VIV Asia 2013: Immunoglobilins in piglet nutrition, CropTech-FeedTech Conference, co-organized by WATT

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Presentation given by Mr. Thomas Heile during the CropTech-FeedTech Conference co-organized by WATT during VIV Asia 2013

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VIV Asia 2013: Immunoglobilins in piglet nutrition, CropTech-FeedTech Conference, co-organized by WATT

  1. 1. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition VIV 2013 Bangkok Thursday – 14 March 15:00-16:00 h CropTech-FeedTech Asia 2013 Conference, by WATT 1
  2. 2. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition Presentation by Thomas Heile, Dipl.-Ing. agr. Product & Trial Manager, EW Nutrition www.ew-nutrition.com Hall 106 Booth C 020 2
  3. 3. Who we are… EW Nutrition is a young company with: Functional & Innovative Products Offering Added Value Solutions Backed by Scientific Research Natural Solutions Basic Production 3
  4. 4. Where we are… 4
  5. 5. Outline 1. Background 2. Immunoglobulins 3. Sow colostrum & milk 4. Bovine colostrum & dried whey 5. Animal plasma 6. Hyper-immunized eggs 7. Conclusions 5
  6. 6. Outline 1. Background 2. Immunoglobulins 3. Sow colostrum & milk 4. Bovine colostrum & dried whey 5. Animal plasma 6. Hyper-immunized eggs 7. Conclusions 6
  7. 7. Background • Immunoglobulins have been part of young piglets nutrition for almost 20 years. • Natural sources of ingredients to enhance immunity are needed world wide 7
  8. 8. Background • Immunology is extremely difficult! So, it’s best left to the experts... • Immunology is extremely important! So, we better at least understand the basics... 8
  9. 9. Outline 1. Background 2. Immunoglobulins 3. Sow colostrum & milk 4. Bovine colostrum & dried whey 5. Animal plasma 6. Hyper-immunized eggs 7. Conclusions 9
  10. 10. Immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins ...the basics... 10
  11. 11. Basic Immunology… The Immune system is like an army • Many defense systems • Many layers of protection but,  the most advanced weapon are immunoglobulins 11
  12. 12. Basic Immunology… • Immunoglobulin = antibody • Ig = abbreviation for immunoglobulin • Antigen = pathogen 12
  13. 13. Basic Immunology… IMMUNOGLOBULINS • Natural compounds • Globular proteins • Found in all animals • Last line of defense • Antigen-specific design • Extremely effective • Costly for the organism 13
  14. 14. Serval Types of Immunoglobulins blood & colostrum auto-immunity (mammals) blood & milk mucosal- surface 14
  15. 15. Birds• Mammals have IgG• Birds possess IgY (Y = “yolk”) IgG Hinge• IgY provide passive immunity to chicks• IgY are heavier because they posses one IgY extra region IgY posses one extra region• IgY has higher affinity (more binding sites)• IgY has higher avidity (binds stronger) 15
  16. 16. Intestinal Effects 16
  17. 17. Mode of action Absence of IgY Presence of IgY intestinal wall sporozoids Y Y bacteria IgY Y Y virus Y membrane receptor Y 17
  18. 18. Two fold mode of action • Ig binds bacteria and viruses in the gut • Ig occupies binding sites on epithelium  Tagged pathogens are ‘cleared’ for extermination  Blocked pathogens cannot bind to epithelium  Blocked sites cannot host pathogens Reduced pathogenic load = increased gut health 18
  19. 19. Sources of Immunoglobulins • Sow colostrum and milk (suckling pigs) • Spray-dried bovine colostrum and whey • Spray-dried animal plasma • Spray-dried hyper-immunized eggs 19
  20. 20. Outline 1. Background 2. Immunoglobulins 3. Sow colostrum & milk 4. Bovine colostrum & dried whey 5. Animal plasma 6. Hyper-immunized eggs 7. Conclusions 20
  21. 21. Best Meal in a Lifetime! ...nature’s best meal... 21
  22. 22. Sow colostrum • Colostrum is rich in IgG • IgG are absorbed intact only in the first hours • Piglets deprived of colostrum often die • Immunoglobulins in colostrum are hard to replace in contrast to other nutrients! 22
  23. 23. Sow colostrum & milk Components Colostrum Milk Protein, % 15 5.5 Casein, % 1.5 2.75 Whey, % 15 2 IgG, mg/ml 1 IgA, mg/ml 5 IgM, mg/ml 1.5 Klobasa et al. (1987), Csapo et al. (1996), Darragh & Moughan (1998) 23
  24. 24. Outline 1. Background 2. Immunoglobulins 3. Sow colostrum & milk 4. Bovine colostrum & dried whey 5. Animal plasma 6. Hyper-immunized eggs 7. Conclusions 24
  25. 25. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition Bovine colostrum & whey ...non-specific sources of Ig... 25
  26. 26. Bovine colostrum & milk Components Colostrum Milk Porcine Bovine Porcine Bovine Protein, % 15 9 5.5 3.4 Caseins, % 1.5 2.75 Whey, % 13.5 2 IgG, mg/ml 96 70 1 0.35 IgA, mg/ml 21 5 5 0.05 IgM, mg/ml 9 5 1.5 0.05 Klobasa et al. (1987), Csapo et al. (1996), Darragh & Moughan (1998), Bourdy et al. (2007) 26
  27. 27. Dried whey powder • WPC and WPI are concentrated forms of Ig • IgA is a more ‘generic’ form of Ig • Not specific to piglet antigens • Concentration varies considerably • Quality varies considerably • Results with WPC/WPI variable • Pellets harden at high levels of WPC/WPI 27
  28. 28. Outline 1. Background 2. Immunoglobulins 3. Sow colostrum & milk 4. Bovine colostrum & dried whey 5. Animal plasma 6. Hyper-immunized eggs 7. Conclusions 28
  29. 29. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition Animal plasma ...a shotgun approach... 29
  30. 30. Animal Plasma • From pig and cattle slaughterhouses • Spray-dried to preserve functional properties • Off-cream color • Characteristic aroma and metallic taste • Free-flowing powder • Expensive, at 3-4 euros per kg • Added at approx. 5% in piglet diets 30
  31. 31. Animal Plasma • Improves gastrointestinal health • Improves feed intake • Improves growth performance 31
  32. 32. Animal Plasma Effect most prominent  in the first couple of weeks post-weaning  in below-average health pigs and continuous-flow nurseries  in combination with low-quality diets 32
  33. 33. Issues with Animal Plasma • Not allowed in many countries (due to BSE) • Not used in many countries (due to BSE regulations that require separate lines of feed production) • Not preferred in many countries due to lack of confidence in biosecurity 33
  34. 34. Mode of Action • Taste and aroma? = No! (Ermer et al. (1994) J.Anim.Sci. Vol. 72, pp.1548-1554 • Protein digestibility and quality? = No! Other proteins with even better nutritive value don’t have similar effects... • Glutamine concentration? = No! Results of other studies with glutamine not so strong or repeatable.. 34
  35. 35. Mode of Action of Animal Plasma Casein Plasma Albumin Ig Rest Weight gain 19a 134b 78ab 158c 50a (g/day) Feed intake 181a 262b 244ab 273b 191a (g/day) source: Gatnau & Zimmerman (1995) Pigs were weaned at 19 days of age, and diets were fed for 15 days post-weaning. 35
  36. 36. Mode of Action of Animal Plasma source: Owen et al (1995) J. Anim. Sci. Vol 73(1):81 Pigs were weaned at 21 days of age, and diets were fed for 2 weeks post-weaning. 36
  37. 37. Mode of Action of Animal Plasma Pierce et al (2005) J. Anim. Sci. Vol 83:2876-2885 Pigs were weaned at 21 days of age, and diets were fed for 1 week post-weaning. 37
  38. 38. Mode of Action It is clear that the mode of action of animal plasma is through its immunoglobulin fraction.  Is it possible to replace immunoglobulins from plasma? 38
  39. 39. Outline 1. Background 2. Immunoglobulins 3. Sow colostrum & milk 4. Bovine colostrum & dried whey 5. Animal plasma 6. Hyper-immunized eggs 7. Conclusions 39
  40. 40. Egg Immunoglobulins • Natural component of all eggs • Provide passive immunity to chicks • Old farm-remedy for piglets with diarrhea...  Break a few eggs (from same farm) into piglet’s liquid milk-based soup for a few days...or until diarrhea disappears! 40
  41. 41. Egg Immunoglobulins • Today, flocks are immunized against specific piglet pathogens • Eggs are collected and spray-dried • Resulting egg powder is rich in IgY Benefits: enhanced piglet health and growth 41
  42. 42. Major pathogens affecting piglets 42
  43. 43. Egg Immunoglobulins against ETEC Passive immunization of IgY against K88-, K99-, and 987P- fimbriae by experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in neonatal piglets Infection and Immunity (1992, 60: 998-1007) 43
  44. 44. Egg Immunoglobulins against ETEC Animals: Neonatal pigs Antibody: against K88, K99, and 987P fimbria of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Groups: 1. Control 2. IgY (1 titer, 4 titers, 16 titers) Challenge: K88+ and K99+ ETEC; 1 x 1012 CFU / piglet 987P+ ETEC; 1 x 1010 CFU / piglet Test period: 1 to 7 days of age Observed: 1. Clinical symptoms 2. Bacteria detection 44
  45. 45. Egg Immunoglobulins against ETEC 100 80 Mortality (%) 60 40 20 0 Antibody titers K88 (n=7) K99 (n=4) 987P (n=5) 45
  46. 46. Egg Immunoglobulins against ETEC Incidence of diarrhea (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 3 5 Days after challenge Control (n=7) 1 (n=7) 4 (n=7) 16 (n=7) 46
  47. 47. Egg Immunoglobulins against TGE Passive immunization of IgY against experimental Transmissible Gastroenteritis of swine (TGE) in neonatal piglets Internal trial GHEN, 2000 47
  48. 48. Egg Immunoglobulins against TGE Mortality Duration of Cumulative Weight gain (%) diarrhea fecal score (%) (days) Control 80 12.4 70.0 -19.9 (n=5) IGY 0* 5.2** 21.5** 7.7** (n=6)* p<0.05, ** P<0.01, compared with control group 48
  49. 49. Latest Research • New studies focus on replacing plasma immunoglobulins with egg immunoglobulins • Advantages: Less expensive, more specific • Results are promising! 49
  50. 50. IgY Replaces Plasma ! Control Plasma IgY Weight gain (g/day) 100 138 134 Feed intake (g/day) 147 187 186 Days with diarrhea 7 4 3 Mortality 40 7 7Pigs were weaned at 10 days of age, and diets were fed for 7 days post-weaning. 50
  51. 51. Summary of different field trials ADG, g/day Negative Plasma IgY (Globigen) Trial 1 Phase 1 (7 days) 137a 208b 195b Phase 2 (14 days) 477a 459a 510b Trial 2 Phase 1 (7 days) 97a 102a 121b Phase 2 (14 days) 454 449 452 Trial 3 Phase 1 (7 days) 28a 71b 93b Phase 2 (14 days) 353a 478b 437b Mavromichalis (2010) 51
  52. 52. Outline 1. Background 2. Immunoglobulins 3. Sow colostrum & milk 4. Bovine colostrum & dried whey 5. Animal plasma 6. Hyper-immunized eggs 7. Conclusions 52
  53. 53. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition Conclusions ...getting there... 53
  54. 54. Comparison of available Ig sources Sow colostrum Bovine Animal plasma Hyper & milk colostrum & immunized eggs dried wheySwine specific X - X XXantibodiesPotential carrier X - XX -of diseaseCost low high high midStandardized - X - XXIg Product 54
  55. 55. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition • In-feed immunoglobulins are important! • Piglet health and performance depend on Ig • Sources vary in quality, concentration, potency • Specific Ig have been shown to offer best results 55
  56. 56. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition • When we buy piglet feed, we must ask about the source and specificity of Ig of the feed, the same way we do about lysine, lactose, and energy! • When we formulate piglet feeds, we should think in terms of Ig, not of plasma, milk, eggs, etc.. 56
  57. 57. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition Many thanks for your time and consideration! 57
  58. 58. Immunoglobulins in Piglet Nutrition For Further Information, please visit us! EW Nutrition GmbH Hall 106 Booth C 020 www.ew-nutrition.com 58
  59. 59. Backup 59
  60. 60. Egg Immunoglobulins against ETEC Passive immunization of IgY against F18-fimbriae by experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in weaned pigs The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science (1997, 59: 917-921) 60
  61. 61. Egg Immunoglobulins against ETEC  Animals: Weaned pigs  Antibody: against F18-fimbrial of Escherichia coli  Groups: Control IgY (1 titer, 5 titers)  Challenge: F18+ ETEC; 1 x 1011 CFU / piglet  Test period: 28 to 36 days of age  Observed: 1. Clinical symptoms 2. Bacteria detection 3. Body weight 61
  62. 62. Egg Immunoglobulins against ETECIncidence of diarrhea (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Days after challenge Control (n=28) 1 (n=18) 5 (n=28) 62
  63. 63. Egg Immunoglobulins against ETEC 80 79,9** 70 60 Body weight gain (%) 52,4 52,1 50 40 30 20 10 0 Control (n= 28) Titer x1 (n=18) Titer x5 (n=28) 63

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