Proceedings - Thematic seminar on INTANGIBLE HERITAGE, Cahul, October 2012
Page | 1PROCEEDINGS – Thematic Seminar on INTANGIBLE HERITAGE Cahul, Sept.2012 Within the framework of the project VIVA EASTPART -Valorisation and ImproVing of mAnagement of Small Historic Centres in the EASTern PARTnership region (DCI-HUM/2010/135) Organisers: ACTIE - Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration Agency, Cahul, Republic of Moldova
Page | 2 ContentsVIVA EASTPART Consortium ......................................................................................................... 3ABOUT THE SEMINAR PROCEEDINGS ..................................................................................... 4SEMINAR FRAMEWORK ......................................................................................................................... 4SUMMARY OF THE SEMINAR ............................................................................................................... 5AGENDA .................................................................................................................................................. 6PRESENTATIONS AND ARTICLES ................................................................................................ 8
VIVA EASTPART Consortium Page | 3 Project Coordinator: ATU - Association for Urban Transition, Bucharest, Romania Project Partners: ARMECAS – Armenian Ecotourism Association, Yerevan, Armenia ACTIE - Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration Agency, Cahul, Republic of MoldovaDICAR - Architecture and Civil Engineering Department of the Polytechnic University of Bari, Bari, Italy For more information contact: Ioana.email@example.com
ABOUT THE SEMINAR PROCEEDINGS thThe thematic seminar on Intangible Heritage was held in Cahul, Republic of Moldova, on September 7and 8 th. Page | 4In order to make the information and ideas presented at the seminar promptly and widely available,participants in the seminar were invited to submit written papers based on their presentations for inclusionin refereed conference proceedings to be published on the wb.SEMINAR FRAMEWORKThe project organises 4 Thematic Seminars on the following topics Minor Historic Centre’s Intangibleheritage (antique and modern art, artistic craftsmanship, popular traditions, and food and gastronomicculture; etc). Moldova – Cahul I. Seminar on Methodology on Territorial Cultural Systems. Italy – Bari. II. Minor Historic Centre’s Tangible heritage (archaeological sites, monuments, museums, expositions, etc), Armenia – Yerevan. III. Spatial planning and Landscape: environmental landscape, rural landscapes, natural parks, habitat, conservation areas and historic centres, etc. Romania – Sibiu.These seminars will produce a mapping of the available and potential cultural and touristic assets and aMethodology on Territorial Cultural Systems for establishing a framework in each of the areas. These willbe of use to the decision-makers and public administrators in planning cultural heritage enhancementprocesses, based on the integrated territorial approach.Following the UNESCO Convention on Intangible Cultural Heritage that subdivides it in 4 categories: Oral traditions and expressions: language and communication, mainly if considered as means to express or transmit intangible cultural heritage. Performing arts; music (instrumental and human voice), dance and theatre in their traditional, classical, ethnographic, or other forms. Social practices: social intercourse, corresponding to day-to-day life activities, rituals (religious or non-religious) and festive events that mark the way of life of a certain human group; under this topic gastronomy will also have a place Traditional craftsmanship: various forms of material production, having in mind that all material culture has an intangible meaning and that the "know-how" is it-self intrinsically intangible.
SUMMARY OF THE SEMINARThe thematic seminar on Intangible Heritage was the first of the four seminars planned within the th th Page | 5framework of VIVA EASTPART. It was held in Cahul, Republic of Moldova, on September 7 and 8 .The next seminars will take place in Bari, Italy, in October, in Tavush (Armenia) and Valea Hartibaciului(Romania) in 2013.The seminar aimed to: Analyse the present situation of Intangible Heritage in the Eastern partnership area. Identify available and potential intangible cultural and touristic assets in the implementation areas (mapping) Identify and analyse examples (local and international best practices) of Intangible Heritage’s contribution to minor historic centres and territorial cultural systems.The thematic seminar covered the following topics: Context/State of Art /present situation of Intangible Heritage, with particular attention to minor historic centres in the Eastern partnership area. Challenges and conservation of Intangible Heritage in minor historic centres and territorial cultural systems in the areas involved. Examples on Intangible Heritage’s contribution to minor historic centres and territorial cultural systems.Furthermore, the thematic seminar on Intangible Cultural Heritage included two workshops on traditionalperforming arts and gastronomy, promoting hands-on experience to all participants, who had theopportunity to learn traditional know-how from its owners and practitioners.The seminar benefited from a strong support at the local level, bringing together representatives of: CahulDistrict Council, Cahul City Hall, Town Halls of Colibasi, Valeni, Slobozia as well as other villages in thearea, Cahul State University, Vinia Traian Winery, local craftsmen and other service providers in Cahul,local mass media and local NGOs.
AGENDA Page | 6FRIDAY 7TH SEPTEMBER08:30-09:00 – Registration of participants09:00-09:30 - Welcome speeches09:30-11:00 – Session A: part 1 (Chair by Mr. AJDER)Intangible Cultural Heritage: Context of Moldova, Mr. Ghenadie IVAŞCENCO, VIVA EASTPARTInternational Expert.“Context and State of art of Intangible Heritage in the Cahul Region with particular attention to smallhistoric centres”, Mr. Veaceslav GARNET, Professor, Cahul State University11:00-11:30 - Coffee break11:30-13:00 – Session A: part 2 (Chair by Ms. GALYAN)“Context and State of Art of Intangible Heritage in Armenia with particular attention to minor historiccentres”, Mr. Sarhat PETROSYAN, VIVA EASTPART International Expert.“Context and State of Art of Intangible Heritage in Romania, with particular attention to minor historiccentres”, Josefina LÓPEZ GALDEANO, VIVA EASTPART Project Manager.13:00-14:30 – Lunch14:30-16:00 – Session B (Chair by Ms. Josefina LÓPEZ GALDEANO)Challenges and conservation of Intangible Heritage in minor historic centres: cases studies in Italy andSpain, Mr. Federico SALMERON ESCOBAR, VIVA EASTPART International Expert, Mr. GiovanniMANCO, VIVA EASTPART International Expert.16:00-16:30 - Coffee break16:30-17:30 – Session C (Chair by Ms. ADJER)Examples on Intangible Heritage’s contribution to territorial cultural systems: EU practices, Mr. FrancescoROTONDO, Local Coordinator Scientific partner.18:30 - Plenary session - final discussion20:00 h - Workshop* on Social practices: “Winery of Vinia Traian”, organised by: ACTIE and Vinia TraianWinery; coordinator: Mrs. Maria Ajder
ABSTRACT: Viticulture and wine production has a millenary tradition in the southern part of Moldova.This traditional occupation was always an integral part of the local culture and had a profound impact onthe lifestyle in the region. It also constitutes an important resource for tourism development. Page | 721.30 - Social DinnerSATURDAY 8TH SEPTEMBER09.30-13:30 h – Workshop* on performing arts: “folks dances and music of Craitele folk group” and visit to“traditional art and crafts”, organised by: Valeni Town Hall, coordinator: Mrs. Maria AjderABSTRACT: Thanks to the rural character of the region, many traditions in either folk music and dancesor traditional craftsmanship were preserved in the districts villages. They constitute an important part ofthe cultural heritage of the region and efforts have been made to preserve, develop and capitalize thisheritage.14:00-15:00 - Lunch15:00 Closing Ceremony*Workshops are organised by selected institutions that acts on the preservation and disclosure of differentmanifestations of the Moldavian intangible heritage and traditions.All workshops promoted a broad discussion on each subject, encouraging the share of experiences andcultures and promoting some hands-on experience to all participants who will have the opportunity tolearn traditional know-how from its owners and practitioners.The workshops took place in Valeni and Vinia Traian on 7th and 8th of September and are organised in 2main subjects: performative arts and on social practices.
PRESENTATIONS AND ARTICLES Page | 81. Intangible Cultural Heritage: CONTEXT OF MOLDOVA, Ghenadie IVAŞCENCO Intangible Cultural Heritage: CONTEXT OF MOLDOVA BAKGROUND: Towards Recognizing ICH INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE (ICH) IN MOLDOVA Historical & Geographical Context Legal Framework The Law on ICH Institutional Framework Key Lessons
BAKGROUND: Towards Recognizing ICH Page | 9Generally, heritage is defined as ‘what we value’ or ‘what we wish to pass on to futuregenerations’. Heritage resources provide living communities with a sense of community withprevious generations. They are important to cultural identity as well as to the conservation of thecultural diversity and creativity of humanity.In 1972 has been adopted the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, that constituted a crucialmoment in designing the global architecture of studying and safeguarding of the heritageplaces. There has been established the Word Heritage Committee to guide the process.Currently, the World Heritage List includes almost 800 places of international significance inapproximately 30 countries.Up to the beginning of 21st century, built heritage almost totally dominated international heritagelists as an icon of civilization, permanence and modernity. Traditional assessments of heritagevalue have emphasized high culture and monumental forms (e.g. cathedrals) over otherheritage forms. Consequently, for long time, the intangible values have been often neglectedin both national and international mechanisms for safeguarding. The intangible heritage is generally defined as those aspects of the heritage that, unlike placesor objects, are ephemeral: these include oral traditions, languages, traditional performing arts,knowledge systems, values and know how.The current interest in intangible heritage is rooted in the late 20th century tendency to re-evaluate the benefits of modernity, express a fear of the effects of globalization and search forsmaller-scale local identities. Globalization is feared as a cultural bulldozer capable offlattening marginal cultural forms in the same way as Hollywood flood the local film market.In 1989, the General Conference of UNESCO adopted a ‘Recommendation on theSafeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore’. Despite the fact that only few memberstates have adopted it, the Recommendation encouraged the emerging of very importantsafeguarding outputs (e.g. UNESCO Red Book of Languages in Danger of Disappearing,Traditional Music of the World Collection, etc.)In Stockholm in 1998, the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Developmentrecognized that the world’s intangible heritage was at risk and needed to be properly managedand safeguarded as part of the development agenda. The Conference suggested UNESCO todevelop new and more appropriate instruments for safeguarding the intangible heritage. Threeyears later, in 2002, in Istanbul/Turkey, representatives from 110 countries adopted the‘Istanbul Declaration 2002’, in which they recognized the value on intangible cultural heritageand voiced their full support for effective measures at all levels, from international to local, tosafeguard intangible cultural heritage. Most important – the Declaration proposed the adoption
of a new Convention recognizing the complex nature of intangible heritage and its need forprotection. Page | 10As result of numerous efforts, debates and recommendations, in 2003 in Paris UNESCOadopted a new Convention to safeguard intangible heritage, along the lines of the WorldHeritage Convention for Places from 1972. UNESCO decided to develop a separateConvention for intangible heritage (and not just extend the 1972 Convention) for two mainreasons: (i) the difficulty of redrafting of narrow definition of cultural heritage in the WHC, whichrefers only to monuments, buildings and places; and (ii) difficulty of revising the criterion ofoutstanding universal value for inscription in the World Heritage List. Nevertheless, the debatesrelated to the inter-correlation between ‘tangible’ and ‘intangible’ heritage are continuing tochallenge the researchers and specialists in the field. They are two parts of the same coin, orthey are two levels of heritage: a primitive one, and a civilized one?The Convention entered into force on April 20, 2006 for the thirty states that had ratified it. It isimportant to mention that less than 9 years after its adoption by the General Conference ofUNESCO in November 2003, this Convention has already gained the adhesion of 144 MemberStates. In comparison, it took 23 years for the 1972 Convention Concerning the Protection ofthe World Cultural and Natural Heritage to achieve the same quantum of ratifications.One of the key issues addressed to instruments to safeguard intangible heritage is the questionabout the community rights. These is because the necessity to support people who will maintainintangible heritage forms as part of the safeguarding them. There are a number of internationalorganizations working in the area or ‘intangible heritage rights protection’, led by WIPO. Theinterventions in the field started in ’60s last century. In 1967 has been revised Berne Conventionin order to provide some intellectual property protection for expression of folklore. In 1982UNESCO jointly with WIPO adopted the ‘Model Provisions for National Laws on the Protectionof Expressions of Folklore against illicit exploitation’. WIPO has later developed a draft toolkitand a practical guide on the protection for traditional cultural expressions. Technicalrequirements for database or registers have been drafted, including the need for appropriatesecurity mechanisms and access limitations. Nevertheless, many countries consider intangibleheritage to be in the public domain and do not have legislative protection for expressions offolklore. Certain countries, however, have laws aimed specifically at safeguarding the culturalheritage legislation of their native people.Generally speaking, while the continuing development of the international legislation in the field,there persists a strong criticism that it is not ‘erga omnes’, as the international conventionson human rights and environment. The key critics is, therefore, that it do not oblige states toimplement proactive mechanisms, and that it is failing to ensure that control over intangibleheritage management and benefits remained with the communities which owned that heritage.Despite this fact, since the Convention has been adopted in 2003, many things has beenchanged both at the international and national levels.
INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE (ICH) IN MOLDOVA Page | 11Historical & Geographical ContextThe Republic of Moldova is a small country with a controversial history and very specific humansettlements networking. Several historical and geographical factors had (and still have) a crucialinfluence on the preservation, safeguarding and promotion of the Moldovan intangible culturalheritage. 1. Moldova – is still a predominantly rural country. In the strongly urbanized world, Moldova presents itself as the most rural country in Europe. Moreover, the country is facing a process of ruralization and des-urbanisation. According to population census data, the share of rural population increased from 52.3% in 1989 to 61% in 2004 (nevertheless, if taking into consideration the rural characteristics of many small taowns, the share of rural population is about 70%). Except 4 cities (Chisinau, Balti, Tiraspol and Bender), no one Moldovan urban settlement has a population higher than 30-35,000 inhabitants. In fact, the strong rurality of the country (over 50% of urban population is born in rural area) is an encouraging factor in insuring the sustainability of intangible cultural heritage. Nevertheless, the mass emigration abroad and the globalization trends have a tough impact on new generations. The rurality of the country is losing its traditional characteristics. 2. Historically, ethnically, linguistically and culturally, Moldova and Moldovans are part of the bigger Romanian area. In fact, generally, Moldova and Romania are sharing the same intangible cultural heritage. This is an important factor for mutual collaboration for joint safeguarding and promotion of the common cultural intangible heritage. 3. After 200 years of Russian dominance (inclusive 50 years of Soviet policy of des- nationalization), the identity of Moldovan people is still a (politically) controversial issue. The people are still dividing themselves in two groups: (i) ones, which are considered themselves as Bessarabian Romanians with the same cultural identity as their neighbors, and (2) the second group (much more numerous) wich are considering themselves as Moldovans, which are different from Romanians. This aspect should be taken into consideration especially within the process of capitalizing the ‘intangible heritage’ at the local level. 4. Moldova is a country with important minority groups. An important aspect to be taken into consideration is that, in comparison with Moldovan population, the absolute majority of minority groups are more urbanized. Additionally, while considered ‘Russian
speakers’, 75% of the ‘minoritarians’ are Ukranians, Gagauzians and Bulgarians which do not use more their own language and cultural habits. The safeguarding of the intangible heritage specific to these groups should be specifically approached. Page | 12Legal FrameworkMoldova is considered to be among the countries with advanced legislative development inthe field of intangible heritage safeguarding.On March 24, 2006 the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova ratified the UNESCOConvention regarding the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage, adopted in Paris on17 October, 2003 (in fact, Moldova ratified the Convention one month before the Conventionentered into force, being among the first 30 countries that ratified the Convention).On March 29, 2012 the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova adopted the Law onSafeguarding the Intangible Cultural Heritage.On the same time, several legal acts are regulating directly and indirectly the cultural intangibleheritage: Law on Culture from 27.05.1999 is determining the free access to culture. Law on Museums from 27.12.2002 is regulating the system of evidence and protection of the heritage owned by the museums. Law on Archive from 22.01.1992 is regulating the mechanisms of archiving of the cultural and artistic objects. Law on Traditional Craftsmanship from 20.03.2003 is regulating the activity of craftsmen, aiming to protect the popular crafts.The Law on ICHThe Law is determining the general legal framework for identification, protection, transmission,promotion, revitalization and exploring of the cultural intangible heritage of the Republic ofMoldova. According to the Law, the owner of the intangible cultural heritage is the people ofMoldova. The registration of intellectual/property rigths on any part of intangible heritage isprohibited to any legal entity or private person.The Law is defining the intangible heritage, as – the totality of elements of traditional authenticheritage, valuable from cultural and historical perspective, transmitted in oral form fromgeneration to generation, expressed in literal, musical, choreographic or theater form, practices,representations, expressions, knowledge, skills, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts
and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases,individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. Page | 13According to the Law, there are five distinctive characteristics of the intangible heritage: Anonymous character Transmitted in oral form from generation to generation Specific from point of view of territory, ethnicity, religious Considered to be very important for the identification of specific communities or groups (re) Produced and Performed in the traditional technique of the specific community or group.The cultural intangible heritage is applied to the following domains: Oral expressions Music Choreography Social practices (ritual, festive events, customs) Cosmology and spiritual beliefs Traditional craftsmanship Gastronomy Traditional cultural institutions (‘claca’, ‘şezătoarea’) Material meaning for transmission of intangible heritage.The Law is determining the following management instruments: Scientific Research (identification, documentation, drafting dossiers) Codifying (preparatory work for the registration of the particular element of intangible heritage in the national/international registry) National Registry for Intangible Cultural Heritage (procedures of registration of the elements and its management) Honorific Title of ‘Treasure Carrier Alive’ Safeguarding and revitalization (measures to support the protection: education and awareness, specialized specialists, audio-visual production, etc.) Financing (in responsibility of the State Budget (through Ministry of Culture) and budgets of local governments). The law is encouraging the private financing (grants, international programs, donations, etc.). The National Registry on Intangible Heritage is under elaboration and is expected to beapproved and published during the year of 2012. There are planned 2 volumes: (1) ICHrelated to Moldovans/Romanians and (2) ICH related to the minority ethnic groups.The first volume will contain over 400 elements.
Institutional FrameworkThe main national institutions involved in the process of safeguarding of the intangible cultural Page | 14heritage in the Republic of Moldova are the following:Ministry of Culture is the main state institution responsible to formulate and implement the policyrelated to the intangible cultural heritage. Main responsibilities Elaborate and implement state policies in the field of intangible heritage (concepts, strategies, plans, regulations) Establish the National Commission for Intangible Heritage Manage the National Register for Intangible Heritage Approve (at the recommendation of the Commission) the decision for including in the National Register Monitor and support methodologically the activities of local governments in the field Formulate and submit roposals to include the elements of national intangible heritage in the UNESCO List of World HeritageNote: The Ministry of Culture is intending to initiate the elaboration of the National Strategy forSafeguarding the Intangible Heritage in 2013.National Commission for Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Specialized scientificbody, subordinated to the Ministry of Culture, which is coordinating the national policy forsafeguarding the intangible heritage. Main responsibilities: Prepare dossiers of elements to be included in National Register Consultative support to the ministry Endorsement of the national policy documents in the fieldNational Centre for Safeguarding and Promotion of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Dedicatedexecutive institution, responsible to implement the specific practical activities related to theintangible cultural heritage. Main responsibilities: Methodological support to national and local public bodies Inventory of the elements of cultural intangible heritage Practical activities in the field Note: The establishment of the National Centre for Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage is requested by the Law and is currently under consideration by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Moldova. It is expected that the Centre will be established in 2013.
Local Governments are, generally, responsible for the social and economic development of theircommunities. Regarding the intangible cultural heritage, the local authorities have beendelegated with the following particular responsibilities: Page | 15 Ensure the viability of the traditional local folklore and spiritual culture Support the ‘depositary’ and ‘trasmissioners’ of the intangible cultural heritage. Cooperate with central public authorities for mapping, inventory and safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. Initiate and support community initiatives to safeguard and promote the local intangible cultural heritage elements.Generally speaking, as communities are those who created intangible cultural heritage andkeep it alive, local governments should have a privileged place in safeguarding it.Moldova jointly with Romania are preparing the dossier to include in the UNESCO WorldIntangible Heritage List - ‘colindatul in ceata barbateasca’ – a social practice during theChristmass. Previously, Romania already succeeded to include in the UNESCO list 2 otherelements – ‘Doina’ (traditional song) and ‘Dansul calutului’ (traditional dance), which are alsopart of Moldovan intangible cultural heritage.Key Lessons: The international legislation in the field of ‘intangible cultural heritage’ is not ‘erga omnes’ (has a recommendation and not obligatory approach), in comparison with international conventions on human rights and environment. Therefore, in order to be more effective, the efforts of involved institutions should be more pro-active. Cultural policy can contribute to social and economic development by growing communities/national cultural capital, promoting local identity and promoting global cultural diversity. Intangible heritage form a crucial part of this cultural capital and need to be safeguarded. It is important to consider ‘intangible heritage’ – as a ‘development factor’. The legal and institutional framework related to ICH in Moldova is at its incipient phase. In order to make the process more efficient and resultative, it is necessary to initiate and promote few very successful case studies/practices. An important and extensive awareness raising activity is to be promoted. The Moldovan Local Authorities are delegated by the Law with responsibilities to safeguard and promote the local intangible heritage. It is important to support local
authorities and advocate them to plan the financial resources in local budgets for this objective. Page | 16 As the intangible characteristic of the heritage is given by the community rather than the expert, it implies a new ‘contact’ between civil society and the state. In the practice of safeguarding intangible heritage, we constantly need to ask ourselves (i) whose voices are heard, and (ii) whose interests are ultimately served. This requires sensitivity on the part of the governmental entities (both central and local) towards the relationship between heritage ‘experts’ and community representatives and recognition of the need to manage the distribution of potential benefits in the most equitable and appropriate way. Intangible heritage should not always be celebrated uncritically. Recording what we know of the past (whatever its moral status) and using it to inform the present is helpful and valuable, but uncritically accepting utopian versions of the past or perpetuating damaging aspects of the past is not. We cannot, for example, condone the physical abuse of women, because it is ‘traditional’ in many communities.Notes: This is not a Scientific Report. The Author does not have intention to present the full information on the subject.
2. Intangible Heritage in Armenia, Sarhat PETROSYAN Page | 17 Contents LEGISLATION ON INTANGIBLE HERITAGE International responsibilities National Legislation Action Plans on National level LISTED ELEMENTS Representative list Urgent Safeguarding UNESCO Representative List INTANGIBLE TAVUSH Folklore Local cults Food Fests SUMMARY REFERENCES
LEGISLATION ON INTANGIBLE HERITAGE Page | 18International responsibilitiesThe Republic of Armenia 15 years after its independence in March 20, 2006 signed UNESCO’sConvention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage which was approved by1441 countries in Paris on year 2003. The same year (2006) on October 17th National Assemblyof Armenia approved the Convention after which the Convention became accepted by Armenia.On October 23, 2006 Republic of Armenia signed UNESCO’s Convention on the Protection andPromotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, which was approved by National Assemblyon May 27, 2007. Starting from that day Government of Armenia, in particular Ministry of Culture(then Ministry of Culture, Sport and Youth Affairs) became responsible for implementation ofrecommendations of two conventions and preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage.National LegislationOn November 20, 2002 National Assembly of Armenia approved the Law on the Basics ofCultural Legislation. Based on this Law the Republic of Armenia assigns the direction towardswhich cultural policy has to be developed by defining the role of the Government on Nationallevel as well as the roles of local authorities.On October 7, 2009 National Assembly of Armenia approved the Law on Intangible CulturalHeritage. The law defined the procedures and importance of identification, documentation,classification, implementation, restoration 2 of intangible cultural heritage of Armenia andresponsibilities of the parties.Action Plans on National levelOn November 23, 2006, the same year when the Republic of Armenia officially signedUNESCO’s Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Governmentapproved the Strategy on Safeguarding and Preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage.1 Figures of July 17, 2012. Source: www.unesco.org2 www.mincult.am/intangible_cultural_heritage.html
On May 3, 2007 Government of Armenia approved the Work Plan and Schedule forSafeguarding and Preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage.Based on these two decrees Government developed actions that were needed for safeguarding Page | 19the intangible heritage. Development of National legislation, definition of criteria’s on preparingthe lists, preparation of the lists were among the activities.The first List of Elements of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (hereafter: Representative list) andthe criterias of shaping it was approved by the Government of Armenia on March 11, 2010.Some 18 elements were represented in that list, including different types of intangible heritage,e.g. food, folklore, dance and music, etc.Few months later, on January 20, 2011 Government approved the Decree on Criteria’s forShaping the Urgent Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists and the List of the UrgentSafeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage. More 7 elements were added to the previouslyapproved list.Started from year 2011 each year Government of the Republic approved the Annual Programsfor the Preservation, Protection, Promotion and Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage.This document defines short term tasks and responsibilities of the parties in duty, e.g. Ministryof Culture and its bodies.LISTED ELEMENTSThere are 18 Intangible Cultural Heritage elements listed in Representative list and 7 elementsin the list of intangible heritage elements under the consideration of being urgent. Two elementsare listed in the UNESCO’s World Intangible Heritage List, from which one is added also in thelist of Representative list of Armenia.
Illustration 1: Illustrations of Sasna Tsrer by H. Kojoyan Page | 20Representative list1. Sasna Tsrer, Mythological poetry [See Illustration 1];2. Kochari, Traditional dance;3. Yarkhushta, Traditional dance;4. Krunk, (transl.: Crane) type of song and singing, symbolism of migration and Diaspora;5. Gatsek – Tesek, (transl.: Go and See) Song;6. Batola, Dance music;7. Armenian traditional wedding ceremony, 3-7 days long event;8. St. Sargis Fest, Armenian “Valentine Day”, in January-February;9. Trndez, Fire jumping [See Illustration 2], in February;10. Vardavar, Water throwing day, each year second (in some places last) Sunday of July;11. St. Tevatoros, Local cult for remedies;12. Tukh Manuk, Local cult for remedies;13. Katiki bardzratsum (transl.: Throat lifting), type of singing and massage of throat of child;14. Khavits, Food boiled flour, good for young mother after giving birth;15. Decoration of Tari hats (transl.: “Tari” means Year, Hats means bread), Mythological and religious ornamental decoration of traditional Tari bread during cooking process;16. Traditional forging (blacksmith);17. Traditional Khachkar (Cross-stone) making [See Illustration 3];18. Family (lineage) tree.
Illustration 2: Fire jumping Festival in Lovers’ Park Yerevan, photo by V. Abgaryan Page | 21Urgent Safeguarding1. Karose Khache, Mythological poetry;2. Vijak (transl.: Condition), Song for selection for games;3. Avetis (transl.: Good news), Type of song and/or singing;4. Khachbure (transl.: Cross smels), Local cult for protection;5. Barekendan, Armenian “Halloween”;6. Tightrope dance (Rope walker);7. FancyworkUNESCOS Representative List1. The Duduk and its Music Presented on 2005, included in the list on 20082. Armenian Khachkar (Cross-stone) art, its symbolism and craftsmanship3 Presented on 2005, included in the list on 2010 [See Illustration 3]3 It is included in the Representative list
Illustration 3: Khachkar (Cross-stone) in Haghartsin Monastery Complex, photo by S. Petrosyan Page | 22INTANGIBLE TAVUSHBased on the site visits and interviews with state officials (Dilijan, Teghut and Hovk), individualsin charge of preservation of cultural heritage (Gosh), elder residents (Gosh and Dilijan) andbased on some published researches above mentioned intangible elements on local (regional)level in Tavush has been discovered which are worth to be mentioned.FolkloreThere is a legend about white buffalos living deep under the water in Gosh Lake. There aredifferent stories about beautiful women kept by those buffalos; some corner stone’s protected bythem, etc.
Illustration 4: Gosh lake, photo by S. Petrosyan Page | 23Goshavank monastery situated in central part of Gosh village is dated back to 12th-13thcenturies. The name of the complex comes from Mkhitar Gosh, who is author of first Armeniancriminal code and some other fables. The monastery complex has one of the only remainingbook depositories of that period and a ruined school. It means that it was an importanteducational and religious center. Based on one of the stories that were told for centuries, in 14thcentury after one of the Tatar Mongolian invasions the burning process of more than 10’000copies of books took one week.Local cultsThe tomb of Mkhitar Gosh which is located not far from Monastery complex for many years wasa local cult. There was a belief that it had spiritual energy and remedies impotency.FoodDolma (stuffed vegetable dishes, which is as well a common dish for the habitants of Balkansand Middle East) is considered a local dish. They wrap it with leaves of Koli tree.
There are variety of marinated (pickled) greens, e.g. Asparagus (in Armenian Tsnebek), Portula(in Armenian Dandur), Okra (in Armenian Bamia), Liliy (in Armenian Shoushan), Beet (inArmenian Jakndegh), etc. Page | 24Ghaurma is another dish which is very popular in all parts of Armenia. It is cooked beef meetwith butter, that is kept in the same butter for quite long period. Most commonly they keep it inearthen pots. In this region they keep in “Tik”, which is a bag made from beef’s skin. Illustration 5: Traditional Vardavar fest at Haghartsin Monastery, photo from touradvice.amFestsFrom festives the most common one is Vardavar. In this region of Armenia they celebrate it lastSunday of July, but in other parts of Armenia and also Armenian Apostolic Church celebratesVardavar second Sunday of July.For celebration they used to play Horse-ride (collecting food sitting on a horse) and Snowcollection (in Teghut village) for deep caved gorges of mountains, also tightrope dancers mostlyfrom Ararat Valley (Central part of current Armenia), dances and music.
The most famous and traditional food is Sali (Flour, Butter, Sour Cream, etc.). There werehabits of also preparing Konchogh (Bread, Onion, Oil, Butter and Egg), Lambs Blood (FriedLamb’s blood, Onion and Oil), and traditional Armenian dishes, such as Khorovats (Barbeque), Page | 25Khashlama (lamb stew), etc.SUMMARYThis very quick study was done by mapping and discovering the intangible cultural heritage ofTavush region more substantially and understandably. Even from the first insights wediscovered that there is a strong need of doing/re-doing such research for studying the localtraditions deeper and in more detail.Despite the fact that the region is popular travel destination in Armenia for its climate andcultural heritage, it is important to develop some unique traditions for developing of new types oftourism and attracting newcomers.One of the recommendations can be to design and establish a platform for sharing traditionsand developing a network for connecting the local people holding traditions with the people withentrepreneurial ideas.REFERENCES(Based on alphabetical order) Law on Basics Cultural Legislation, www.laws.am Law on Intangible Cultural Heritage, www.laws.am List of Elements Intangible Cultural Heritage of Armenia, www.mincult.am List of Urgent Safeguarding Elements Intangible Cultural Heritage of Armenia, www.mincult.am Strategy on safeguarding and preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage, www.gov.am UNESCO’s Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, www.unesco.org Work plan and schedule for safeguarding and preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage, www.gov.amNotes This is not a Scientific Report. The Author does not have intention to present the full information on the subject.
3. Challenges and conservation of Tangible and Intangible heritage in historiccenter: cases studies in Andalusia (Spain). Page | 26 Challenges and conservation of Tangible and Intangible heritage in historic center: cases studies in Andalusia (Spain) 1. Introduction. Andalusia 2. Diffuse city versus compact city. Concepts 3. Why to rehabilitate the historic city? 4. Urbanism, heritage, culture and sustainable development. Tangible and intangible heritage 5. Sustainable Development Strategies 6. A new model of urban management
1. Introduction. AndalusiaAndalusia is located in southern Europe and it is a bridge between the European and the Page | 27African Continent its situation is therefore strategic and this product has a rich urban andheritage culture, thanks to a multitude of factors that have shaped the history of Andalusia,where Islamic traits persist in our cities both in urban and in many cultural aspects and lifestylesassociated with the Mediterranean.Andalusia’s very balanced city system is based on a network of unpolarize cities, and one ortwo major urban centers as in other regions of Europe. This situation gives Andalusia, a varietyof urban environments very rich and varied.Andalusia has nine sets urban regional center level, complemented by a system of medium-sized cities and networks of towns in rural areas that ensure a stable settlement distributedthroughout its territory.This system of cities, represents one of its main social and economic heritage. At the sametime, it has some defining characteristics that give it an unique position to adapt its structure tothe requirements of sustainability, such as its polycentricity, social and functional diversity andcompactness.2. Diffuse city versus compact city. Concepts.The compact city, complex, efficient, cohesive is where we meet the parameters ofenvironmental sustainability, energy and economic exploitation of its natural resources.Sustainability must be not just environmental but democratic. Democracy is based on the activeparticipation of the population. In order for neighborhoods to be regenerated, they should be fullof life.. The metabolism of the city should be driven by its inhabitants.This Mediterranean city model has been transformed in the last 25 years, embracing anothermodel imported from other cultural areas, based in the creation of a diffuse city and thatfunctionally separates and segregates the population into the territory based on their economiccapacity.The dispersion causes an unsustainable growth model that creates the following negativeimpacts: To reduce natural spaces, to break the proximity trading system, a detachmenttowards everyday spaces, a loss of social cohesion, increased mobility needs or increasedenergy expenditure, water consumption or rate of generation of waste. This type of cityprovokes increased consumption of resources: land, materials, water and energy. This is atrend that continues as the opposite path to urban sustainability.Currently our historic districts and neighborhoods in the Andalusia cities have differentchallenges that need to be redirected, especially in these times of economic crisis. Therehabilitation and renovation projects in cities are the best stimulus to create micro job but at thesame time, consolidate the compact city as living space.
The regeneration of the built city, its neighborhoods and historic centers, must recover the levelof quality that it once had, because only then it will regain its status as a city, according to the Page | 28Mediterranean tradition, meaning, compact, functional socially and economically diversifiedcities, which contribute avoid indiscriminate expansion processes and consumption of ournatural resources and heritage.Intervention is a process that have as principle to keep the resident population as the best wayto preserve its condition of city, by urban and social rehabilitation improves quality of life,mobility, employment and business opportunities, coexistence, integration social in equalopportunities, etc.And in this sense, the rehabilitation of historic centers is part of a sustainable growth model,because it ensures urban development that preserves the environment and provides quality oflife to its inhabitants, leveraging existing resources in our cities and recovering their spaces sothat all citizens can live with dignity from equity and social justice. The urban and socialrehabilitation of our cities aims to create a more livable city model, with services, facilities andquality public spaces, which ultimately define a more welcoming and nice city.3. Why to rehabilitate the historic city?Historic cities of Andalusia, generally share the same problems in terms of urban, economic andsocial degradation such as:Housing and historic residential typologies have undergone numerous transformations becausethey have been busy courtyards and galleries, and so have increased the number of housingwith little or no maintenance, physical degradation, loss of habitability. This causes a migrationof the native population. Nearly empty buildings coexist with others with real situation ofovercrowding, both with a high physical and social deterioration.Depopulation: Urban centers have some of the lowest densities throughout the city. Hosting anincreasing aging population, the representatives of the residents themselves have noted theshift that is occurring in the population of these neighborhoods to other areas of the city,especially the new urban development or metropolitan area. (gentrification processes)The difficulty of access and mobility, and lack public facilities that meet the current needs of thepopulation such as senior centers, day care centers, sports facilities, local shops etc.4. Urbanism, heritage, culture and sustainable development. Tangible andintangible heritage.The intervention model to regenerate the historic centers must have a comprehensive andinclusive approach where urban strategies are measured in relation to the social, economic,heritage and functional usage... We are convinced that the first challenge is to give life to
historic cities and activities in order to improve economic development.Joining heritage conservation measures and economic activities in relation to its population. Page | 29The revitalization of the city should be made based on searching a critical reconstruction of thecity considering the improvement of urban living, integration and social cohesion andsustainable development, through participatory processes involving the whole city.The critical reconstruction of the city is paradoxically to accept the ability to evolve and tochange, from which the city life depends, and to ensure the viability of its conservation. To admitintelligent transformation which preserve their values does not mean the extreme conservation.Restoration can be understood in its broadest sense, as an instrument capable of updating theoriginal creative act and to create a city to live, to use for leisure of those who visit us, aiming torevitalize the company and to provoke synergies.The heritage of a city is not only tangible values such as its buildings, facades, urban space,landscape, building types... but also it is linked to lifestyles, traditions, folklore, customs, culturalvalues, it is to say: Intangibles valuesTo regenerate residential buildings respecting their typological values such as neighboringhouses, courtyard houses, etc., is at the same time to protect lifestyles associated with thosebuildings. If older people who have historically lived in these buildings are protected and theycontinue to live in these buildings, this is somehow to continue the social and historical memoryof the city. The arrival of new families with children will enable the transmition of this knowledgefrom generation to generation.Sustainable development in the historic city is often associated with tourism. This discussion ofthe historical cities and tourism is a hot topic for several reasons. Firstly because it is anegligible source of income in historic cities. Tourism has become a promoter of the economy,and without these resources many of them would be to seriously damage their waterline.On the other hand, to take over this market it is needed to compete for it, and to definestrategies for this means to design complex projects to materialize the physical structure,heritage, economic and social bases of the cities.The questions are simple to ask: What type of tourism do we want to capture?. What should weoffer?. How can we make the most of this potential?. The answers are complex and must beadapted to the circumstances of each city with validated methodologies for the experiences andbest practices of other cities.Cultural-heritage-tourism can be a good combination to revalue the city, although we shouldtarget a tourism that looks for the quality and authenticity, which is called motivational tourism,and which is quantitative smaller than the one generated by the tour-operators. However thiskind of tourism-cultural that interests us make our historic cities attractive because it puts intovalue their greater spending power and lower environmental impact, and targets a visitor who isan experienced traveler and who demands quality and authenticity.The historic city wants this cultural tourism, which is outside of the big tour-operators, and whichis based on autodidactic approach, and which investigates the city and its cultural events. It is
also mixed in its activities (gastronomic, entertainment, folklore, cultural), and sets its ownroutes and heritage itineraries of those who are eager for knowledge... It is the visitor who willspend the night in the city, with high purchasing power, respectful with city, and probably will Page | 30repeat visits and thus can become a frequent regular temporary citizen.If we know our ideal tourist profile, we have to ask ourselves what must we do to attract him?.Each city must give the right answer to this question, as we have commented, by applyingquality criteria based on diversity, authenticity, sustainability, which are necessary and essentialto not break values and to allow the city the balance between economic development and theactive protection of its heritage and urban activity that occurs on a day to day of a pulsating cityliving.5. Sustainable Development StrategiesThe city must build projects and actions related to urban sustainability. This means among otherthings to build a new approach for integrating deep-urban policies and route. Cities havebeen formed over time so it is impossible to use short term schedules to create regenerationstrategies. .In short, they must be actions schedules on a medium-long term which in manycases will take over 10 years (They are projects that exceed the 4-year term, so the haven´timmediate electoral returns).At the same time we want to insist on a concept that is not easily understood when you have theresponsibility to change the reality of a neighborhood or a citys urban center. The weakness(problems) of a city or an urban area, are both an opportunity to turn problems-weaknesses intoopportunities, living a new approach to our actions, strategies and projects.The problems are not unique to a single discipline, and we explain the physical degradation ofan urban area, as is the loss or destruction of buildings of great historical value, not only withsolving the rehabilitation of those buildings, but assuming that there are other problems behindsuch as: social, under the areas economic development, insecurity, urban decay, gentrification,loss of resident population, emigration and / or eviction of the population to other areas etc.Therefore an urban regeneration project has to take into account all the multiple actions of thevarious measures that have to be made, while striving at the same time create in the city thefollowing: Changing mindsets both citizenship and in local government and civic organizations Generate active knowledge about the values of the city (tangible and intangible). Innovate urban management Active Participation and responsible citizenship and their organizations Rediscover neighborhoods / historic centers, key elements of a Living City
6. A new model of urban management. Page | 31We must build a management model based on: Integrality: Addressing jointly coordinated and planned the necessary actions to address the problems of the city, looking for the potential of the city and the people. Territoriality: Having the territory. Generate solutions adapted to the territory both in the organizational model, resources and methodology. Participation: It is necessary the presence and involvement of the residents to decide what neighborhood/city want.Integral Rehabilitation thus becomes one of the priority objectives of any urban sustainability project onthe conviction that, creating new neighborhoods (with criteria environmental/ecological), is as importantas recovering the existing ones. In the following scheme you can see what we are discussing: Actions Improvement of urban Pedagogy of habitatIntegral Rehabilitation Actions of social community Objective live in aHistoric Center and to value the urban heritage more habitable cityNeighbourhoods Cultural Tourism Sustainable development. Other Actions Public management. Participation. Cooperation between administrationsThis project is integral and integrated in order to regenerate the city. Integral in the sense ofthe confluence of the actions described above. Integrated because we address the problemswith perspective and interdisciplinary methodology, aiming at solving the problem... In short, thecomprehensive rehabilitation project aims to define a new way of doing and understanding thecity, from cohesion, sustainability and urban and social integration. We intend to define aparticipatory way with the new intervention strategies in the city, that suit the current urban,social and economic requirements: the rights of citizens and the city.To make this "urban challenge", you need to modify the background and the way to act. This isa new and most innovative model/type of urban management, which should be always alive andevolving, adapting to a problem that it is real and complex, our actions should be aimed atsolving the problems: physical, economic and social aspects of the city. So this new urbanmanagement should be: flexible, adapted to the specific needs of each region andneighborhood, acting from knowledge, having critical vision (learning from mistakes), agility inmanaging rehabilitation programs and their financing allowing be efficient and effective ...
Action Programs (Strategic Plan, Development Plans, Urban Plans...) are the requireddocuments for planning actions that would be carried out in building the city. The intervention inan urban area as complex and difficult is being done through deep knowledge of the urban, Page | 32social, and economic heritage. We need to "know" in order to diagnose and plan the necessarysolutions that enable the city to recover fully with the active participation of residents,enterprises and social collectives.The methodology is based on a comprehensive intervention in which neighbors and citizenparticipation are the protagonist. The intervention, is therefore defined as the ability of these toinfluence the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies aimed at improving theirlife conditions.We have several reasons for doing so, the neighbors are the ones who know the reality and theproblems of the neighborhood, moreover while taking part in decisions and theirimplementation, residents also are responsible for the intervention project, increasing their self-esteem and project ownership and then it is possible between all to improve the neighborhood.This contributes to the reinvention of local identity, something very complex in theseneighborhoods, and to convert weakness into strength.Unlike during the 80’s, today it is unthinkable acting in these areas in a disaggregated or partialway, and the concept of Living City and/or Integrated City is gaining ground in all forums andprofessionals, based on the pillars of, rehabilitating peripheral neighborhoods and urban centers(historical), through public management which integrates all agencies or departments, (whethermunicipal, regional or central), with responsibility in these areas: urban, social, security, is theway to actions continue to be sustainable over time.Definitely urban regeneration is: Comprehensiveness, Territoriality and Participation is a newtool available to create new opportunities in the city, and this way to recover: the city forcitizens.Notes This is not a Scientific Report. The Author does not have intention to present the full information on the subject.