James Marcia
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  • Not stages of development – processes that go through not a fixed sequential processAll adol. will experience 1 or more statusOptional handout
  • Two Statuses with a low level of identityCrisis = search
  • 2 statuses with a strong sense of identity
  • Not stages of development – processes that go through not a fixed sequential processAll adol. will experience 1 or more statusOptional handout

Transcript

  • 1. James MarciaAdolescent Development
    By: Suzanne Ashley
    July 2009
  • 2. Brief Biography
    Canadian developmental
    psychologist
    Emeritus Professor of Psychology
    Simon Fraser University
    British Columbia, Canada
    1960s psychological fame
    Conducted research study
    By interviewing
    86 males from one college
    www.sfu.ca
  • 3. How do adolescents develop their identity?
    Guiding Question
  • 4. Overview of Marcia’s Theory
    Expansion on Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion
    Explores adolescent identity development
    Occurs in two steps
    1st step = break away from childhood belief’s
    2nd step = explore alternative “status” and commit to developing to one
    Four statuses of identity development
    Foreclosure
    Diffusion
    Moratorium
    Achievement
  • 5. Key Concepts of Identity Development
    Purpose is to adopt:
    A vocational direction
    A sexual orientation
    Set of values and ideologies
    Achieved by 18 – 22 years old
    Crisis = to the adolescent's period of engagement in choosing among meaningful alternatives; searching
    Commitment = to the degree of personal investment the individual exhibits
  • 6. Four Statuses of Adolescent Identity Development
    Level of Crisis (Search or Exploration)
    Low
    High
    Low
    Level of Commitment
    High
  • 7. Low-Level Commitment to Identity
    No clear identity
    Making no attempt to search for one
    May have struggled
    No commitment and little or no search
    Vague or ill-formed commitments
    Still under-going identity search or crisis
    Begin to commit to identity but still developing
    Diffusion
    Moratorium
  • 8. High-Level of Identity Commitment
    Blindly accepts identity and values given from childhood by family and others
    Committed to identity but no search or crisis
    Clear identity
    Well-defined personal values
    Expanded in adulthood
    Strong ego
    Has experienced a search or crisis
    Strong commitment to identity
    Foreclosure
    Achievement
  • 9. Four Statuses of Adolescent Identity Development
    Level of Crisis (Search or Exploration)
    Low
    High
    Low
    Level of Commitment
    High
  • 10. Musical Think-Pair-Share
    Think about the lyrics of each of the songs:
    Slow Turning
    I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For
    The River
    Like a Rolling Stone
    Pair up with shoulder partner
    Share each song relates to the four statuses of adolescent identity
    Source of Activity: http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/jwb/Psychology/Personality/JamesMarcia.htm
  • 11. Counseling Applications
    Questions for Adolescent Client
    What occupations have you considered exploring in your future?
    What spiritual beliefs do you value? What is the source of these beliefs?
    What political ideas are important to you? Why?
    Have you had any doubts about your beliefs?
    Well-developed identity means . . .
    Strong sense of personal strengths ,weaknesses, & uniqueness
    Higher self-esteem
    Increased critical thinking
    Advanced moral reasoning
    Lower levels of anxiety
  • 12. Summary of Marcia’s Impact
    Theory examines late adolescent process of identity development
    Four statuses: diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure, achievement
    NOT stages of development
    Achieved when he or she has explored and committed to important aspects of identity
  • 13. References
    Identity Development - Aspects of Identity. (n.d.). In Social Issues Reference. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://social.jrank.org/pages/322/Identity-Development.html
    The identity status approach to study of ego identity development. (1987). In H. (Author), SELF & IDENTITY. Perspectives across the lifespan. (International Library of Psychology) (pp. 161-171). New York: Routledge.
    Identity Status Theory (Marcia). (n.d.). In At Learning Theories. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://www.learning-theories.com/identity-status-theory-marcia.html  
    Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and Validation of Ego-Identity Status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), 551-558.
    Notes on Adolescent Identity. (n.d.). In The University of New Mexico. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://www.unm.edu/~jka/courses/archive/ident.html