James Marcia

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  • Not stages of development – processes that go through not a fixed sequential processAll adol. will experience 1 or more statusOptional handout
  • Two Statuses with a low level of identityCrisis = search
  • 2 statuses with a strong sense of identity
  • Not stages of development – processes that go through not a fixed sequential processAll adol. will experience 1 or more statusOptional handout
  • James Marcia

    1. 1. James MarciaAdolescent Development<br />By: Suzanne Ashley<br />July 2009<br />
    2. 2. Brief Biography<br />Canadian developmental <br />psychologist<br />Emeritus Professor of Psychology<br />Simon Fraser University<br />British Columbia, Canada<br />1960s psychological fame<br />Conducted research study <br />By interviewing <br />86 males from one college<br />www.sfu.ca<br />
    3. 3. How do adolescents develop their identity?<br />Guiding Question<br />
    4. 4. Overview of Marcia’s Theory<br />Expansion on Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion<br />Explores adolescent identity development<br />Occurs in two steps<br />1st step = break away from childhood belief’s<br />2nd step = explore alternative “status” and commit to developing to one<br />Four statuses of identity development<br />Foreclosure<br />Diffusion<br />Moratorium<br />Achievement<br />
    5. 5. Key Concepts of Identity Development<br />Purpose is to adopt: <br />A vocational direction<br />A sexual orientation<br />Set of values and ideologies<br />Achieved by 18 – 22 years old<br />Crisis = to the adolescent&apos;s period of engagement in choosing among meaningful alternatives; searching<br />Commitment = to the degree of personal investment the individual exhibits<br />
    6. 6. Four Statuses of Adolescent Identity Development<br />Level of Crisis (Search or Exploration)<br />Low<br />High<br />Low<br />Level of Commitment<br />High<br />
    7. 7. Low-Level Commitment to Identity<br />No clear identity <br />Making no attempt to search for one<br />May have struggled <br />No commitment and little or no search<br />Vague or ill-formed commitments<br />Still under-going identity search or crisis<br />Begin to commit to identity but still developing<br />Diffusion<br />Moratorium<br />
    8. 8. High-Level of Identity Commitment<br />Blindly accepts identity and values given from childhood by family and others<br />Committed to identity but no search or crisis<br />Clear identity<br />Well-defined personal values<br />Expanded in adulthood<br />Strong ego<br />Has experienced a search or crisis<br />Strong commitment to identity<br />Foreclosure<br />Achievement<br />
    9. 9. Four Statuses of Adolescent Identity Development<br />Level of Crisis (Search or Exploration)<br />Low<br />High<br />Low<br />Level of Commitment<br />High<br />
    10. 10. Musical Think-Pair-Share<br />Think about the lyrics of each of the songs:<br />Slow Turning<br />I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For<br />The River<br />Like a Rolling Stone<br />Pair up with shoulder partner<br />Share each song relates to the four statuses of adolescent identity<br />Source of Activity: http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/jwb/Psychology/Personality/JamesMarcia.htm<br />
    11. 11. Counseling Applications<br />Questions for Adolescent Client<br />What occupations have you considered exploring in your future?<br />What spiritual beliefs do you value? What is the source of these beliefs?<br />What political ideas are important to you? Why?<br />Have you had any doubts about your beliefs?<br />Well-developed identity means . . . <br />Strong sense of personal strengths ,weaknesses, & uniqueness<br />Higher self-esteem<br />Increased critical thinking<br />Advanced moral reasoning<br />Lower levels of anxiety<br />
    12. 12. Summary of Marcia’s Impact<br />Theory examines late adolescent process of identity development<br />Four statuses: diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure, achievement<br />NOT stages of development<br />Achieved when he or she has explored and committed to important aspects of identity<br />
    13. 13. References<br />Identity Development - Aspects of Identity. (n.d.). In Social Issues Reference. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://social.jrank.org/pages/322/Identity-Development.html<br />The identity status approach to study of ego identity development. (1987). In H. (Author), SELF & IDENTITY. Perspectives across the lifespan. (International Library of Psychology) (pp. 161-171). New York: Routledge. <br />Identity Status Theory (Marcia). (n.d.). In At Learning Theories. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://www.learning-theories.com/identity-status-theory-marcia.html  <br />Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and Validation of Ego-Identity Status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), 551-558. <br />Notes on Adolescent Identity. (n.d.). In The University of New Mexico. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://www.unm.edu/~jka/courses/archive/ident.html <br />

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