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Ethics & Chapter 1       EDHE6530Dr. Pu-Shih Daniel Chen
Overview• Evaluation of Dissertation Literature  Review• Research Ethics• A Quick Review• Components of Chapter One• From ...
DISSERTATION PROPOSALOBSERVATION REPORT
GenerativityThe ability to build on the scholarship andresearch of those who have come beforeus.
Without good literature review youwill…• Ask a question that has already been  answered• Misconfigure research design• Cho...
Standards and Criteria of aLiterature Review•   Coverage•   Synthesis•   Methodology•   Significance•   Rhetoric
Coverage• Justified criteria for inclusion and  exclusion from review  – Novice vs. expert  – Topicality, comprehensivenes...
Synthesis• Distinguished what has been done in the  field and what needs to be done• Placed the topic or problem in the  b...
Synthesis• Articulated important variables and  phenomena relevant to the topic• Synthesized and gained a new  perspective...
Methodology• Identified the main methodologies and  research techniques that have been used  in the field, and their advan...
Significance• Rationalized the practical significance of  the research problem• Rationalized the scholarly significance of...
Rhetoric• Was written with a coherent, clear  structure that supported the review
What is ethics about?   What is right and   wrong, and why?
Ethical codes and standards• Ethical standards of the American  Educational Research Association (AERA)• Ethical principle...
Is there ethical exception?
NIH Ethical Principles• Respect for persons  – Autonomous agents  – Informed consent  – Diminished autonomy• Beneficence  ...
Other Ethical Considerations• Maintain confidentiality• Report potential conflict of interest or  biases• Reporting fundin...
Ethics Exercise
How to choose a researchtopic?• Your passion, interest, and expertise• Related to a broader and more complex issue• Availa...
Characters of good researchquestions?          Relationship        Clear        Feasible               Significant        ...
What is “operationaldefinition”?• How do you plan to MEASURE it?• How do you plan to conduct the EXPERIMENT to study it?
Dissertation•   Chapter One: Introduction•   Chapter Two: Literature Review•   Chapter Three: Methodology•   Chapter Four:...
Dissertation Proposal•   Chapter One: Introduction•   Chapter Two: Literature Review•   Chapter Three: Methodology•   Chap...
Chapter One• Introduction/problem statement• Purpose of the study• Conceptual framework or theoretical  orientation• Resea...
Dissertation Process     Interest                 Research                   Topic    Expertise
Research TopicsLast name      Research Topic(s)De La PenaFelipe         First generation college students, Hispanic studen...
From Topics to QuestionsResearch               General  Topic                Reading           Potential           Questions
Example• Research Topic: Presidential leadership• Potential Questions:   – How many college presidents do we have in the U...
Evaluate your questions• Eliminating questions that you can find  answers in a reference work• Combining small questions i...
Step-by-Step Guide1. Name your topic:  – I am trying to learn about (working on,    studying) ___________________2. Add a ...
Example1. I am working on Lincoln’s beliefs about   predestination in his early speeches2. because I want to find out how ...
Example (2)1. I am studying the differences in   leadership style between male and   female college presidents2. because I...
In Class Activity1. Name your topic:  – I am trying to learn about (working on,    studying) ___________________2. Add a q...
Concept•   Abstraction from observed events•   General heading to simplify events•   Distillation of common characteristic...
Concept Examples•   Tree         • Room•   Dog            temperature in•   Chair          degree of                   Fah...
Construct•   Used to summarize observations•   Provide explanations•   Higher level of abstractions•   Combines concepts• ...
Construct Examples•   Motivation          •   Reading readiness•   Intelligence        •   Scholastic aptitude•   Extrover...
Which are Which?• Score on the Texas Assessment of  Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)                Concept• Depression        ...
Which are Which?• # of correct answers on a quiz                 Concept• Student success                Construct• Divers...
Variables• Defined as a factor – things that varies• Characteristic or condition that changes  or has different values for...
Categorical Variable• Attribute used when participants are  classified by sorting them into groups• Consists of separate i...
Examples of CategoricalVariables• Native language: English, Spanish,  French, Italian, Russian, Mandarin• Ethnicity: Cauca...
Dichotomous Variable• A categorical variable when ONLY two  groups are used• Examples:  – Gender: Male – Female  – Awake: ...
Continuous Variable• Infinite number of   • Examples:  values within a        – IQ scores  range                  – Age• M...
Which are Which?• Age broken down into groups of 11-20,  21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70                Categorical•...
Which are Which?• Income              Continuous• Income: Below $5,000, between $6,000 -  $10,000, between $10,001 - $20,0...
Dependent Variable• Object of study• Depends on/varies with independent  variable• Observed for changes to assess the effe...
DV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on  self-concept among teenagers?
DV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on  SELF-CONCEPT among teenagers?• What is the effect of exercise on we...
DV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on  SELF-CONCEPT among teenagers?• What is the effect of exercise on WE...
DV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on  SELF-CONCEPT among teenagers?• What is the effect of exercise on WE...
Independent Variable•   Manipulated/change by the experimenter•   We study its effects•   Causative agent•   Occurs antece...
IV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on  self-concept among teenagers?
IV Examples• What is the effect of PARENTAL STATUS  on Self-concept among teenagers?• What is the effect of exercise on we...
IV Examples• What is the effect of PARENTAL STATUS  on Self-concept among teenagers?• What is the effect of EXERCISE on We...
IV Examples• What is the effect of PARENTAL STATUS  on Self-concept among teenagers?• What is the effect of EXERCISE on We...
Types of IVs• Attribute  – An IV that cannot be manipulated  – Characteristics that cannot be changed at    will  – People...
Examples of Attribute IV•   Age•   Ethnicity•   Sex•   Social class•   Marital status•   Geographic location•   First gene...
Types of IVs• Active  – Directly manipulated by researcher prior to    data collection  – Look for its effects on the DV  ...
Examples of Active IV• Method of instruction (i.e., computer-  based instruction, face-to-face  instruction, cooperative g...
Which are Which?• Amount of alcohol consumed                   Active• Socioeconomic statusAttribute – researcher cannot m...
Which are Which?• Eye color                 Attribute• Time spending on study per week              Active/Attribute• Comp...
Te be Remembered• Whether an IV that is normally active  depends on use in particular study• If all persons in study are s...
Which are Which• What is the effect of anger on  aggressiveness?           IV is _____________           DV is _____________
Which are Which• What is the effect of anger on  aggressiveness?                 IV is anger            DV is aggressivene...
Which are Which?• What is the effect of membership in  Greek organizations on student  engagement?            IV is ______...
Which are Which?• What is the effect of membership in Greek  organizations on student engagement?   IV is membership in Gr...
Which are Which• What is the effect of service learning  class on college student’s understanding  of social justice issue...
Which are Which• What is the effect of service learning class on  college student’s understanding of social  justice issue...
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Lecture 9.14.10

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Transcript of "Lecture 9.14.10"

  1. 1. Ethics & Chapter 1 EDHE6530Dr. Pu-Shih Daniel Chen
  2. 2. Overview• Evaluation of Dissertation Literature Review• Research Ethics• A Quick Review• Components of Chapter One• From Interest to Research Questions• Concept, Construct, and Variables• Theory and Hypothesis
  3. 3. DISSERTATION PROPOSALOBSERVATION REPORT
  4. 4. GenerativityThe ability to build on the scholarship andresearch of those who have come beforeus.
  5. 5. Without good literature review youwill…• Ask a question that has already been answered• Misconfigure research design• Choose an inappropriate research method
  6. 6. Standards and Criteria of aLiterature Review• Coverage• Synthesis• Methodology• Significance• Rhetoric
  7. 7. Coverage• Justified criteria for inclusion and exclusion from review – Novice vs. expert – Topicality, comprehensiveness, breadth, exclusion, relevance, currency, availability, and authority
  8. 8. Synthesis• Distinguished what has been done in the field and what needs to be done• Placed the topic or problem in the broader scholarly literature• Placed the research in the historical context of the field• Acquired and enhanced the subject vocabulary
  9. 9. Synthesis• Articulated important variables and phenomena relevant to the topic• Synthesized and gained a new perspective on the literature
  10. 10. Methodology• Identified the main methodologies and research techniques that have been used in the field, and their advantage and disadvantages• Related ideas and theories in the field to research methodologies – Justified your methodology choice – Proposed new methods
  11. 11. Significance• Rationalized the practical significance of the research problem• Rationalized the scholarly significance of the research problem
  12. 12. Rhetoric• Was written with a coherent, clear structure that supported the review
  13. 13. What is ethics about? What is right and wrong, and why?
  14. 14. Ethical codes and standards• Ethical standards of the American Educational Research Association (AERA)• Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (APA)• Association for Institutional Research code of ethics (AIR)• Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) Principles of Ethical Conduct
  15. 15. Is there ethical exception?
  16. 16. NIH Ethical Principles• Respect for persons – Autonomous agents – Informed consent – Diminished autonomy• Beneficence – Risks and Benefits – Privacy and confidentiality• Justice – Benefits and burdens for individuals and groups
  17. 17. Other Ethical Considerations• Maintain confidentiality• Report potential conflict of interest or biases• Reporting funding support• Provide enough details for replication• Results must be accurately reported• Proper citations and references
  18. 18. Ethics Exercise
  19. 19. How to choose a researchtopic?• Your passion, interest, and expertise• Related to a broader and more complex issue• Availability of data• Manageable (narrowly focused and carefully defined)• The expertise of your advisor and committee• Career aspiration• Funding
  20. 20. Characters of good researchquestions? Relationship Clear Feasible Significant Ethical
  21. 21. What is “operationaldefinition”?• How do you plan to MEASURE it?• How do you plan to conduct the EXPERIMENT to study it?
  22. 22. Dissertation• Chapter One: Introduction• Chapter Two: Literature Review• Chapter Three: Methodology• Chapter Four: Results• Chapter Five: Discussion and Implications
  23. 23. Dissertation Proposal• Chapter One: Introduction• Chapter Two: Literature Review• Chapter Three: Methodology• Chapter Four: Results• Chapter Five: Discussion and Implications
  24. 24. Chapter One• Introduction/problem statement• Purpose of the study• Conceptual framework or theoretical orientation• Research questions and hypotheses• Definition of terms• Significance of the study• Limitations, delimitations, and assumptions
  25. 25. Dissertation Process Interest Research Topic Expertise
  26. 26. Research TopicsLast name Research Topic(s)De La PenaFelipe First generation college students, Hispanic students’ enroll & successFord Parental influence on career aspiration, religious involvement & s. successGonzales Academic success & motivation, college access issuesHoffman Library leadership training and hiring decisionsMcGuire Timing of orientation on student retention, parental expectationMcNulty Student government, minority involvement in student campus leadershipPark Student affairs, transfer student engagement and success, FYE, financePerez Undocumented college students’ experiences and outcomesRatz-Thomas Legal issues related to the 4th Amendment and higher ed. InstitutionsRoberts Spiritual development of college students, religion vs. spiritualityShirley Ph.D. and Ed.D differentiation, Greek organizationsSimpson Online learning for nursing & STEM education enrollment
  27. 27. From Topics to QuestionsResearch General Topic Reading Potential Questions
  28. 28. Example• Research Topic: Presidential leadership• Potential Questions: – How many college presidents do we have in the U.S.? – How many female and minority college presidents do we have in the U.S.? – What make a college president successful or unsuccessful? – What take for a person to become a college president? – What makes college presidents different from corporate CEOs? – What makes college presidents different from political leaders?
  29. 29. Evaluate your questions• Eliminating questions that you can find answers in a reference work• Combining small questions into larger, more significant ones• Ask yourself, “So what?”
  30. 30. Step-by-Step Guide1. Name your topic: – I am trying to learn about (working on, studying) ___________________2. Add a question: – I am studying X because I want to find out who/what/when/where/whether/why/how ___________________3. Motivate your readers: – I am studying X because Y in order to ___________________
  31. 31. Example1. I am working on Lincoln’s beliefs about predestination in his early speeches2. because I want to find out how his belief in destiny and God’s will influenced his understanding of the causes of the Civil War,3. in order to help my reader understand how his religious beliefs have influenced his military decisions
  32. 32. Example (2)1. I am studying the differences in leadership style between male and female college presidents2. because I want to find out what makes a successful female college president3. in order to help more qualified female academic leaders become college presidents
  33. 33. In Class Activity1. Name your topic: – I am trying to learn about (working on, studying) ___________________2. Add a question: – I am studying X because I want to find out who/what/when/where/whether/why/how ___________________3. Motivate your readers: – I am studying X because Y in order to ___________________
  34. 34. Concept• Abstraction from observed events• General heading to simplify events• Distillation of common characteristics• Directly OBSERVABLE
  35. 35. Concept Examples• Tree • Room• Dog temperature in• Chair degree of Fahrenheit• GPA • IQ score• Quiz grade • GRE test score• Human • # of words spoken
  36. 36. Construct• Used to summarize observations• Provide explanations• Higher level of abstractions• Combines concepts• Accounts for observed regularities and relationships
  37. 37. Construct Examples• Motivation • Reading readiness• Intelligence • Scholastic aptitude• Extroversion • Student success• Justice • Anxiety• Leadership• Love your country
  38. 38. Which are Which?• Score on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Concept• Depression Construct• Golf ball Concept
  39. 39. Which are Which?• # of correct answers on a quiz Concept• Student success Construct• Diversity Construct
  40. 40. Variables• Defined as a factor – things that varies• Characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals• Types of variables – Categorical – Dichotomous – Continuous
  41. 41. Categorical Variable• Attribute used when participants are classified by sorting them into groups• Consists of separate indivisible categories• No value can exist between two neighboring categories
  42. 42. Examples of CategoricalVariables• Native language: English, Spanish, French, Italian, Russian, Mandarin• Ethnicity: Caucasian, African-American, Asian-American, Native-American• School district: Denton ISD, Argyle ISD, Aubrey IDS, Lewisville ISD• Student ID, Phone number, SSN#
  43. 43. Dichotomous Variable• A categorical variable when ONLY two groups are used• Examples: – Gender: Male – Female – Awake: Yes – No – Course grade: Pass – Fail – Residence: Citizen – Alien – First generation college student: Yes – No
  44. 44. Continuous Variable• Infinite number of • Examples: values within a – IQ scores range – Age• Meaning can be – Height attached to the – Weight different values – Anxiety level – GRE scores
  45. 45. Which are Which?• Age broken down into groups of 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70 Categorical• TAKS scores Continuous• Democrat or Republican Dichotomous
  46. 46. Which are Which?• Income Continuous• Income: Below $5,000, between $6,000 - $10,000, between $10,001 - $20,000 annually Categorical• Income: Yes – No Dichotomous
  47. 47. Dependent Variable• Object of study• Depends on/varies with independent variable• Observed for changes to assess the effect of the treatment• What is being MEASURED• Abbreviated as DV• Usually the last variable cited in the research question
  48. 48. DV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on self-concept among teenagers?
  49. 49. DV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on SELF-CONCEPT among teenagers?• What is the effect of exercise on weight loss among senior citizens?
  50. 50. DV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on SELF-CONCEPT among teenagers?• What is the effect of exercise on WEIGHT LOSS among senior citizens?• Is there a significant difference between boys and girls in math achievement at the middle school level?
  51. 51. DV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on SELF-CONCEPT among teenagers?• What is the effect of exercise on WEIGHT LOSS among senior citizens?• Is there a significant difference between boys and girls in MATH ACHIEVEMENT at the middle school level?
  52. 52. Independent Variable• Manipulated/change by the experimenter• We study its effects• Causative agent• Occurs antecedent to the DV• Experimental treatment• Abbreviated as IV• Predictions made FROM IV TO DV• Usually the first variable cited
  53. 53. IV Examples• What is the effect of parental status on self-concept among teenagers?
  54. 54. IV Examples• What is the effect of PARENTAL STATUS on Self-concept among teenagers?• What is the effect of exercise on weight loss among senior citizens?
  55. 55. IV Examples• What is the effect of PARENTAL STATUS on Self-concept among teenagers?• What is the effect of EXERCISE on Weight loss among senior citizens?• Is there a significant difference between boys and girls in math achievement at the middle school level?
  56. 56. IV Examples• What is the effect of PARENTAL STATUS on Self-concept among teenagers?• What is the effect of EXERCISE on Weight loss among senior citizens?• Is there a significant difference between BOYS and GIRLS in math achievement at the middle school level?
  57. 57. Types of IVs• Attribute – An IV that cannot be manipulated – Characteristics that cannot be changed at will – People can be placed in only one level – the one they are already in – An IV used as a descriptor of study (i.e., all in the study are the same on that IV)
  58. 58. Examples of Attribute IV• Age• Ethnicity• Sex• Social class• Marital status• Geographic location• First generation college student
  59. 59. Types of IVs• Active – Directly manipulated by researcher prior to data collection – Look for its effects on the DV – It acts on and cause changes in DV – People can be placed in any of its levels
  60. 60. Examples of Active IV• Method of instruction (i.e., computer- based instruction, face-to-face instruction, cooperative groups)• Method of grouping (homogeneous, heterogeneous, mixed-age, mixed-grade, same-grade)• Exercise method (none, aerobic, abs)
  61. 61. Which are Which?• Amount of alcohol consumed Active• Socioeconomic statusAttribute – researcher cannot make someone low SES one day and high SES next day• Institutional retention rate Attribute
  62. 62. Which are Which?• Eye color Attribute• Time spending on study per week Active/Attribute• Computer vs. traditional instruction Active
  63. 63. Te be Remembered• Whether an IV that is normally active depends on use in particular study• If all persons in study are same in regard to an active IV (e.g., same method of instruction for all students), then that active IV is an attribute variable in that study
  64. 64. Which are Which• What is the effect of anger on aggressiveness? IV is _____________ DV is _____________
  65. 65. Which are Which• What is the effect of anger on aggressiveness? IV is anger DV is aggressiveness• Is anger an active or Attribute IV? Active
  66. 66. Which are Which?• What is the effect of membership in Greek organizations on student engagement? IV is ____________ DV is ____________
  67. 67. Which are Which?• What is the effect of membership in Greek organizations on student engagement? IV is membership in Greek organizations DV is student engagement• Membership in Greek organizations is active or attribute IV? Attribute
  68. 68. Which are Which• What is the effect of service learning class on college student’s understanding of social justice issues? IV is ____________ DV is _____________
  69. 69. Which are Which• What is the effect of service learning class on college student’s understanding of social justice issues? IV is service learning class DV is understanding of social justice issues• IV is active or attribute? Active if you can assign students to classes Attribute if yon collect data from existing classes
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