Теория и практика сокращения релизного цикла
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  • Добрый день, уважаемы коллеги!Спасибо, что посвятили этот субботний день юбилейной конференции SQA DAYS.Меня зовут Воротягин Михаил – архитектор решений департамента программных решений HP.На миссия строить центры компетенции по управлению разработкой и тестирования.Было много интересных докладов по автоматизированному тестированию.Мы много говорим о тестировании и качестве – но давайте взглянем на проблемы тестирования и обеспечения качества шире.Какие тенденции существуют в ИТ сейчас. Основная задача ИТ – это управления изменениями. Чтобы организовать производство ПО необходимо задействовать смежные департаменты Разработки. Управления проектами , Аналитик , организация тестовых сред, эксплуатация и Департамент качества.След слайд Гартнер к 2016 году
  • Gartner reportPredicts 2012: Application DevelopmentAnother quote - Another: By 2015, 20 percent of large organizations will have merged development and operational release management processesСлед слайд Релиз новой версии ПО
  • These are the results from Forrester’s very first survey on release management performed last year. This question asks how long it would take to push a change to a single line of code into production – essentially measuring the overhead associated with the release process. More than 80% of respondents indicated it would take more than a day. And 44% – if you total up the bottom four categories - said it would take longer than a week, with some of these at the bottom being a month or greaterСлед слайд плохая координация
  • Quote from the report: “Relations between Development and Operations are generally viewed as poor, with some even characterized as toxic.”След слайд увеличение разработки
  • ДевОпс два мира
  • Delivery and operations look at things from a different perspective:Delivery’s focus is working directly with the business and doing everything they can to provide new features and functionality as quickly as they are able to.By contrast, the traditional mindset of Operations is that change brings the risk of issues and outages. Their whole life has been about how to avoid change, to keep things as stable as absolutely possible. They are typically measured on the availability and stability of their systems. – so it’s perfectly natural for them to view “change as evil”These are two very contradictory perspectives. It ultimately creates friction, adds risk, and slows down IT in its goal of delivering value for the business.How do you reconcile these views? Преимущества объеденения
  • The answer is DevOps and Continuous Delivery.DevOpsis a set of principles and methods for better collaboration between Software Delivery and Operations essentially attempting to extend the Agile mindset to incorporate Operations. It’s in response to the growing recognition of the dependency these two disciplines have on one another in being able to satisfy the Business’s objectives. Continuous Delivery, which is enabled by DevOps, focuses on what is ultimately important – which is shorter cycles for actually putting functionality in the hands of users. It relies not only on better collaboration, but on comprehensive automation of the build, test and deployment process, so that - at the extreme level – every code change that passes automated functional, performance and security testing could be immediately deployed into production – Continuous Delivery isn’t necessarily deploying, but rather providing the ability to “release on demand.” Meaning, it allows releases to be driven by business need as opposed to operational constraints. Another way of thinking of Continuous Delivery is “nimble deployment and operations” to match the nimbleness in delivery that was brought by Agile.The keys to DevOps and Continuous Delivery are Quality, Automation, and CollaborationFocusing on these 3 things will help address the biggest hurdle, which is changing the traditional mindsets that these two groups have had:The development view shifts to one of building applications that are easy to run and easy to support. This means they are easy to release, monitor, and troubleshoot in production as opposed to delivery just doing their part and throwing it over the wall, with an attitude of, “yep - it meets the business requirements, so we’ve done our job.” As an example, Dev should design systems to be secure and to perform from the outset. It might not be super exciting from a developer perspective, but it is critical from an operations perspective and being able to go live. On the Operations side, the perspective moves away from the view that “change is evil” and ops recognizes that regular releases can actually reduce risk. Whereas traditional deployment events for many organizations are these huge, high-stress, high-risk activities, over late nights and weekends, deployments within DevOps organizations are less stressful, lower risk events because releases occur more often. They become “non-events” because they happen regularly and the processes are proven out as a result. With less functionality going in at one time, there is also less that can go wrong. And if something does go wrong, developers are in a better position to make fixes – having just worked on the functionality. A roll-back, if needed, is also much easier with a smaller implementation. All this translates into lower risk, steadier, more manageable pace, with fewer incidents in production.Решения HP DEVOPS
  • There are four solutions in our DevOps portfolio.The HP Lab Management Automation solutions accelerates the application testing process. This solution automatically provisions the infrastructure, deploys the application, runs the test suite, collects the results then decommissions the application and infrastructure. The Lab Management Automation solution is based on ALM 11.5, CDA 1.1 and MOE 7.The Enterprise Collaboration solution improves collaboration between developers and IT Operations with tools to ensure organizational alignment, collaboration and communications.The Application Lifecycle Management solution unifies the application lifecycle for alignment, visibility and collaboration. This solution is based on ALM 11.xApplication Release Acceleration, a new solution based on HP Continuous Delivery Automation, accelerates the application release process, improves application success rates while supporting HP, third party and open source tools. This solution is based on CDA 1.1 and MOE 7.x. HP Continuous Delivery Automation 1.1 is the latest version of this product, enhancing it so it support both the Lab Management Automation solution and the Application Release Acceleration solution.След слайд Жизненный цикл
  • This slide presents sample business architecture between HP Project and portfolio Management system and HP Application lifecycle management system. Let’s talk about this architecture in details. Perhaps, you know that changesusually comes to the IT department from three key business area: Marketing (If we want to make a new product for our customers, new services, or we want to capture a new business area, we should do changes, that can help us to transform our IT solutions to our customers for the new business products or solutions).Operations (From day-to-day we do our business and sometimes it isn’t comfortable for our stuff or we have emergency change from operations that must be implemented as soon as possible. To make business more comfortable and predictable, we should make changes to our IT solutions that increase usability and functional complexity of this solutions for business that increase our quality of business services for client)Customer Care (If we want to provide the best service to our customer we should increase quality of this service. This activity can involve change process for IT solutions, infrastructure, processes and business rules). But from this picture we can see that change process is a generic entity for the business. It can involve changes to the IT systems, infrastructure and IT stuff. But before these, all changes must be documented as a project/program proposal and approved by governance board,which can provide and justify a business value from this changes. When our change approved , we can do a resource and financial estimation for this project/program and construct technical requirements or technical design for future systems or for our changes. When technical design is ready we can send it to the development team, which responsible for the development, implementation, requirements detalization, quality assurance and more. When governance board has approved our proposal, we start a project. It is a signal to the PMO and development team be prepared to this activity. Requirements detalization, developments processes, build and version control processes, release processes, quality assurance processes are processes of the HP ALM system, which can be integrated with HP PPM. QA formalize requirements, test cases and sent completed requirements to the development. Development team construct the solution and sent it to the QA for the test activities. If the QA had any issues with the solutions it provide this issues to the development to fix it. When a version of the system complete, QA test a build processes of this system and provide release to production. On this stage software is ready and can go to life.It is a big picture and part of the full lifecycle approach related to the proposal, project management and quality assurance/development processes. We will continue discuss our solution, but let’s talk about benefits of this integration. След слайд Жизненный цикл в разрезе эксплуатации
  • When our solution is in the production we could measure a quality and can track incidents and problems related to our system. Enhancement requests, defects and new requirements can automatically submit to the quality assurance and development team. Based on a support processes we can collect issues and product enhancements from the end users. Quality assurance team can drill down to the requirements and identify is it a requirements or defects for the hot fixed patch or a new business demand, which must go to governance board and estimation. It is a second part of our solution. Let’s see to the benefits of this integration.След слайд комплексное решение
  • Следующий слайд Тестовые среды
  • We announced the HP Lab Management Automation Solution in June. With this solution, HP helps customers automate the entire testing process. This solution automatically provisions the infrastructure, deploys the application, runs the test suite, collects the test results, then decommissions the application and infrastructure.This solution includes ALM 11.5 and CDA. След слайд решения HP для ускорения выпуска релизов
  • The Application Release Acceleration solution helps enterprises bring applications through the application process faster, from development to production. Using a model-based approach, this solution also improves quality by increasing the application deployment success rate while provide choice of HP, third party or open source tools.Текущий процесс релизов
  • Lets start by discussing the current application release process.The application release process starts with development, then includes QA (Quality Assurance), staging and production. Typically, this is a manual process. As the applications goes from one stage to the next, a new application and infrastructure design needs to be developed that best fits the requirements of that stage. The challenges with this process include:This manual process is error proneThere’s little to no best practice or knowledge sharing from one stage to the nextDifferent tools and processes are use for each stageIf the application doesn’t work when its moved from on stage to the next, the response is often, “it works on my machine so it must be your problem”.Усовершенствованный процесс релизов
  • Enterprises are looking for a better environment that offers reduces the time it takes for applications to go through the entire process, that reduces the errors works with the tools being used in each stage.A better process would have the following characteristicsOne tool to manage the infrastructure provisioning and application deployment for each stageInfrastructure provisioning and application deployment would be automatedApplication portability would allow the same application model to be used in each stage, but with the infrastructure changing as required by each stageModel-driven approach would simplify the process of moving the application through the stagesA mechanizm to share best practices and knowledge from one stage to the nextHP CDA
  • HP Continuous Delivery Automation is a primary product for supporting the Lab Management Automation and Application Release Acceleration solutions.HP CDA enables you to bring applications to market faster. With a single tool to manage the application release process from development to production, Enterprises can use this tool to respond faster to changing business conditionsThrough automation and a model-driving approach, HP CDA improves quality by allowing you to achieve application deployment success rates as high as 95%. You can also improve quality by doing more testing. By automating the testing process, you have time to do additional testing to get greater test coverage.By supporting HP, third party and open source tools, you can use the tools you want. Additionally, HP CDA support OpenStack with Ubuntu KVM Ускорение выпуска релизов
  • HP CDA accelerates the application release process with features to support release management and automated deploymentIn release management, HP CDA allows you to define the release process, establish release criteria for each stage, define the release approval process for each stage and support multiple, simultaneous releases.In automated deployment, HP CDA automatically provisions the infrastructure using infrastructure provisioning tools, performs application deploying with a variety of application management tools, and can deploy monitors with a choice of monitoring tools.HP CDA can deploy to a variety of infrastructure types, including traditional IT, managed service IT, private cloud or public cloud environments.Additionally, CDA can provision either physical or virtual environments.Flexible Application Modeling
  • Overview of flexible application modeling (more details on next 2 slides)Traditional approach uses scriptingEach application usually has multiple custom scriptsComplexity grows exponentially with each applicationHP flexible application modelingBuilding block approachReusable componentsIndependent modeling of application and infrastructureUpdating one component updates all models using that itemTRUE application portabilityСравнениеFlexibale App Mod
  • Today’s process for most organizations: custom scripting with exponential complexity previously discussedCompetitive approach: automated and repeatable, but otherwise similar to current approach with single model for each application, no reusable componentsHP flexible application modeling: application and infrastructure components modeled independently for use in multiple models providing maximum flexibilityПолный цикл Flexible Application Modeling
  • Every application goes through a lifecycle – whether traditional waterfall, iterative, agile or a combination – where the application is designed, planned, developed, tested, staged, moved into production and operated. The lifecycle has different stages such as Dev, QA, Staging, Production etcThese applications are deployed into different environments associated with each lifecycle stage. For instance, in Dev stage, an application being unit tested is setup in the public cloud, in QA stage on private cloud and in staging and production in a combination of traditional and private cloudAn application in logical terms consists of one or more layers (depending on how it has been functionally architected and implemented). For instance, a web application has 3 layers of the application web front end layer, the control or middleware layer and the backend database layer. These layers are deployed onto the different physical or virtual server tiers in each of the environmentsIn order to accelerate the release of applications, there has to be a release pipeline that has the right gates (tasks, approvals) that ensure only the builds at the right quality are promoted through the lifecycle. The gates ensure that invalid builds are not deployable – for instance, builds that failed QA will never be deployable into staging or production environmentsTo illustrate this, consider an application build 1 that has been deployed to a dev env and found to have failed the dev release gates and is discarded (meaning it cannot be deployed into subsequent stages)Next, build 5 of the same app, goes thro the dev stage, passes the release to QA stage. Here the QA release checks fail due to which build 5 is discardedThe developers fix the issues of the prior builds and not build 8 goes thro the lifecycle, passing all the gates and is the first candidate that can be deployed into production. This is the first function that CDA provides – with the ability to define any number of flexible release lifecycles with as many stages and related tasks/approvals defined. The lifecycle can be agile, iterative, waterfall or a combination with complex fan out and fan in of lifecycle stages (for eg., parallel app development and testing fanning back in at an integration testing stage). This enables a single pane control over all aspects of app releaseRelated to the release management is the deployment management of the application. An application is modeled once as composed of layers in CDA and each of these layers is mapped onto the tiers of different platforms. This enables the application deployment to be portable across the different platforms. This way of flexible application modeling coupled with integration with tools of choice (which enables agnosticity of underlying deployment systems – for eg., using ssh to deploy in dev platforms and using SA in production but without changing the app model between the 2 platforms) enables reduced configuration effort (linear complexity vs exponentially increasing complexity), app deployment portability, reduced vendor lock in and better knowledge reuseУлучшение качества
  • Выбор Инструментов
  • Итого

Теория и практика сокращения релизного цикла Presentation Transcript

  • 1. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Управлениекачеством Непрерывная интеграция и выпуск релизов Воротягин Михаил
  • 2. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. “К2016году40%организаций занимающихсяразработкойприложений будутобладатьсовместнымиинициативами сослужбойподдержкипообеспечению непрерывныхпоставокприложенийи упрощениюуправлениярелизами.” Гартнер
  • 3. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.3 Релиз новой версии ПО занимает много времени Источник: Forrester Research Inc., “Five Ways To Streamline Release Management”, февраль 2011 4% 11% 18% 11% 39% 11% 7% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Больше трёх месяцев Больше чем месяц, но меньше чем три месяца Больше чем две недели, но меньше чем месяц Больше чем неделя, но меньше чем две недели Больше чем день, но меньше чем неделя Больше 4 часов, но меньше чем рабочий день Меньше 4 часов Сколько времени займёт релиз новой версии ПО в Вашей организации после изменения одной строки кода?
  • 4. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.4 Плохая координация действий между департаментом разработки и службой поддержки Определите уровень взаимодействия между департаментами разработки и поддержки в Вашей организации Источник: Гартнер., “Catalysts Signal the Growth of DevOps”, февраль 2011 7 9 47 34 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 ужасные совсем не сотрудничают не сотрудничают сотрудничество хорошее сотрудничество Процент опрошеных
  • 5. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. “Десятикратноеувеличениекоманды разработчиковнедастникакого положительногорезультата,если выявлениеузкихмествсистеме откладываетсядофазытестированияили доэтапаразвёртывания” Форестер
  • 6. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.6 Разработка и IT поддержка: Столкновение миров? Гибкая разработка IT Поддержка Как мы можем преодолеть разрыв? “Будь гибким – создавай релизы быстрее” “Изменение – это зло”
  • 7. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.7 Расширение: DevOps Гибкая разработка IT Поддержка Ключевыефакторы для преодоленияразрыва: “Рабочаясборка” “Регулярные релизы снижают риск” Качество Автоматизация Сотрудничество
  • 8. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.8 Решения для преодоления различий между разработкой и ИТ поддержкой Решения HP DevOps Автоматизациялаборатории тестирования Улучшение процесса тестирования Корпоративное сотрудничество Обеспечение организационного выравнивания, сотрудничества и коммуникации ALM Объединение жизненного цикла приложения для выравнивания, видимости и сотрудничества Application Release Acceleration Ускореный процесс выпуска приложений
  • 9. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.9 Жизненный цикл приложения Маркетинг Бухгалтерия Клиентская поддержка Концепция проекта Проектный комитет Разработка Обеспечение качества Релиз Проект Бизнес пользователи Финансы Ресурсы Выделение ресурсов Сборка ПО HP PPM HP ALM Требования Дефекты
  • 10. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.10 Жизненный цикл приложения Разработка Обеспечение качеством Релиз Сборка ПО HP ALM Дефекты HP SM Процессы поддержки Инциденты, Запросы на обслуживание Тип изменения Изменения инфраструктуры Изменения ПО Согласованные изменения Требования
  • 11. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.11 Структура процессов разработки
  • 12. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.12 Улучшение качества ПО Тестовые среды Преимущества • Отказ от зависимости: разработчики и тестеры управляют своей собственной тестовой средой • Постоянное тестирование обеспечивает высокое качество релизов • Автоматизированное развертывание Error-Proof Сборка Проверка Тестирование Определение AUT - топологии Настройка графика ночного тестирования Определение тестовых сценариев Проверка кода разработчиком Единоразовая настройка Повторяющиеся действия Ночная сборка билда Выделение инфраструктуры Развёртывание Прогон тестов Предоставление результатов Освобождение инфраструктуры
  • 13. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.13 Автоматизировать и ускорить цикл выпуска приложений Решение НР для ускорения выпуска релизов Ускорение окупаемости • Ускорение циклов релиза приложений Улучшение качества • Уменьшение количества ошибок во время развёртывания Предоставление гибкости • Продукты НР или других компаний, а также продукты для управления с открытым исходным кодом • Инфраструктура Разработка QA UATПродуктив
  • 14. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.14 Давление конкурентов вынуждает компании создавать релизы быстрее Текущий процесс релизов Разработка QA Продуктив UAT Трудности • Процессы резервирования ресурсов и развёртывания отнимают много времени • Ручные процессы часто влекут за собой ошибки • Различные инструменты и процессы предусмотренные для каждого шага • Много ручной работы по созданию мануалов и чек-листов • “На моей машине всё работает!”
  • 15. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.15 Ускоренный процесс выпуска релизов вместе с улучшением качества Улучшеный процесс релизов Разработка QA Продуктив UAT • Единая платформа управления на протяжении всех стадий релиза • Автоматическое развёртывение • Портативность приложения • Модельно-ориентированный подход • Обмен знаниями и опытом на протяжении всех этапов
  • 16. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.16 Ускорить окупаемость, гибкость и качество HP Continuous Delivery Automation Accelerateapplication time to value • Использование единого инструмента управления от разработки до продуктива Улучшениекачества развёртывания приложений • Достигнуть 95% уровня удачных развёртываний приложений* • Улучшения качества путём увеличения зоны покрытия тестами Предоставить гибкость • Продукты НР или других компаний, а также продукты с открытым исходным кодом • Поддержка VMware, M/S Hyper-V, OpenStack/KVM или физических серверов Публичное облако Частное облако Управляемые сервмсы HP Continuous Delivery Automation Разработка QA Продуктив UAT Гибкое моделирование приложений * По-сообщениям независимого источника в 2010, с использованием предшествующегопродукта Традиционное ИТ
  • 17. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.17 Единый инструмент для автоматизированного управления релизами и развертыванием Ускорение выпуска релизов приложения Разработка QA UAT Продуктив Обеспечить и развернуть в любом месте на любом этапе Традиционное ИТ Управляемые сервисы Публичное облакоЧастное облако Управление релизами • Определение циклов релиза приложения • Создание критериев стадий релизов • Создание процесса одобрения релизов • Поддержка нескольких, одновременных релизов Автоматизированноеразвёртывание • Обеспечение инфраструктуры • Развёртывание приложения • Интегрированных мониторинг • Традиционная ИТ, управляемые сервисы, частное облако, публичное облако • Физическая и виртуальная инфраструктура
  • 18. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.18 Flexible Application Modeling ‟ Уникальная техология HP • Ручной HP Flexible Application Modeling* Ускоренное моделирование приложений, большая гибкость и более высокий уровень качества • Сложности при внесении изменений • Множество моделей приложения Нынешний подход Сотни статичных конструкций • Поэтапный подход • Быстрое создание новых моделей • Переиспользование компонентов • Проще проектировать • Проще обслуживать • Выше уровень качества промежуточное программное обеспечение Приложение База данных Библиотека проектирования * Запатентовано
  • 19. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.19 Flexible Application Modeling Comparison Нынешний процесс • Нестандартные конструкции • Ручной • Трудозатраты Модельно-ориентированный подход, используемый другими производителями • Единая модель • Автоматизированность • Повторяемость HP Flexible Application Modeling • Поэтапный подход • Переиспользование компонентов • Наибольшая гибкость Быстрое моделирование, упрощенное обслуживание промежуточное программное обеспечение База данных Приложение промежуточное программное обеспечение База данных Приложение промежуточное программное обеспечение Приложение База данных
  • 20. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.20 Flexible Application Modeling Портативность приложений с использованием модульного подхода Разработка QA Продуктив UAT Частное облако Публичное облако промежуточноепрограммное обеспечение База данных Приложение Билд 1 релиз релиз релиз Управление релизами Управление развёртыванием с: • Гибкое моделирование приложений • Интеграция с инструментами на выбор • Единая система с Е2Е контролем установки приложения • Гибкость жизненного цикла релиза • Упрощённые конфигурационные усилия • Портативность развёртывания приложений • Лучшее переиспользование знаний Билд 5 Билд 8
  • 21. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.21 Улучшение качества развертывания приложений • Уменьшение людских и процессовых ошибок за счет автоматизации • Обеспечение постоянства при развертывании • Увеличение уровня знаний при переходе между уровнями • Увеличения покрытия тестами при помощи дополнительного тестирования Достигнуть 95% уровня удачных развёртываний приложений* “Достигнуть 0.15% уровня сбоев, вместо 20%-30%, путём автоматизации выпуска релизов приложений” “До автоматизации, приложения были развёрнуты немного по-другому на каждом сервере. С автоматизацией, появились постоянство и контроль” Ранний опыт клиентов * По-сообщениям независимого источника в 2010, с использованием предшествующего продукта
  • 22. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.22 Выбор инструментов и инфраструктуры Сборка Разворачивание приложений Разворачивание инфраструктуры Мониторинг Источники инфраструктуры • Hudson* • Jenkins* • CVS • SVN • HP Server Automation (SA) • HP Operations Orchestration (OO) • HP Database Middleware Automation (DMA) • SSH • OpsCode Chef* • HP Matrix Operating Environment SW − VMware − M/S Hyper-V − Физические сервера − Public Cloud (HPCS, Amazon EC2, Savvis) • OpenStack Controller − Ubuntu KVM* • HP SiteScope • HP Diagnostics • Nagios* • HP OM • Традиционное ИТ • Частное облако • Управляемое облако • Публичное облако * Средства с открытым исходным кодом Обеспечение гибкости
  • 23. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.23 Ускорить окупаемость и улучшить гибкостью и качество HP Continuous Delivery Automation Summary „ Ускорение циклов релиза приложений Ускорение окупаемости „ Достигнуть 95% уровня удачных развёртываний приложений* Улучшение качества приложений „ Продукты НР или других компаний, а также продукты для управления с открытым исходным кодом и инфраструктурой Гибкость Основано на инновационной технологии НР - Flexible Application Modeling *По-сообщениям независимого источника в 2010, с использованием предшествующегопродукта
  • 24. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Спасибо