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Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video
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Michel Merten; Digitaliseren van video

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  • 1. Digitaliserenvan video<br />Michel Merten <br />CEO<br />
  • 2. Digitaliseren van video<br />Ensure the physical preservation of audiovisual archives has the same meaning as restore our cathedrals Emmanuel Hoog (Pres. Fiat)<br />
  • 3. Overview of Memnon Archiving Services <br /><ul><li>European leader in the mass digitization, migration, and semi-automated indexation and documentation of audiovisual archives, with facilities in:
  • 4. Belgium
  • 5. Sweden
  • 6. Also providing “in house” services (set-up, media architecture, training, project-management, … on site)
  • 7. Involved in the digitization of more than 700,000 hours of audiovisual archives of most analog and digital formats.
  • 8. Large scale audiovisual digitization and migration at a very competitive price through strong project management and optimized workflows
  • 9. Expertise in database and metadata management
  • 10. Outstanding client portfolio in Europe </li></li></ul><li>Digitisationequipmentset-up<br /><ul><li>Optimizedset-up of large scaledigitisationlines</li></ul>Over 50 video lines covering most formats<br />Over 90 audio lines covering most formats<br />Running 16 hours a day / 7 days a week<br /><ul><li>In most cases parallel digitization is more economical than robotic approach, even for large volumes
  • 11. Most lines equipped with automated QA data analysis
  • 12. All digitization lines are interconnected with our PAM (Production Asset Management) system and our calculation farm for post-processing so that QA, process control and management can easily be distributed and accessed</li></li></ul><li>Audiovisual archives in the world<br />
  • 13. Audiovisual archives in the world<br />The European audiovisual archives represent 50 million hours on a global estimate of 200 million hours.<br />An estimated 80% of these materials are in danger.<br />
  • 14. Major audiovisual archives in Europe<br />INA (France) more than 2 million hours AV Archives.In 2015, Ina should have digitized all its archives<br />BBC has 1 million hours of audiovisual archives (4 million of physical items)<br />Beeld & Geluid (Holland) has 700,000 hours of AV archives<br />VRT has 330,000 hours of video and 90,000 hours of audio<br />SONUMA - RTBF (Belgium) more than 100,000 hours of AV archives<br />
  • 15. Video tape typical carriers<br />
  • 16. Video tape typical carriers<br />2 inch Quadruplex<br />1 inch<br />U-Matic<br />BETAMAX<br />VHS<br />BETACAM SP / SX <br />DIGITAL BETACAM<br />DV CAM<br />DVCPRO / DVCPRO HD<br />HD CAM<br />... ... ... ... ... ...<br />
  • 17. 2 inch Quadruplex videotape<br />It was developed and released for the broadcast television industry in 1956 by Ampex<br />A typical 4,800-foot (1,500 m) reel of 2-inch quad tape holds approximately 1 hour of recorded material at 15 inches per second (381 mm/s or 1.37 km/h).<br />
  • 18. 1 inch Type C<br />Co-developed and introduced by Ampex and Sony in 1976.<br />It became the replacement in the professional video and television broadcast industries for the then-incumbent Quadruplex open-reel format, due to the smaller size<br />
  • 19. U-matic ¾ inches<br />It was developed by Sony in 1971.<br />It was among the first video formats to contain the videotape inside a cassette.<br />known as 'three-quarter-inch‘<br />
  • 20. Betamax<br />It was developed by Sony in 1975.<br />half-inch professional videotape products<br />
  • 21. VHS (Video Home System)<br />a consumer-level video standard developed by JVC released in 1976.<br />Variation :<br />Super VHS<br />VHS C<br />D9<br />
  • 22. Betacam<br />It was developed by Sony in 1982.<br />half-inch professional videotape products. <br />Variants : Betacam SP / Betacam SX / Digital Betacam / MPEG IMX / HDCAM<br />
  • 23. DVCPRO<br />developed by Panasonic and introduced in 1995<br />DVCPRO uses locked audio and 4:1:1 chromasubsampling for both 50 Hz and 60 Hz variants to reduce generation loss.Audio is available only in the 16-bit/48 kHz variant.<br />Variants:<br />DVCPRO50 (video data rate 50 Mbit/s)<br />DVCPRO Progressive<br />DVCPRO HD (up to 100 Mbit/s for 50/60 frame/s modes)<br />
  • 24. DV CAM<br />It was launched in 1996 with joint efforts of leading producers of video camera recorders.<br />DV is a format for recording <br /> and playing back digital video. <br />
  • 25. Somevideo playback equipments<br />
  • 26. Some video playback equipments<br />
  • 27. Threats to the preservation of audiovisual heritage<br />Deterioration of the carriers : chemical decomposition, physical deterioration<br />No backup<br />Obsolescence of formats and playback equipment<br />Lack of information relating to the archives<br />Loss of knowledge<br />indifference: not cost effective, no interest in<br />No budget<br />
  • 28. Threats to the preservation of audiovisual heritage<br />
  • 29. Most EndangeredAudiovisualCarriers<br />They are all in danger if they are not stored in good condition<br />It is clear that the most endangered carriers are not necessarily the oldest<br />Magnetic digital tapes are similar in materials and construction to other magnetic tapes, and suffer from similar physical and chemical problems. <br />Most endangered carriers : video -2”, 1”, U-Matic (1/2’’)<br />Most endangered carriers : audio- Direct cut records (acetate)<br />- DAT’s<br />
  • 30. Specific preservation problems / recommendations for video (audio) carriers<br /><ul><li>Target digital format selection : no standard yet
  • 31. Audio : WAVE or BWF; 24bit/48 or 96 kHz
  • 32. Video : JPEG2000 LossLess compression is getting momentum (LOC, INA)
  • 33. Video : MXF IMX 50 (or 25) Mb/s OP 1A is much in use at broadcasters
  • 34. QualityA/D converters and encoders is key
  • 35. Cleaning of video tapes improve much playback quality
  • 36. Automated Quality Control : NOA/QUADRIGA for audio and InterraBaton for video (allow to monitor the digitization process)
  • 37. High quality equipment and experienced engineers are essential
  • 38. For outsourcing : try to regroup volumes to get lower prices</li></li></ul><li>Memnon migration factory set-up Generic functional setup for audio & video<br />
  • 39. Specific preservation problems / recommendations<br />Digital files carriers selection<br />There are no “best” carrier for digital files preservation<br />CD-R, DVD-R, Blu-Ray… (whether standard, gold, platinum, glass, or whatever) are marketing tools, not archiving standards; LTO tapes is the standard carrier for video files. But it has also limited life time.<br />The solution is continuous migration and regular quality control. <br />If you cannot control the quality of your digital files (regular professional quality checks on the carriers) and prepare new migrations, you are at major risk to lose your digital archives.<br />Semi-automated solution exist (robotic library) <br />… or service providers<br />
  • 40. Specific preservation problems / recommendations<br />Metadata is the key in the digital world!<br />Don’t transform your well documented analogue archive to a digital nightmare<br />One of the keys of a preservation project is in the proper preparation / handling of the digital files database structure (UID, file structuring, …)<br />Think about descriptive, administrative, technical metadata you will need in the future – think in term of OAIS model (Open Archival Information System)<br />XML is a must to insure minimum interoperability; <br />no standard metadata format yet in audiovisual. METS schema from the Library of Congress can be used as reference.<br />
  • 41. DigitizationInhouse vs Outsourcing<br />Advantages :<br /><ul><li>Cost effective (youdon’t have to buy the equipment and train your staff)
  • 42. Digitizationis made by experts in thisfield
  • 43. Archives are digitizedfaster (ingestwalls)
  • 44. Human and AutomatedQuality control
  • 45. Expertise in metadata</li></ul>Disadvantages :<br /><ul><li>Your archives leaveyourpremises
  • 46. Need close logistics control</li></ul>Advantages : <br /><ul><li>Your archives stayatyourpremises
  • 47. Cash out lower if you have the equipment and the people to make the digitization
  • 48. Easierlogistics</li></ul>Disadvantages :<br /><ul><li>Large investment if you have to buyequipment, hire staff, train staff)
  • 49. Once digitizationiscompleted, equipmentisuseless
  • 50. Maintenance of equipment (verydifficult)</li></li></ul><li>Some more recommendations<br />Regroup the digitization and preservation of audiovisual archives<br />Createspecificcompetence center for audiovisual<br />Insure global digital preservation<br />Follow international guidelines (IASA TC04, PrestoCenter, ...)<br />Involve the privatesector – PPP/Outsourcing<br />
  • 51. THANK YOU !<br />http://www.iasa-web.org : International association of sound and audiovisual archives<br />www.fiatifta.org : International federation of television archives<br />http://www.prestocentre.eu<br />michel.merten@memnon.eu<br />

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