We live in a 21st Century, Web 2.0 world in which people can be linked and information shared at an incredibly fast pace through digital text. (Welsch, 2012).The internet plays a major part in the lives of our young people and as children become older there is a shift in usage from general entertainment and game playing to social interactions dominated by Facebook and MSN.(Australia Communications and Media Authority [ACMA]. 2009,p. 80)The Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2011 reports that in 2009, 80% of children in NSW under15 used the internet and 48%of children aged 12-14 used social media. These figures to date have only increased. (ABS, 2011) The influx of digital technology has brought with it the need to define new codes of conduct and responsible behaviour that a good citizen should have- Digital Etiquette defines the codes of conduct that all active and informed digital citizens require to successfully participate in today’s world.(Ribble, 2013; Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2012)A person displays good Digital Etiquette when they use technology Responsibly, safely and effectively to communicate Demonstrating respect toward others and themselves(New South Wales Department of Education Communities, [DEC], 2011; Ribble, 2013).
These rapid global changes have placed new demands on Australian education not only for students to have knowledge of Information and Communication Technology [ICT], but also ethical understandings to manage conflict and uncertainty and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour may have on others. These learning needs are reflected in the New Australian Curriculum which identifies –ICT knowledge and skills and ethical understandings as two of the seven general capabilities that every Australian student requires to assist them to live and work successfully in the twenty-first century. (ACARA, 2012)The 2012 Horizon Report’s future prediction of rapid increase in access to even more advanced technology, (New Media Consortium, 2012), along with the NSW Government’s laptop rollout to all Yr 9 public school students last year is yet another indication that school educators need to be teaching students responsibility and codes of conduct for the digital world. (DEC, 2012)Our students need to be taught digital etiquette.
What does Digital Conduct involve?Digital Etiquette or Conduct is one of the six domains of Digital Citizenship. (DEC, 2012). Students must make a choice about the way they conduct themselves when interacting with ICT.This choice requires knowledge, skills and understandings- (ACARA, 2012)
Knowledge-To Know When To Switch it off or adjust.Knowledge and skills to manage the digital world while operating in the real world.At school, home and out in the community.To know how and when to turn off or adjust electronic devices so that they do not distract or disrupt -face to face communicationformal or informal meetingsother people in public places such as a church, public library, or the cinema Understanding of the impact of this behaviour on othersshowing disrespect and little consideration for others.(Bailey & Ribble, 2007; Emily Post, 2012)
Digital Etiquette is a Knowledge of What Information is Unsafe to share-Personal details about themselves or others. Inappropriate to share-Information that isabout others and without their permission someone else’s property.likely to hurt someone’s feelingslikely to be misunderstood damaging to your reputation Knowing that information should not be shared with-a person not known well or a total stranger.anyone likely to misuse the information for negative purposes.Digital Etiquette involves –Skills to check and change device settings to control the sending and receiving of information. Along with an Understanding of the-possible short term and long term consequences of sharing inappropriate or unsafe information. legal rights and consequences.to read, understand and adhere to social site/ school / public place agreements and policies.impact on the social, emotional and physical safety of others.need to be proactive in protecting personal rights and property and that of others. (American Association of School Libraries, 2007; Manhapulaths, 2010; Knorr, 2010)
There are many issues that arise when digital etiquette is not observed.Disregard for technology use policies and rules-Why?? Irresponsible AttitudeThey Think They Have The Right Some students see technology as a right rather than a privilege. With privilege comes responsibility and the companies who own and operate the social network sites and facilities that provide access have very specific conditions of use that need to be adhered to.(American School Counselor Association & Internet Keepitsafe Coalition, 2013).Students Think They Will Get Away With itSome students know that what they are doing is not right. They share unethical information thinking if they stay anonymous they will get away with the consequences of their actions especially when immediate consequences are not seen. Research conducted by The Australian Communications and Media Association(ACMA) in 2008 found that 25% of 12-17 year olds do things online that they know they shouldn’t (ACMA, 2009, p.70)Digital conduct is difficult to monitor.Digital conduct is often not visible as it involves thinking and making right choices. Many people feel uncomfortable talking to others about their digital etiquette and often unreasonable rules and regulations are created or the technology is simply banned to prevent irresponsible use. (Ribble,2013)
Lack of digital etiquette and disregard for policy may result in Difficulties socialising/communicating clearlyNot knowing the importance of putting away ICT to communicate personally face to face and adequately balancing time spent on ICT with socialising, exercise and sleep can impact on a student’s ability to fully participate as an active citizen. Difficulty in communicating and socialising has an impact learning.The Australian Curriculum emphasises the need for “ strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.” ACARAResearch completed by Relationships Australia reported that 40 per cent of people interviewed reported that social media is causing problems in communication- the key issues being privacy. (Relationships Australia, 2011).Common Sense Media (2013) reports that some students are spending up to 8 hours a day using media – more time then they spend with their parents or teachers. Their media selections are predominantly guided by their peers. Peers Become A Poor Role ModelACMA (2009), reports that students from the age of 12 years will first consult their friends for internet advice and issues and secondly a brother or sister. Their second last option would be a teacher. (ACMA, 2009, p.56)Students need to be well informed in order to be effective role models.
Social and Emotional Trauma The result of cyber-bullying, flaming or inflammatory language. Resulting in risks to students health and well being-such asdepression, anxiety, low self- esteem, paranoia and isolation., anti- social, disruptive behaviours and even suicide.The Australian Communications and Media Association recorded 51 % of children between the ages of 8-11 yrs and 97% aged between 13-17 year olds had experienced cyber-bullying.(ACMA 2009, p.31) Major Risks to Students Physical Well- being-Sleep deprivation, self- harm eg cutting, anorexia – due to emotional trauma and other stress related illnesses.Safety RisksThe safety of students may be at risk due to unsafe online practices resulting in harm from online criminals.An estimated 72,000 children between 2008 and 2009 had experienced one or more personal safety or security problems online including access to inappropriate material, having strangers gain or attempt to gain access to personal information, online bullying and threatening behaviour..(ABS, 2011)Finally - A disruptive unproductive learning environment -as a result of these issues.
Long term issues-A Blemished Digital Footprint- In 2010 research indicates that just over 70% of employers in Australia used Facebook to do a character check on their future employees.( Melton, Miller& Salmona.2011)Students need to be very careful of the information that they share about themselves in the form of comments, photos and videos. Personal information is stored and reveals where we have been , who we have been with and where we are going. Students need to be encouraged to be proactive in developing a positive digital image by making positive contributions to the online world. Information linked to a student’s identity may influence future opportunities. (Johnson,2009).
Solutions / Recommendations for Re-addressing the issueThe goal needs to be clear.The whole school community needs to work together to develop general capabilities of ICT knowledge, skills and understandings that will to assist students to live and work successfully in the twenty-first century. (ACARA, 2012)It takes all members of the school community.The article Digital Citizenship it takes a village (Hollandsworth, Dowdy, & Donovan, 2011), emphasizes the point that it takes all involved- parents ,teachers, administrators, academics, technology professionals, media specialists, and students to empower students to stand up and become responsible digital citizens.Higher order thinking fostered.To develop ethical understanding and awareness of how their online behaviour can impact their dynamics, personal resources, careers, and safety and lives of others.Goals alignedEducators and technology people need have goals that align and a pro-active approach rather than a reactive approach to technology use is needed.EducationEffective K-12, staff and parent digital etiquette/ citizenship curriculum including peer mentoring programs and effective role models.It is imperative that students be educated in the safe use of the internet and accept responsibility for using current and future technology ethically and legally. Encourage Students to Contribute onlineFacilitate positive creation and innovation with the knowledge, skills and understandings needed thrive in the digital world.Keep Parents Involved Acknowledge parents as partners in education and foster their role and responsibility in educating themselves and being proactive in preparing their children for this digital society before they begin school.
ReferencesAmerican Association of School Librarians. (2007) Standards of the 21st century learner. Author. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/guidelinesandstandards/learningstandards/AASL_LearningStandards.pdfAmerican School Counselor Association & Internet Keepitsafe Coalition (2013) Facebook for counsellors. Author. Retrieved from http://www.ikeepsafe.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Facebook-For-School-Counselors-Final-Revision1.pdfAustralian Bureau of Statistics (2011) Australian Social Trends, June. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features60Jun+2011 Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2012) Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Information-and-Communication-Technology-capability/Introduction/Introduction Australian Communications and Media Authority. (2009) Click and connect: Young Australians’ use of online social media02: Quanitative research report , July. Retrieved from http://www.acma.gov.au/webwr/aba/about/recruitment/click_and_connect-02_quantitative_report.pdfBailey A. &Ribble, M. (2007). Digital Citizenship in Schools International Society for Technology in Education. (pp. 13-37). Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=7cd094bd-33c2-4052-bbc1-0f0f21f1c591%40sessionmgr10&vid=2&hid=25Common Sense Media (2012) Social Media, Social Life: How Teens View Their Digital Lives June 26, Retrieved from http://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/social-media-social-lifeEmily Post(2012). Top ten cell phone manners. Retrieved from http://www.emilypost.com/communication-and-technology/telephone-and-cell-phone-manners/622-top-ten-cell-phone-mannersForsythe,G. (2012) '@brockuniversity Social Media' Retrieved from flickrcc.nethttp://www.flickr.com/photos/59217476@N00/7196460482Galvez,T.(2011) : 'Flat Classroom 2011' http://www.flickr.com/photos/69031678@N00/5475414892Hollandsworth, R., Dowdy, L., & Donovan, J. (2011). Digital Citizenship in K-12: It Takes a Village. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 55(4), 37-47. doi:10.1007/s11528-011-0510-zJohnson,S.(2009). Digital Footprints your first new impression. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZjmrJvL_eg&feature=player_detailpageKrossbow, (2010). Reputation. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/13194817@N00/4365875125Knorr, C. (2010, December 13). Be a Good Digital Citizen Tips for teens and parents. Common Sense Media. Retrieved from http://www.commonsensemedia.org/advice-for-parents/be-good-digital-citizen-tips-teens-and-parents#tip_1lizzardnyc,(2010) Retrieved from flickrcc.http://www.flickr.com/photos/lizzardnyc/5044850200/Melton,J. Miller,R. Salmona, M. (2011). Students and social networking sites: A model of inappropriate posting.Proceedings of the Southern Association for Information Systems Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA March 25th-26th, 2011 Retrieved from http://sais.aisnet.org/2011/MillerEtAl.pdfManhapulaths, S. (2010). My edited video. Digital Etiquette. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uk_XcxjcuSoNew Media Consortium, the Consortium for School Networking, and the International Society forTechnology in Education (2012) The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 K-12 Edition Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org/publications/2012-horizon-report-k12New South Wales Department of Education and Communities,(2011). Digital Citizenship. NSW Curriculum Learning Innovation Centre. Retrieved fromhttp://www.digitalcitizenship.nsw.edu.au/Sec_Splash/documentNew South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2012, January 19). Laptop rollout continues. Retrieved fromhttp://www.dec.nsw.gov.au/about-us/news-at-det/news/laptop-rollout-continues-in-2012Relationships Australia (2011) Survey results on social media. Author retrieved from http://www.tas.relationships.org.au/news-and-events/archived-news-items/survey-results-on-social-media-useRibble, M. (2013). Digital citizenship. Using technology appropriately. Retrieved form http://www.digitalcitizenship.net/Home_Page.htmlWest, J. (2006)'Manners Count' Retrieved fromflickrcc.nethttp://www.flickr.com/photos/35034353562@N01/328659518 Wolki, S. (2007). Shopping2null Retrieved from flickrcc.http://www.flickr.com/photos/shopping2null/395271855/
(lizzard_nyc,2010) Found on flickrcc.netA presentation byVanessa Hardy 11494821
(West, J, 2006) Found on flickrcc.net(Wolki, S. 2007) Found on flickrccflickrcc.net
DIGITAL ETIQUETTE IS ………Digital Etiquette(Conduct)Digital FootprintDigital RelationshipsDigital Health and Well BeingDigital LawDigital Finance(DEC, 2012)KnowledgeSkillsUnderstandingClipart, Microsoft Australia,2013
DIGITAL ETIQUETTE IS……Knowing when to turn ICT off or adjust thesettings.Images from Microsoft Clipart.
What information to share and who toshare it with.(Forsythe, 2012) Found on flickrcc.net
Ineffective and inappropriate communication.Poor social skillsMinimal peer modelling of good digital conduct.(Galvez, 2011) Found on Flickrcc.netflickrcc.net
RELATED HEALTH & SAFETY ISSUESMentalPhysicalWellBeing(Duchesssa, 2010) Found on flickrcc.netflickrcc.net
DIGITAL(Krossbow, 2010) Found on flickrcc.netFOOTPRINTImage from MicrosoftClipart.Image from Microsoft Clipart.
RECOMMENDATIONS• Clear goals.• All members of the school communityinvolved.• Higher order thinking and ethicalunderstanding fostered.• Goals should align and a pro-active approachtaken.• An effective education program.• Facilitate creation and innovation.• Value and nurture parents contribution.Image from Microsoft Clipart.
RECOMMENDED READING/ ONLINE RESOURCESQuestions For Discussion1.How well do you knowthe technology usepolicy/rules for ourschool?DO you consider thisknowledge important?What strategies would yousuggest for clarifyingpolicy /rules to the schoolcommunity?2. What do you think arethe main issues relatedto poor digital etiquette?for• Students• Teachers• Parents3.What aspect of digitalEtiquette do you think weneed to address first? ie-Policy?Education?Ethical Understandings /Higher Order thinking?American Association of School Librarians. (2007) Standards of the 21st century learner. Author. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/guidelinesandstandards/learningstandards/AASL_LearningStandards.pdfCommon Sense Media (2012) Social Media, Social Life: How Teens View Their Digital Lives June 26, Retrieved fromhttp://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/social-media-social-lifeHollandsworth, R., Dowdy, L., & Donovan, J. (2011). Digital Citizenship in K-12: It Takes a Village. Techtrends: LinkingResearch & Practice To Improve Learning, 55(4), 37-47. doi:10.1007/s11528-011-0510-zNew Media Consortium, the Consortium for School Networking, and the International Society for Technology in Education(2012) The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 K-12 Edition Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org/publications/2012-horizon-report-k12New South Wales Department of Education and Communities,(2011). Digital Citizenship. NSW Curriculum Learning InnovationCentre. Retrieved from http://www.digitalcitizenship.nsw.edu.au/Sec_Splash/documentImage from Microsoft ClipartImage from Microsoft ClipartTechnology plays a major role in the lives of our student’s now and into the future. Students areencouraged to be creators in this digital world and they must have a knowledge and understanding of howto conduct themselves in this digital world in order to fully participate as active and informed citizens of the21st Century.