STONE ARCHITECTURE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL OF BARI TOTHE STUDY OF THE HISTORICAL HERITAGE OF THE COUNT...
THE CASE STUDY OF THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PEDIMENT OF           THE CHURCH OF ST. GERVAIS IN PARIS              Entrepri...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches          Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches          Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches          Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches         Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriIn 19...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriSURVEY AND FI...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches          Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri           DIS...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches     Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri         ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri   Existing as...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri      DESIGN F...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches          Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches     Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri         ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriCONSTRUCTION O...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches          Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriSton...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri              ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches          Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches             Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriT...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches             Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriT...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches             Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriT...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches           Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriMic...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri              ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches            Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriTh...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches             Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriT...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches            Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriTh...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches                   Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guer...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches        Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe tu...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches               Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrier...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches           Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriAmo...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches     Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriARMENIAN ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches           Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri   ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri  CROSSED ARCH...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches             Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches        Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri      ...
The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri              ...
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The Contribution of the Architecture School of Bari to the Study of the Historical Heritage of the Countries of Eastern Europe

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The cases of St.Gervais - Paris, Sinan's Mosques and Armenian churches

Author: Professor Claudio D'Amato Guerrieri

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The Contribution of the Architecture School of Bari to the Study of the Historical Heritage of the Countries of Eastern Europe

  1. 1. STONE ARCHITECTURE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL OF BARI TOTHE STUDY OF THE HISTORICAL HERITAGE OF THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s Mosques and Armenian churches Professor Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri Faculty of Architecture – Polytechnic of Bari
  2. 2. THE CASE STUDY OF THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PEDIMENT OF THE CHURCH OF ST. GERVAIS IN PARIS Entreprise Chevalier SA – Paris 2002
  3. 3. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe façade of the Church of Saint Gervais, abuilding in the late gothic style, is the firstclassical façade in Paris.Built between 1616 and 1621 to a design bySalomon de Brosse, it is characterised bythe superimposition of three architecturalorders (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian) and amonumental curved pediment, originallycrowned laterally by two large sculpturalgroups. Façade of the Church of Saint Gervais: original state (engraving by Marot)
  4. 4. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe 48 metre high façade, built with blocksof Saint-Maximin stone, is a challenge tothe laws of static.Its pediment, weighing c. 400 tons, iscomposed of a depressed arch, in thecentral part, with a span of 6 metres, adepth of 2.5 metres and a height (from thespringing line to the key stone) of only 70centimetres; it exerts a strong lateral thrust(of circa 25 tons). Façade of the Church of Saint Gervais: actual state before the reconstruction of 2002
  5. 5. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe two sculptural groups not only had an aesthetic but also an important functional role:they verticalized the lateral thrusts of the vault, according to the principle of the pinnacle,thereby assuring the stability of the whole. The removal of the statues after the FrenchRevolution signalled the beginning of a process of dilapidation for the pediment due to thestructural instability caused by the new arrangement. The static role of the sculptures: the “pinnacle effect”
  6. 6. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriIn 1904 an initial intervention of static consolidation was carried out; but the bracingstructures in reinforced concrete (for the portal and the hood) behaved like foreign bodiesand further compromised the stability of the pediment. Portal and hood in reinforced concrete carried out in the restoration of 1904
  7. 7. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriSURVEY AND FIRST DESIGN HYPOTHESIS
  8. 8. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe measured drawing of the pediment was executed with manual and digital (3D scanner)instruments. Its actual state is depicted both by traditional means (plan, section,perspective) and by a three-dimensional digital model. Measured drawing of the pediment using both manual and digital instruments, drawings, digital model
  9. 9. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri DISMANTLING THE PEDIMENT
  10. 10. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri 4 3 2 1 Frontal view of the different layers of the vault of the pediment:1-portal in concrete; 2-first course of the vault; 3-second course of the vault; 4-hood in concrete
  11. 11. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri Existing assemblage: plan of laying of the vault with metal clamps and tie-beams
  12. 12. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri DESIGN FOR THE NEW PEDIMENT
  13. 13. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe design for the new pediment is basedboth on [knowledge derived from] an in-depth study of the original building – thatthus functions as a text – and on thetheoretical knowledge and technical know-how of stereotomy.For the abutments of the vault a horizontalassemblage with internal joints in a radialpattern are adopted (using the principle ofthe original assemblage).The masonry assemblage is held in placethrough the use of steel clamps and nails,while the vault is conceived as maxi-ashlarsfixed to the wall of the tympanum withsteels stays.The design for the new pediment waselaborated and tested in all its aspects withdigital modelling instruments. Design of the abutments of the vault
  14. 14. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri Design for the abutments of the vault: the existing solution (on the left) and the designed solution (on the right)Design for the abutments of the vault: the Design for the central part of the vault: anchoragedisposition of the metallic clamps and nails of the maxi-ashlars to the tympanum
  15. 15. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriCONSTRUCTION OF THE NEW PEDIMENT
  16. 16. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriStone from the Saint-Maximin quarry is cut using both automated (CAM) and manualworkmanship (finishing and testing).Moreover, using a digital model reduces the on-site time to only three weeks, therebyconsiderably lowering costs. Cut of stone: computer aided manufacturing and testing the shape of the voussoirs with the “panneaux” drawn by 3-D model
  17. 17. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri Frontal view of the new pediment
  18. 18. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe structural use of iron in Sinan’sdomed buildings.Design and RestorationTechnical typologiesTheoretical model
  19. 19. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe structural use of iron inSinan’s domed buildings.Design and RestorationDuring his long carreer, at first as maingeneral of Corps of Engineers’ and then aschief-architect of the Ottoman Empire,Mimar Sinan designes especially newbuildings, carring out more than 400 works,but he also restores historical buildingsduring his many travels all around Empirelands.Among his many architectural andconstruction experiences the most originaltechnical innovation is the structural use ofiron.Both in Sinan’s masterpieces for imperialpatrons- like Suleymaniye Mosque - and inhis main restoration works - like HaghiaSophia – the iron is used in a similartechnical way.Technical typologiesTheoretical model
  20. 20. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe structural use of iron inSinan’s domed buildings.Design and RestorationTechnical typologiesThe principal technical typologies in Sinan’sstructural use of iron are four:•clamps and pins•beams•chains•reinforcement ringTheoretical model
  21. 21. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe structural use of iron inSinan’s domed buildingsDesign and RestorationTechnical typologies- clamps and pins: Clamps and pins in stonemasonry construction are used in ottomanarchitecture even before Sinan in order to Kara Ahmed Pasa mosque, Istanbul – Iron pins of the porchstiffen the building system especially in case ashlars (photo – Nicola Parisi) Iof seismic actions, even if some scholarsthink they were used as a auxiliary elementin structural assemblage; the pins are usedto connect, in vertical, the ashlars of theseveral rows, both in masonries and pillars.On the contrary, the clamps are used toconnect, in horizontal, the ashlars of thesame row or to vice structurals elements;this is the case of the anchorage betweenarch and masonry.- beams- chains- reinforcement ring Kara Ahmed Pasa mosque, Istanbul – Pre-arrangement for clamps (photo – Nicola Parisi) I
  22. 22. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriMicrosystems of iron anchorage (pins and clamps) are Selimiye Mosque, Edirne – The reconstruction ofgenerally used to build minarets. Selim II Mosque minaret shows that the oldAll the stone ashlars are connected both in vertical and techniques used in Sinan’s construction site arehorizontal, like the jutting parts usually ornamented with the same of Restoration.muqarnas. (photo - Vakiflar Genel Mudurlugu, Edirne)(photo – Amir Pasic)
  23. 23. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri (photo - Vakiflar Genel Mudurlugu, Edirne)
  24. 24. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe structural use of iron inSinan’s domed buildingsDesign and RestorationTechnical typologies- clamps and pins- beams: beams in wrought iron and bricksare often used to build ceiling whit levelintrados.This technology was applied to thesecondaries roofings of marginals openings.Sometimes the beams wasn’t load-bearingbut built a redundant reinforcement struttingin case of earthquake.- chains- reinforcement ringTheoretical model Selimiye, Edirne – Photo by Vakiflar Genel Mudurlugu
  25. 25. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe structural use of iron inSinan’s domed buildingsDesign and RestorationTechnical typologies- clamps and pins- beams- chains: the firsts chains used by Ottomanarchitecture from 1450 was in wood. Onlyduring the XVI century the iron was used.The chain is a structural element utilized toforce back the horizontals thrusts in thevaults. Mostly it is used in the barrel vaultnot much emploied in the Ottomanarchitecture. In Kara Ahmet Paşa (1558)Mosque, the chains of the laterals gallery,barrel vaulted, are one of the firstsexamples.- reinforcement ringTheoretical model Mihrimah Sultan Mosque, Edirnekapi Istanbul – Original info-ghraphic model by Nicola Parisi I
  26. 26. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe structural use of iron inSinan’s domed buildingsDesign and RestorationTechnical typologies- clamps and pins- beams chains: In Selimiye’s quadriportico, thewhole chains system can’t be supposed fora classical restraint of the horizontalsthrusts; in fact, the thrusts are oftenbalanced by supported arch.It is necessary to think at a reticularcomplex system of spatials bars assuring aglobal rigidness for structures stressed byearthquakes.- reinforcement ringTheoretical model Selimiye Mosque, Edirne – Quadriportico (photo di Nicola Parisi)
  27. 27. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe structural use of iron inSinan’s domed buildingsDesign and RestorationTechnical typologies- clamps and pins- beams- chains-reinforcement ring: the reinforcementsthrough the iron ring are used beginningfrom half of the XVI century. The works ofSinan are the first buildings built with similartechniques. The technique of the ironreinforcment ring is employed by theOttoman architect both in the new projectsand in the structural improvements ofancient buildings.Theoretical modelMihrimah Sultan Mosque, Edirnekapi Istanbul – Original info-ghraphic model by Nicola Parisi I
  28. 28. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe turbe of “the Magnificent” Solimano and ofSelims II introduce iron ring on different levels; someare broadly visible, others are totally concealed.The iron ring aim to contain the radial horizontalpushes produced by the domed structures, avoidingthe break-ups along the meridian lines.
  29. 29. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriThe technique of the metallicreinforcement ring postpones thecommune employment of thechains. In the Selimiye mosque inEdirne the system of chains thatconnect the vertexes of the centraloctagon reconstructs a discreet ringthat contain the horizontal pushesduring the normal state ofgravitation of the weights andguarantees the mutual distance ofthe vertexes during a seismicevent.Selimiye Mosque, Edirne(photo by Nicola Parisi)
  30. 30. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriAmong the most important restorations of Sinan itneeds to remember that for the Saint Sophiabasilica. Sinan in this restoration ordered theconstruction of buttresses set to the masonries for agreat balancing of the pushes and put areinforcement ring of the dome that introducedproblems of equilibrium since her first construction.
  31. 31. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato GuerrieriARMENIAN MEDIEVAL RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE – FORM AND CONSTRUCTION
  32. 32. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri DOMED CHURCHES IN AYRARAT, 6th – 13th century: some case studies Kat‘ołikē , T‘alin - Surp Hovhannēs church at Mastara - Surp Grigor church at Aragats, 7th century a.D.The use of three-dimensional modelling for damaged buildings and for the konwledge of the built architectural forms
  33. 33. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri CROSSED ARCHES IN MEDIEVAL MONASTERIES: architectural types
  34. 34. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri RESEARCH OUTCOMES: 1. final synthesis studiosMedieval monasteries of northern Armenia: valorisation and design for the reconstruction of lost or damaged buildings
  35. 35. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churches Prof. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri RESEARCH OUTCOMES: 2. projects (with CSDCA, Milano)Ereruk ‘, 5th century (?): survey; real and ipothetical three-dimensional reconstruction of the monument
  36. 36. The cases of St. Gervais at Paris, Sinan’s mosque and Armenian churchesProf. Arch. Claudio D’Amato Guerrieri RESEARCH OUTCOMES: 3. publications

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