality
Automated Quality Control : NOA/QUADRIGA for audio and InterraBaton for video (allow to monitor the digitization process)
High quality equipment and experienced engineers are essential
For outsourcing : try to regroup volumes to get lower prices
Memnon migration factory set-up Generic functional setup for audio & video
Specific preservation problems / recommendations Digital files carriers selection There are no “best” carrier for digital files preservation CD-R, DVD-R, Blu-Ray… (whether standard, gold, platinum, glass, or whatever) are marketing tools, not archiving standards; LTO tapes is the standard carrier for video files. But it has also limited life time. The solution is continuous migration and regular quality control. If you cannot control the quality of your digital files (regular professional quality checks on the carriers) and prepare new migrations, you are at major risk to lose your digital archives. Semi-automated solution exist (robotic library) … or service providers
Specific preservation problems / recommendations Metadata is the key in the digital world! Don’t transform your well documented analogue archive to a digital nightmare One of the keys of a preservation project is in the proper preparation / handling of the digital files database structure (UID, file structuring, …) Think about descriptive, administrative, technical metadata you will need in the future – think in term of OAIS model (Open Archival Information System) XML is a must to insure minimum interoperability; no standard metadata format yet in audiovisual. METS schema from the Library of Congress can be used as reference.
DigitizationInhouse vs Outsourcing Advantages :
Cost effective (youdon’t have to buy the equipment and train your staff)
Some more recommendations Regroup the digitization and preservation of audiovisual archives Createspecificcompetence center for audiovisual Insure global digital preservation Follow international guidelines (IASA TC04, PrestoCenter, ...) Involve the privatesector – PPP/Outsourcing
THANK YOU ! http://www.iasa-web.org : International association of sound and audiovisual archives www.fiatifta.org : International federation of television archives http://www.prestocentre.eu email@example.com