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Dpr dalmia solar_19-08-09power plant Dpr dalmia solar_19-08-09power plant Document Transcript

  • August 2009Detailed project report for developing SolarPower Plant at Bap, Jodhpur, Rajasthan Prepared for Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi A subsidiary of Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Limited, New Delhi Project Report No. 2009RT03 www.teriin.org The Energy and Resources Institute
  • Contents Page No.Executive SummarySalient features of the projectTerminologyCHAPTER 1 Proposed site to setting up the solar power plant ............................... 1 Site details ........................................................................................................... 1CHAPTER 2 Solar radiation resource assessment .................................................... 5 Preamble ............................................................................................................. 5 Rajasthan............................................................................................................. 5 Solar radiation over Rajasthan ........................................................................6 Solar radiation resource assessment ..................................................................8 Estimation of solar radiation on different tracking surfaces .............................9CHAPTER 3 Proposed technology...........................................................................11 Overview of concentrating solar power technology ..........................................11 Parabolic trough collector...............................................................................11 Central receiver system.................................................................................. 12 Parabolic dish-sterling technology ................................................................ 12 Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR) ..................................................................... 12 Infinia Solar System (ISS)................................................................................. 18 Physical data of Infinia Solar System ............................................................... 19 Environmental ratings ...................................................................................... 19 Performance of Infinia Solar System (ISS) ...................................................20 De-Rating .......................................................................................................... 21 System Control...............................................................................................23 Operation .......................................................................................................23 Inverter ..........................................................................................................24 General specifications/Interface ......................................................................24 Power Electronics and Control System .........................................................25 Operation and maintenance .............................................................................25 Safety..............................................................................................................26 Foundation ........................................................................................................ 27 Layout................................................................................................................ 27 Sizing of a 10 MW Solar Dish-Sterling power plant.........................................29 Estimation of power output ..............................................................................30CHAPTER 4 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power.................32 Interconnection facility for the proposed plan.................................................32CHAPTER 5 Project execution plan .......................................................................36CHAPTER 6 Financial analysis...............................................................................38 Assumptions & estimates..................................................................................38 Project cost break-up & means of finance.....................................................38 Project implementation schedule..................................................................38 Proposed electricity tariff ..............................................................................39
  • Annexure I: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Bap, Jodhpur.............. 40Annexure II: Product brochures .........................................................................54Annexure III: MOU letters between Dalmia group and INIFINA ......................56Annexure IV(a): Layout of 10 MW power plant ..................................................58Annexure IV (b): Estimation of cost of electrical & civil works ......................... 60Annexure-IV (c) Single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme ...............62Annexure V: Financial sheets...............................................................................64
  • List of figuresFigure 1.1 Road Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) ....................................................1Figure 1.2 Railway Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) ............................................... 2Figure 1.3 Land Plan of the proposed solar power plant at Bap, Jodhpur ........................... 3Figure 2.1 DNI map of North-west region on India .............................................................. 6Figure 2.2 Global solar radiation map of Rajasthan............................................................. 7Figure 2.4 Global Solar Radiation over Bap, Jodhpur (from Mani and METEONORM) ... 9Figure 3.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar System............................................................ 11Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power technologies 13Figure 3.3 Major components of the ISS ............................................................................ 18Figure 3.4 Schematic of 3kW system of ISS .........................................................................19Figure 3.5 Performance curve of the system........................................................................21Figure 3.6 Pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap, Jodhpur................................. 22Figure 3.8 Shadow pattern for solar field at 8.30am on 23rd Dec (ECOTECH) ............... 28Figure 3.9 Shadow pattern for solar field at 10.30am on 23rd Dec ................................... 28Figure 3.10 Illustrative power block (1 MW)...................................................................... 29Figure 3.11 Illustration of sub module of 5x5 arrays of 3 kW ISS ....................................... 29Figure 3.12 Illustrations of 5x3 arrays of sub modules to make 1 MW module ................. 30Figure 3.13 Process flow chart diagram of parabolic Dish-Sterling system of ISS.............31List of tablesTable 2.1 Monthly total values of DNI over Bap, Jodhpur with effective sunshine hours 10Table 3.1 Technological maturity level of CST technologies................................................13Table 3.2 Comparison between various CSP technologies ...................................................14Table 3.3. Technical Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies..............16Table 3.4 Physical details of parabolic Dish-Sterling of ISS.................................................19Table 3.5 Operating parameters and ranges of parabolic dish-sterling system...................19Table 3.5 Performance outputs of Parabolic Dish-Sterling system.................................... 25Table 3.6 Expected service life of service items .................................................................. 26Table 3.8 Performance summary of ISS of 10 MW............................................................. 28Table 5.1 Action Plan For Execution of 10 MW Solar Power Plant ................................... 36Table 6.1 Project cost & means of finance (10 MW)........................................................... 38
  • Executive Summary This proposal is for setting up a 10MW capacity concentrating solar power plant based on innovative parabolic dish sterling technology developed by a US based company,which has been successfully developing and delivering innovative Sterling generators and cryocoolers since 1985. For more than twenty years, it has developed unique hardware and technology based on its proprietary free-piston Stirling designs. The technology provider’s engineers work closely with clients to develop systems ranging from power for deep-space missions to cryocoolers for research.The company has already entered into agreement with the project promoters M/s Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi. The solar power project is proposed in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, which is one of the best suited locations in terms of higher annual direct normal insolation (DNI), favourable climatic conditions and land availability. About Dalmia The Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Limited is in business for about 70 years now. They are the pioneers in the cement sector in India. The DCBL has ushered into a higher growth trajectory and has been posting phenomenal financial numbers for the past several quarters. The company balance sheet for FY2009 seems to be very strong with reserves of Rs. 1252 cr. Over the past decade the company has commissioned projects worth more than Rs. 2000 crore in cement,sugar and power businesses. The installed power generation of the company stands at 140.5 MW. To sustain this growth momentum and as being an environmental friendly corporate citizen the company plans to diversify in the renewable energy sector. The group has already experience of the wind power generation and is currently operating 17 MW wind power plant in Tamil Nadu. The organization has now identified to tap the solar bliss of the nature and help the nation achieve its solar objectives be at forefront of the green power. They have assigned to its subsidiary company, M/s Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi, to explore and take up establishment and operation of solar power plants. They have engaged M/s The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi as consultant to prepare Detailed Project Report (DPR). About TERI A dynamic and flexible organization with a global vision and local focus, TERI was established in 1974. While in the initial period the focus was mainly on documentation and information
  • dissemination activities, research activities in the fields of energy, environment, and sustainable development were initiated towards the end of 1982. The genesis of these activities lay in TERI’s firm belief that efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, large-scale adoption of renewable energy technologies, and reduction of all forms of waste would move the process of development towards the goal of sustainability.Technology The proposed plant will comprises modular 3kW solar parabolic Dish- Sterling technology for power generation. Technology provider has developed and patented innovative oscillating piston Sterling engine technology which has better performance and longer life as compared to conventional cranks shaft type Sterling engine designs. The technology is stand alone type which needs no external power or water source and hence is most appropriate for desert region of Rajasthan. Small amount of processed water is required only for cleaning of the system.Solar Energy Action Plan of Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited,New Delhi/ Dalmia Group The company proposes to set up concentrated solar power generation station using Stirling Engine technology. This technology has been identified as a “technology of future” in the draft National Solar Mission in the section “mission strategy” page-7. The company intends to implement this nest generation technology now. In this context the company has following plans for assimilation of the aforesaid technology: 1. To start with installing Solar Power Plant based on this technology imported from the original technology provider. 2. Install manufacturing facility in India to drive down the costs with the indigenization and by going along the learning curve with volume growth. 3. Install large size Solar Power Projects in India based on this. The company is looking at 400 MW installed capacity in next 5 years.
  • Salient features of the project 1. Project promoter:- M/s Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi 2. Project location:- Village Bap, Tehsil Phalodi, Jhodpur District, Rajasthan 3. Proposed technology:- Solar Dish-Sterling 4. Design consultant:- The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi 5. Plant capacity:- 10 MW 6. Dish sterling systems required:- 3340 Dish - Sterling engine systems each of 3kW capacity. 7. Annual average Direct Normal Insolation (DNI):- 2240 kWh/m2 8. Annual Effective DNI:- 2202 kWh/m2 9. Annual output (expected):- 22.2 MU 10. Land area required:- 70 acre 11. Project implementation period:- 26 months from date of approval. 12. Estimated project cost:- Rs 230 crore 13. Design Optimisation Software used:- ECOTECH 14. Agreement with supplier:- Signed and copy enclosed in Annexure II. 15. Site selection:- Site identified and suitability confirmed 16. Financial closure:- On approval of the project promoters will approach banks/ IREDA for loan. Equity share capital is readily available.
  • Terminology Direct solar radiation It is the solar radiation propagating along the line joining the receiving surface and the sun. It is also referred as beam radiation. It is measured through pyrehiliometer. Diffuse solar radiation It is the solar radiation scattered by aerosols, dust and molecules. It does not have a unique direction and also dose not follows the fundamental principals of optics. It is measured by shading pyrenometer. Global solar radiation The global solar radiation is the sum of the direct and diffuse solar radiation and is sometimes referred to as the global radiation. The most common measurements of solar radiation are total radiation on a horizontal surface often referred to as ‘global radiation’ on the surface. It is measured by pyrenometer. Irradiance Irradiance is the rate at which radiant energy is incident on a surface, per unit area of surface. Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) It is the direct component of the solar radiation incident on normal to the collector; means the angle of incidence of incident solar radiation with the normal of the collector is zero throughout the day.
  • CHAPTER 1 Proposed site to setting up the solar powerplant Site details The proposed location of the solar power plant based on Dish- Sterling technology, is near village Bap in Phalodi Tahsil (latitude 27°06’ to 27°09’ North and 72°20’ to 72°23’ East) of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan state. Bap town is situated at distance of 140 km. from Jodhpur and connected to Jodhpur- Jaisalmer railway line. Bap (Latitude 27o 22’N and Longitude 72o22’E) is an up Tahsil of Phalodi and area where land has been selected for proposed solar power plant. The location is well connected with the National Highway NH15 (Bikaner-Jaiselmer). The proposed location has shadow free area (almost flat terrain) and located at very close (0.5-1.5 km) to a 33/11 kV substation from where the power generated through the solar power plant can be feed to the grid. In addition another 132/33 kV grid substation is planned near Bap village. The distance of this substation from the proposed site is around 4-5 km. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 respectively represent the road and rail connectivity of the proposed project location; where the important locations are marked as Red. Figure 1.1 Road Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) (Source: www.mapsofindia.com) T E R I Report No.2009RT03
  • 2 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,RajasthanFigure 1.2 Railway Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) (Source: www.mapsofindia.com)The land plan of the identified land area for the proposed solarpower project at Bap, Jodhpur is presented in Figure 1.3. Thenext chapters cover solar radiation resource potential, expectedelectrical output from the proposed 10MW system along withthe financial analysis of the project.T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 3 Proposed site to setting up of the solar power plantsFigure 1.3 Land Plan of the proposed solar power plant at Bap, JodhpurT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 4 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,RajasthanT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • CHAPTER 2 Solar radiation resource assessment Preamble India is located in the sunny belt of the earth, thereby receiving abundant radiant energy from the sun. Its equivalent energy potential is about 6,000 million GWh of energy per year. India being a tropical country is blessed with good sunshine over most parts, and the number of clear sunny days in a year also being quite high. India is in the sunny belt of the world. The country receives solar energy equivalent to more than 5,000 trillion kWh per year. The daily average global radiation is around 5 .0 kWh/m2 in north-eastern and hilly areas to about 7.0 kWh/m2 in western regions and cold dessert areas with the sunshine hours ranging between 2300 and 3200 per year. In most parts of India, clear sunny weather is experienced for 250 to 300 days a year. The annual global radiation varies from 1600 to 2200 kWh/m2. The direct normal insolation1 (DNI) over Rajasthan varies from 1800 kWh/m2 to 2600 kWh/m2. This chapter covers the detailed-feasibility of solar radiation resource assessment and Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) study for Jodhpur Rajasthan. Rajasthan Rajasthan is situated in the north-western part of India. It covers 342,239 square kilometres. Rajasthan lies between latitudes 23o 3and 30o 12, North and longitudes 69o 30 and 78o 17, East. The southern part of Rajasthan is about 225 km from the Gulf of Kutch and about 400 km from the Arabian Sea. Rajasthan is bounded by Pakistan in the west and north-west; by the State of Punjab in the north; by Haryana in the north- east; by Uttar Pradesh in the east, by Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Gujarat in the south-west. The climate of Rajasthan can be divided into four seasons; summers, Monsoon, Post-Monsoon and winter. A summer, which extends from April to June, is the hottest season, with temperatures ranging from 32 oC to 45 oC. In western Rajasthan the temp may rise to 48 oC, particularly in May and June. The second season Monsoon extends from July to September, temp drops, but humidity increases, even when there is slight drop in the temp (35 oC to 40 oC). 90% of rains occur during this period. The Post-monsoon period is from October to November. The average maximum temperature is 33o C to 38o C, and the 1DNI= Direct normal insolation; all concentrating solar power technologies comprises this component of solar radiation only. T E R I Report No.2009RT03
  • 6 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan minimum is between 18 oC and 20 oC. The fourth season is winter or the cold season, from December to March. There is a marked variation in maximum and minimum temperatures and regional variations across the state. January is the coolest month of the year. There is slight precipitation in the north and north-eastern region of the state, and light winds, predominantly from the north and northeast. At this time, relative humidity ranges from 50% to 60% in the morning, and 25% to 35% in the afternoon. The north-west part of the country is best suited for solar energy based projects because the location receives maximum amount of solar radiation annually in the country. Figure 2.1 presents the annual average DNI map for the northwest region of India. Bap Figure 2.1 DNI map of North-west region on India (Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA)Solar radiation over Rajasthan Rajasthan receives maximum solar radiation intensity in India. In addition the average rainfall is minimum in the state, hence best suited for solar power generation. The global solar radiation map of Rajasthan is presented in Figure 2.2; which is based on the measured data of Indian Metrological Department (IMD) and satellite data through NASA. The map clearly emphasize T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 7 Solar radiation resource assessmentthat the western and southern parts of the state receives goodamount of annual average solar radiation. Jodhpur is also onerepresentative location of Rajasthan State. Figure 2.2 Global solar radiation map of Rajasthan (Source: TERI Analysis)Bap, JodhpurJodhpur is the one of the largest district of Rajasthan iscentrally situated in Western region of the State, havinggeographical area of 22850 sq. km. The district stretchesbetween 2600’ and 27037’ at North Latitude and between 72o55’and 73o 52’ at East Longitude. This district is situated at theheight between 250-300 meters above sea level. Jodhpur isbound by Nagaur in East, Jaisalmer in west, Bikaner in North aswell as Pali in the South. The length of the district from North toSouth and from East to West is 197 Km. & 208 Km. respectively.This district comes under arid zone of the Rajasthan state. Itcovers 11.60% of total area of arid zone of the state. The averagerainfall is around 360 millimetres, it is extraordinarily variable.Bap block of Jodhpur district is and situated between Jodhpur,Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts in western Rajasthan. Locatedin the heart of the Thar desert, Bap gives the impression ofendless desolation, with scattered habitation. A typical sun pathdiagram2 for Bap, Jodhpur has been presented in Figure 2.3.2Sun path diagrams are a convenient way of representing annual changesin the path of the Sun through the sky within a single 2D diagram. Theirmost immediate use is that the solar azimuth and altitude can be read offdirectly for any time of the day and day of the year. They also provide aunique summary of solar position that the designer can refer to whenconsidering shading requirements and design options.T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 8 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanStereographic Diagram NLo c a tio n: 26 .3°, 73 .0 ° 34 5° 15 °S un P o sition : 1 53 .9°, 65 .6°H SA: 15 3.9 ° 3 30 ° 30 °VSA: 11 2.1° 1 0° 3 15 ° 4 5° 2 0° 3 0° 3 00 ° 6 0° 4 0° 1st Jul 6 1 st Jun 19 5 0° 1st Aug 2 85 ° 6 0° 7 1 st 5° ay 7M 18 7 0° 1st S ep 8 17 8 0° 9 16 1st Ap r 15 10 2 70 ° 14 11 9 0° 13 12 1st O c t 1 st M ar 1st55 ° 2 N ov 1 05 ° 1st Feb 1 st D ec 1st Ja n 2 40 ° 1 20 ° 2 25 ° 1 35 ° 2 10 ° 15 0°T ime : 1 2:00D ate : 1 st A p r (9 1) 19 5° 16 5°D otted line s: July-D ec embe r. 18 0° Figure 2.3 Sun-path Diagram for the location of Bap, Jodhpur (Source: Ecotech Software)Solar radiation resource assessment Resource assessment is the primary and essential exercise towards project evaluation. In India, the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) measures the solar radiation and other climatic parameters over various locations across the country however, the measuring stations record only global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. The parabolic Dish- Sterling technology utilises infrared component of direct normal component of global solar radiation; which is essentially the solar radiation measured/assessed at a surface normal to Sun rays throughout the day. The direct solar radiation is not measured at many locations of India; while it could be estimated through global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface. The direct solar radiation is not measured by IMD in Jodhpur while the global and diffuse solar radiation values are measuring from last 25-30 years. The best way of carrying out the solar radiation resource assessment is to use T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 9 Solar radiation resource assessment TMY3 (Typical Meteorological Year weather data files) data files for selected location. Since the TMY data files for Indian locations are not available hence in the present study the METEONORM4 database has been used for solar radiation study and DNI estimation. Further the DNI values estimated using METEONORM data base have been compared with the values obtained using IMD data as well as with the NASA satellite data for the location of Jodhpur. In order to assess the closeness of the METEONORM data a comparison of the monthly values obtained from ‘Handbook of Solar Radiation’ by A Mani5 with TMY data of METEONORM. The annual global solar radiation through Mani and METEONORM database has been obtained as 2201 kWh/m2 and 2051 kWh/m2 respectively; which are very close (<7% deviation). Figure 2.4 presents the global solar radiation over Bap, Jodhpur using the data of A Mani and METEONORM. 250 Global Solar Radiation (kWh/m ) 200 2 150 100 50 0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MANI METEONORM Figure 2.4 Global Solar Radiation over Bap, Jodhpur (from Mani and METEONORM)Estimation of solar radiation on different tracking surfaces 3 † TMY data sets for 234 U.S. locations, derived from the widely accepted 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base, have been modified at the Solar Energy Laboratory for ease of use with the TRNSYS energy system simulation program. The original TMY files are ASCII text files containing one year of weather data (ranging from solar radiation to precipitation) at one hour time intervals. TRNSYS TMY files, containing only the most widely used information from the original files and corrected for known problems. 4 METEONORM is a comprehensive meteorological reference, incorporating a catalogue of meteorological data and calculation procedures for solar applications and system design at any desired location in the world. It is based on over 20 years of experience in the development of meteorological databases for energy applications. METEONORM addresses engineers, architects, teachers, planners and anyone interested in solar energy and climatology. The database includes climatological data of 7 700 weather stations (60 stations of India) based on measured climatic parameters viz. solar radiation, temperature, humidity, precipitation, days with precipitation, wind speed and direction, sunshine duration etc. including complete coverage of the global, including polar regions. 5 Mani, A., Handbook of Solar Radiation, Allied Publishers, 1982. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 10 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan TMY file for the locations of Jodhpur has been selected from METEONORM database. A program has been developed to estimate the direct solar radiation over stationary and tracking surfaces (single axis, double-axis) using computer software TRNSYS6. TRNSYS is a time dependent systems simulation program, which recognizes a system description language in which the user specifies the components that constitute the system and the manner in which they are connected. The TRNSYS library includes many of the components commonly found in thermal and electrical energy systems, as well as component routines to handle input of weather data or other time-dependent forcing functions and output of simulation results. TRNSYS is well suited to detailed analyses of any system whose behaviour is dependent on the passage of time. Table 2.1 presents the outcome of solar radiation resource assessment for Bap, Jodhpur. It has been estimated that the location receives 2241 kWh/m2 Direct Normal Incidence over the year. The monthly values of global solar radiation, diffuse radiation and effective sunshine hours at Bap, Jodhpur has also been given in the Table 2.1. The daily average values of solar radiation, sunshine hours, effective DNI and associated climatic parameters especially ambient temperature and prevailing wind speed have been summarized in Annexure-1.Table 2.1 Monthly total values of DNI over Bap, Jodhpur with effective sunshine hoursMonth Global Solar Diffuse Solar Direct Solar DNI (two axis Effective DNI* Effective Radiation on Radiation on Radiation on tracking)(kWh/m2) (kWh/m2) Sunshine Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Hours (hrs) (kWh/m2) (kWh/m2) (kWh/m2) Jan 142 29 113 222 221 289 Feb 154 31 123 215 213 274 Mar 201 46 155 240 239 331 Apr 214 62 151 217 214 330 May 226 79 147 204 202 361 Jun 189 83 106 147 141 269 Jul 146 85 61 83 77 173 Aug 135 88 47 65 56 131 Sep 212 32 179 270 269 326 Oct 171 47 124 208 206 315 Nov 134 39 95 182 179 270 Dec 126 34 93 187 185 273 Total 2050 655 1394 2240 2202 3342 *meeting the performance conditions for selected technology (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) 6 http://sel.me.wisc.edu/trnsys/ T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • CHAPTER 3 Proposed technology Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants produce electricity by converting the infrared part of solar radiation into high- temperature heat using various mirror/reflector and receiver configurations. The heat is then channelled through a conventional generator. The plants consist of two parts: one that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, commonly known as ‘solar field’ and another that converts heat energy to electricity, known as ‘power block’. CSP plants use the high-temperature heat from concentrating solar collectors to drive conventional types of engines turbines. Overview of concentrating solar power technology All CSP are based on four basic essential sub systems namely collector, receiver (absorber), transport/ storage and power conversion. Following four CSP technologies have either reached commercialisation stage or are near it: Parabolic Trough Power towers Parabolic Dishes (Dish-Sterling) Compound Linear Fresnel Reflectors (CLFR) FOSSIL – FIRED BACKUP SYSTEM Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Energy SOLAR CONCENTRATOR RECEIVER RADIATION Stored Thermal Concentrated Solar Radiation Energy POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM Figure 3.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar Thermal System Parabolic trough collector Parabolic trough-shaped mirror reflectors are used to concentrate sunlight on to thermally efficient receiver-tubes placed in the trough’s focal line. The troughs are usually designed to track the Sun along one axis, predominantly north– south. A thermal transfer fluid, such as synthetic thermal oil, is circulated in these tubes. The fluid is heated to approximately T E R I Report No.2009RT03
  • 12 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan 400°C by the sun’s concentrated rays and then pumped through a series of heat exchangers to produce superheated steam. The steam is converted to electrical energy in a conventional steam turbine generator, which can either be part of a conventional steam cycle or integrated into a combined steam and gas turbine cycle.Central receiver system A circular array of heliostats (large mirrors two-axis with tracking) concentrates sunlight on to a central receiver mounted at the top of a tower. A heat-transfer medium in this central receiver absorbs the highly concentrated radiation reflected by the heliostats and converts it into thermal energy, which is used to generate superheated steam for the turbine. To date, the heat transfer media demonstrated include water/steam, molten salts and air. If pressurised gas or air is used at very high temperatures of about 1,000°C or more as the heat transfer medium, it can even be used to directly replace natural gas in a gas turbine, making use of the excellent cycle (60% and more) of modern gas and steam combined cycles.Parabolic dish-sterling technology A paraboloid dish-shaped reflector (commonly called as parabolic dish) concentrates sunlight on to a receiver located at the focal point of the dish. The concentrated beam radiation is absorbed into a receiver to heat a fluid or gas (air) to approximately 750°C. This fluid or gas is then used to generate electricity in a small piston or Stirling engine or a micro turbine, attached to the receiver. The parabolic dish are designed to track the Sun along both axis, predominantly north–south and east-west.Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR) An array of nearly-flat reflectors concentrates solar radiation onto elevated inverted linear receivers. Water flows through the receivers and is converted into steam. This system is line- concentrating, similar to a parabolic trough, with the advantages of low costs for structural support and reflectors, fixed fluid joints, a receiver separated from the reflector system, and long focal lengths that allow the use of flat mirrors. The technology is seen as a potentially lower-cost alternative to trough technology for the production of solar process heat. Figure 3.2 presents the schematic diagram of above CST technologies. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 13 Proposed technologyFigure 3.2 Schematic diagram of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power technologies On the basis of technological aspects Table 3.1 presents the maturity levels of CSP technologies while inter-comparability of CSP technologies is presented in Table 3.2. Table 3.1 Technological maturity level of CST technologies Installed Capacity Appropriate capacity (MW) under construction CSP Technology Type till 2009 and proposed (MW) Parabolic Trough 500 > 10,000 Central Receiver 40 > 3,000 Parabolic Dish-Sterling <1 > 1500 CLFR 5 > 500 T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 14 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanTable 3.2 Comparison between various CSP technologies Fresnel linear Parabolic trough Central receiver Parabolic Dish reflectorApplications Grid-connected plants, Grid-connected plants, high Stand-alone, small off-grid Grid connected midium to high-process temperature power systems or plants, or steam heat process heat clustered to larger grid generation to be used (Highest single unit solar (Highest single unit solar capacity connected dish parks in conventional capacity to date: 80 MWe. to date: 20 MWe under (Highest single unit solar thermal power plants. Total capacity built: construction, Total capacity capacity to date: 100 kWe, (Highest single unit over 500 MW and more ~50MW with at Proposals for solar than 10 GW under least 100MW under development) 100MW and 500 MW in capacity to date is construction or proposed) Australia and US) 5MW in US, with 177 MW installation under development)Advantages • Commercially available • Good mid-term prospects for • Very high conversion • Readily available over 16 billion kWh of high conversion efficiencies, efficiencies – peak solar • Flat mirrors can be operational experience; operating temperature potential to net electric purchased and bent operating temperature beyond 1,000°C (565°C proven conversion over 30% on site, lower potential up to 500°C at 10 MW scale) • Modularity manufacturing (400°C commercially • Storage at high temperatures • Most effectively costs proven) • Hybrid operation possible integrate thermal • Hybrid operation • Commercially proven • Better suited for dry cooling storage a large plant possible annual net plant concepts than troughs and • Operational experience • Very high space efficiency of 14% (solar Fresnel of first demonstration efficiency around radiation to net electric • Better options to use non-flat projects solar noon. output) sites • Easily manufactured and • Commercially proven mass-produced from investment and operating available parts costs • No water requirements • Modularity for cooling the cycle • Good land-use factor • Lowest materials demand • Hybrid concept proven • Storage capability It has been observed that parabolic trough collector is well proven but the suppliers are not available in India and the projects based on the technology become viable for large capacity. The size of power plant under trough as well as tower technology is dependent on size and economics of steam turbine and such trough as well as tower technology does not have capability and flexibility of development on modular concept for small to large size. The power tower technology also requires big amount of land as compared with other CSP technologies. CLFR technology is new but again similar as above technologies in point of view of modularity. In addition all these three T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 15 Proposed technologytechnologies consume a big amount of water for cooling towerand heat transfer medium. In these power plants only thermalenergy is collected through solar collectors, rest parts aresimilar as conventional thermal power plants which comprisesteam turbine, generator and other associated moving parts.Hence the cost of operation and maintenances increases.T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 16 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Taking in to account all advantages and limitations of all CSP technologies Shi Rangam Brokers & holdings Limited (Dalmia cement [Bharat] Ltd.) has selected parabolic-dish sterling technology which is modular and requires no water and heat transfer fluid etc. Presently there are three major companies worldwide who are manufacturing parabolic dish-sterling systems of different capacities. These are M/s Infinia Solar Systems, M/s Sterling Energy Systems and M/s Sun Power. The technological characterises of all CSP technologies are given in Table 3.3. Table 3.3. Technical Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies Area TotalCSP Concentra- Solar Thermal Thermal Required* InstalledTechnology tion Ratio Tracking Radiation Input Storage (acre/MW) Capacity Projects CompanyParabolic trough 80 Single- Direct radiation 250-400 oC Possible 7-8 > 400 MW SEGS, USA Luz axis over single axis (354 MW) International Ltd. ANDASOL-1 (50 MW) Solar MilleniumCentral receiver 500-1500 Two-axis Direct Normal 250-1200 Possible 14-15 PS-10 Abengoa Incidence oC >25 MW (11 MW) Solar Solar Tres (17 MW) SENER, SppainParabolic dish- 500-1500 Two-axis Direct Normal 700 oC Not 7-8 < 1MW NA Sterling-engine Incidence Possible engine systemsConcentrating 80 Single- Direct radiation 250-400 oC Possible 4-5 1 MW NA AusraLinear Fresnel axis over single axis AustraliaReflectors Presently, solar energy is utilised to generate electricity through solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) plants and parabolic dish sterling engine etc. The solar photovoltaic route comprises ultraviolet portion and high energy region of solar spectrum; and mainly utilizes crystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon (a-Si) or cadmium telluride (CdTe) and other thin film photovoltaic solar cells. It has been noticed that these materials are based on highly refined silicon or rare earth tellurium; which has lesser potential of cost reduction in near future. The thin films has shown possibilities of cost reduction but also carries sufficient degradation and hence reduction of efficiency. The Parabolic trough collector, or heliostat field collectors based CSP power plants and other concentrating solar thermal technologies utilizes visible and infrared portion of incident T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 17 Proposed technologysolar radiation to achieve high temperatures and hencegeneration of steam to run the turbine. Rajasthan receives significant annual average DNI andcomprises huge waste/desert land, which are the basicrequirements to install CSP plant. Water requirement for CSPplants might be one of the drawbacks for the region becauseRajasthan has limited water resources. The power generationcan be effected only because of the availability of water. Gettingwater supply from existing reservoirs or canal might addadditional cost in the project and could affect its viability. Theelectricity generation through parabolic dish sterling enginesystem does not require water for operation. In addition thesesystems are best suited solar power technology for decentralizedand distributed power generation as they are modular units of3kW capacity. This dish-sterling engine, is based on sterlingcycle instead prior to carnot cycle and hence shows the highestefficiency. The sterling engine has efficiency of 24% compare tothe 15% maximum efficiency of solar photovoltaic. It istherefore the best suited technology for Rajasthan. Furtherbeing simple mechanical device, has potential of cost reductionby indigenisation. The company has identified Parabolic Dish-Sterlingconcentrating solar power technology developed by INFINIACorp, USA. INFINIA Corporation, a USA based company iscommercially manufacturing the parabolic dish-sterlingsystems and has joined hands with Dalmia Cement (Bharat)Ltd., towards supply of the technology. The technicalspecifications of this parabolic dish-sterling system of arediscusses below. The System consists of following principal components; Heat Drive Chassis Parabolic dish solar Reflector Bi-axial Drive and Solid state Power Electronics & Control SystemAll components are out-door rated and will meet IngressProgression Standards IP54 (Heat Drive), IP56 (ElectricalEnclosures) and IP66 (Bi-axial drive)7. The Heat Drive consists of aCavity Receiver that captures the concentrated sunlight from theparabolic reflector, a Free Piston Stirling Engine that efficientlyconverts the solar energy to electricity, and a heat rejection systemsimilar to an automotive cooling system (Figure 3.3). The Product manual and detail specifications are enclosed inAnnexure II.7IP54, IP56, and IP66 are the international standards applicable foroutdoor installation of mechanical/electrical system.T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 18 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Figure 3.3 Major components of the ISSInfinia Solar System (ISS) Infinia’s Solar System relies on a advanced Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE)- initially developed for NASA for space applications- to convert concentrated solar heat to electricity. Infinia FPSEs convert thermal energy from external energy sources to linear motion which drives an integral linear alternator, thus generating clean, reliable electricity. The system integrates a Stirling engine (Heat Drive), a parabolic dish solar Reflector, a Bi-axial Drive mounted on a Chassis, and Power Electronics and Control Systems. The Bi-axial Drive points the system at the sun and tracks the sun throughout the day to concentrate sunlight off the mirrored face of the parabolic dish into the Heat Drive. This concentrated thermal energy is converted to linear motion and drives the power piston of a linear alternator. AC electrical output of the alternator is rectified to DC by the power electronics and automatically inverted to match the AC voltage and frequency of the connected grid. The main features of the parabolic dish-sterling system of Infinia Solar System are; 3,000 W net AC Long-life, zero-maintenance Free-Piston Stirling Engine Dual Axis Tracking Self-contained power electronics that meet utility interconnection requirements No Cooling Water required The 3 kW Solar System is comprised of a parabolic solar concentrating dish, a 3 kW Stirling engine module, and a supporting post, as illustrated in figure 3.4. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 19 Proposed technology Figure 3.4 Schematic of 3kW system of ISSPhysical data of Infinia Solar System The weight and dimensions of this parabolic dish-sterling of are given in Table 3.4 as following; Table 3.4 Physical details of parabolic Dish-Sterling of ISS Dimension Position at Horizon Width 4.7 m Length 4.4 m Height 5.6 m Total Weight 864 kgEnvironmental ratings The range of environmental parameters under which this parabolic dish-sterling system works, is given in Table 3.5 as following; Table 3.5 Operating parameters and ranges of parabolic dish-sterling system Operating Parameter Operating Range Operating temperature range -20oC to 55 oC Operating elevation range Up to 1890 m above sea level T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 20 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Operating Parameter Operating Range Operating relative humidity range 0 to 100 % Wind speed – no power degradation 7 m/s Wind speed – max operation 14 m/s Wind speed – maximum 45 m/s Additional features of dish sterling system 3 kW peak at 850 W/m2 output 28% gross efficiency 24 % net efficiency closed-loop tracking & unattended operation Output 120/240 VAC 1 Phase or 208/230 VAC 3 Phase UL, CE, CEC certifications compliant Power Factor > 0.95 3.5 kW Sterling Generator (3.0 kW net electrical output at inverter output and 0.5 kW auxiliary consumption of the generation system) Stand alone system which does not need any external source of power or water etc Power plant can be built from smaller kW to MW scale with the use of 3 kW module. Modular in design hence easy to install and maintain Sealed engine which is practically maintenance free Innovative Sterling engine technology is already commercialised for various waste heat recovery and biomass based combined heating and power applications. The company is in the process of setting up mega watt level power plants in Spain.Performance of Infinia Solar System (ISS)Methodology The annual electrical output has been estimated on the basis of hourly DNI values, ambient air temperature and prevailing wind speed along with the rated specifications of Infinia Solar System. Following considerations have been taken in to account for output estimation; Proposed Net efficiency of Infinia Solar System will be 24% Electrical output 3 kW when DNI is greater than 850 W/m2 Efficiency De-rating because of ambient temperature Efficiency De-rating because of wind Efficiency De-rating because of agePeak Power Peak Electrical Power produced is 3,000 W at 850 W/m2 of Direct Normal Incidence (after all internal parasitic power T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 21 Proposed technology requirements), at an ambient temperature of 20 °C. Electrical energy output is grid-ready AC 3-phase 208/230 volt.Performance curve The performance curve (power output vs. solar DNI) of the ISS is presented in Figure 3.5. The efficiency increases with solar insolation. There is no generation till solar insolation of 100 kWh/sq. meters and when DNI increases above 850 W/m2, the ISS does not increase its power production beyond the nominal 3,000 W output. As DNI increases above 850 W/m2, the system will defocus reflectors thereby diverting the additional heat input out of the system. Figure 3.5 Performance curve of the systemDe-Rating The overall performance of the these systems mainly depends on the DNI availability and partially depends upon ambient temperature and prevailing wind speed. In addition the de- rating factor is also associated with the age of the system. Temperature De-rating Altitude and ambient temperature affects the performance and energy output of ISS. Over the operating temperature range, -20 °C to 55 °C , power is de-rated by ~2.5-3.0% for every temperature increase of 10 °C above 20 °C ambient, at 850 W/m2 of DNI. For elevations above 1890 m [6,200 ft], increased fan performance may be required. Calculating the de-rating factor for high temperature environments is as following; 850 W/m2, 20 °C >> 3,000 W 850 W/m2, 30 °C >> 3,000 W*(1-0.03) = ~2,910 W T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 22 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,RajasthanThe hourly values of ambient temperature have been takenusing METEONORM database and day time values have beenfiltered when system produces electricity. The above criteriahave been taken in to account with mentioned de-rating factors.Wind Power De-ratingIn order to assess the pattern of annual prevailing wind speed atthe location of Bap, satellite data of wind speed at the height of10 meter has been taken and analyzed. It has been observed thatat the location maximum monthly average wind speed at theheight of 10 m is 3-3.5 m/s. Figure 3.6 presents the pattern ofmonthly average wind speed at Bap, Jodhpur. 4.0 3.5 3.0 Wind Speed (m/s) 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug S ep Oct Nov Dec Figure 3.6 Pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap, JodhpurThe ISS has been designed to structurally withstand windloading up to a maximum of 45 m/s. It will operate withpractically no power degradation due to no structural deflectionfor wind speeds up to 7 m/s. Figure 3.7 shows the impact of aconstant wind during an entire day. This will result in a 1.7%reduction in energy production for the location used in thisexample.T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 23 Proposed technology Figure 3.7 Impact of wind on performance System Age De-rating System Efficiency has been calculated and is expected to modestly degrade over time at a rate of 0.5% or less per year. Several factors may affect system efficiency over time, such as mirror edge degradation or environmental conditions that may affect mirror reflectivity (e.g., wind debris or high humidity). Over a twenty-five year life, the system efficiency may be reduced as shown in the example here:System Control Infinia Solar System uses a high quality control mechanism to control operations of individual dishes. It operates in following modes;System Calibration At initial start-up, an electronic calibration table is automatically built to ensure solar tracking accuracy.System Check Inverter, Rectifier, Motor (Azimuth, Elevation) Controllers, and Sensors perform self tests at Operational Wake-Up and when initialized by the user.Operation Typical operation starts with a system self check, the system then “wakes up” and slews to the sun. Using Built In algorithms, system calibrations, project site meteorological inputs, real time sensor data and environmental conditions (like temperature and wind), and user defined limits (in terms of time of day or elevation of sun), system control automatically monitor ISS/faults, initiates system alerts, processes algorithms, T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 24 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan to make decision for tracking, adjusting tracking, stand by, slew to sun and slew to stow mode.Tracking Tracking consists of aligning the axis of parabolic dish with that of incident ray of the sun so that sun rays reflected by parabolic dish is concentrated on receiver. Tracking is adjusted after predefined interval so that at no stage sun rays do not focus on receiver.Standby If after tracking has commenced during the day, sun can not be tracked due to environmental conditions other than those of slew to stow (e.g. low solar insolation not coinciding with sun shine hours preset say due to cloud cover, suspended dust etc), parabolic dish remain in stand by mode i.e. last tracked position.Slew to Sun Slew to sun is initiated if user defined conditions of sun shine are met to initiate it after wake up.Slew to Stow In addition to non sun shine hours ,if during sun shine hours supplied by users, if abnormal conditions of high wind, hail storm, fault on system (likely to remain uncured for long time), etc, occurs system takes a decision to slew to stow”.Inverter Power output is set and produced compliant with the utility voltage. Protective relay functions ensure safe system shutdown in the event of grid failure or if system operates beyond specification limits. When the system is off, the unit enters the stow position and remains connected to the grid. When the grid is not present, the 24-V DC battery provides power to the system electronics and stows the system until the grid is present.General specifications/Interface Table 3.5 presents the output details of the parabolic dish- sterling system. The peak power has been estimated at rated input direct normal incidence (DNI) ≥ 850 W/m2 at 20oC ambient temperature and wind speed <7 m/s. The voltage and frequency automatically sensed and adjusted according to voltages on output (grid connect) voltage and frequency used adjustable, 4-wire output (stand alone) Overall System Efficiency and 28% gross efficiency (gross AC output divided by rated direct normal insolation times collector area). The T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 25 Proposed technology frequency is based on local utility requirements, with no-de- rating for ‘50 Hz +3Hz’ so that the plant operates satisfactorily up to 47 Hz. Table 3.5 Performance outputs of Parabolic Dish-Sterling system Output Input Pear power Minimum 3,000 W Tracking grid load Maximum 50 W, typical 5-10 W Voltage 208 VC, 50 Hz 3 Wire Slew to Sun/Stow grid connection Maximum 250 W, typical 50 W Frequency 50 Hz or 60 Hz Power Electronics and Control System Engine Controller/Rectifier The high efficiency engine controller/rectifier transforms electrical power from the sterling engine in a closely controlled manner to maintain engine control and maximize Stirling engine energy conversion efficiency. The resulting high-voltage DC power is an ideal supply source for the functionally independent inverter. Output Inverter “The high efficiency bi-directional output inverter converts high voltage DC produced by the engine controller/rectifier to grid- Quality AC. As the inverter is a current source only, it automatically matches the AC voltage and frequency that it sees on the system output terminals. In addition, the inverter also performs all the protective relay functions. Software has adjustable parameters and set points for these protective relay functions which allow the product to be easily configured to meet the interconnect requirements. The output inverter is housed in the weatherproof (IP56 rating) enclosure mounted on the ISS unit near the ground and also houses the user interface and connections, and batteries” Interface Voltage and frequency are automatically sensed and adjusted according to voltages on the output/interconnection terminals (grid connect). AC output from the system shall be connected to the local grid in accordance with local regulations and requirements. The ISS control system is accessed via the key switch and the Ethernet port.  Operation and maintenance Preventive maintenance The ISS is a safe and reliable power conversion device which can provide many years of safe dependable performance. Like any power conversion device, preventive maintenance and a few basic safety guidelines are to be followed. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 26 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Proper operation of the tracking system is critical. The tracking system ensures that the reflector is positioned to maximize the solar energy captured by tracking the sun throughout the day. This system will invert the dish to the “stow” position at night or when environmental conditions are outside of the system’s operating range. The Bi-axial Drive, which is an integral part of the tracking system, must have its oil changed every 10 years to ensure proper operation. The ISS, designed with robust fail-safe circuitry that prevents harm to the whole system in the event of component failure, has an expected 25-year field life (listed at Table 3.6); however several external components, with a service life less than the 25-year field life, will need to be serviced or replaced if they fail. For example, the batteries are constantly monitored by the Control System to assure proper charge rates, discharge rate and capacity. A system fault is triggered when the health of a battery declines below safe tolerances; the system will either not slew to sun for normal operation or will return to stow during normal operation. Table 3.6 Expected service life of service items Components Life Coolant pump 10 years Coolant fan(s) 10 years System electronics 7 years Receiver sensors 7 years Inverter box 10 years Sensors 7 years Batteries 5 yearsCleaning Mirror cleaning maintains system efficiency and promotes the long-life, high output of the ISS. Heat exchanger (radiator) fouling is to be expected in the field life of this product. Periodically cleaning the radiator fins will promote maximum efficiency of the system.Installation The Infinia Solar System arrives in the field packaged in the following subsystems: Heat Drive Kit Chassis Kit Reflector Kit Bi-axial Drive Kit Power Electronics and Control System KitSafetyLightning T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 27 Proposed technology ISS has built-in lightning protection that requires external grounding. A 13 mm stainless steel stud/jam-nut is provided at the base of the chassis pole to allow a heavy duty spade eyelet to be connected. This can be interconnected to an external ground/ lightning protection system. Besides this four lightning masts will be installed in the four corners of the solar field for lighting of the solar field as well as lightning protection.System The ISS is a safe and reliable power conversion device that will provide many years of safe dependable performance. Just as with any power conversion device, good sense and a few basic safety guidelines should be heeded.Foundation The solar system structures have been designed to a survival wind speed of 45 m/s in stow position. The system will move to stow position when the wind speed approaches 14 m/s. The foundation loads were calculated for these situations and determined that the highest loads occurs when the dish is at the horizontal position, while moving from operation position to stow position. This condition could exist when the dish has sensed a high wind condition and is moving to stow position.Layout Layout of parabolic solar dishes i.e. distances between dishes is critical as it influences the output of the system and land area requirement; while too close dishes can reduce land requirement and also electrical cabling losses and cost, but the dishes can cast shadow on each other and solar system performance is reduced. TERI has utilised special software named ECOTECH to calculate/ show sun path and sun position in the sky for the selected place (Bap) based on its geographical parameters, simulate the shadow pattern for any unit, date and time and analyse its impact on adjoining units thereby to optimise the solar plant layout design. The pictorial out put of the ECOTECH software are shown in the Figure 3.8 and 3.9 below. The calculation shows that solar field area of about 60-70 acre is required for the 10 MW capacity plant. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 28 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,Rajasthan Figure 3.8 Shadow pattern for solar field at 8.30am on 23rd Dec (ECOTECH) Figure 3.9 Shadow pattern for solar field at 10.30am on 23rd DecThe performance summary of ISS of the capacity of 10 MW isgiven in Table 3.8 as following.Table 3.8 Performance summary of ISS of 10 MW Array detailsNumber of Infinia units 3340MW (peak AC capacity) 10MW/acre (peak AC capacity) 0.15Area (acres) 70The 3-D schematic diagram of the solar concentrating powerplant of the capacity of 1 MW is presented in Figure 3.10.T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 29 Proposed technology Figure 3.10 Illustrative power block (1 MW)Sizing of a 10 MW Solar Dish-Sterling power plant Solar dish sterling power plant will be built in 1 MW modules. The total numbers of Infinia solar system units of 3 kW capacity in each 1 MW module of a solar concentrating power project are estimated as 334. Each module will be made up mainly of sub module of 25 dishes connected in array of 5x5 to produce 75kWp power (vide Figure 3.11). There will be 14 such modules (13 full 75 kW module and 1 part module of 45kW - vide Figure 3.12) to give 1MW module. Figure 3.11 Illustration of sub module of 5x5 arrays of 3 kW ISS T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 30 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan TX = 208 v/distribution voltage transformer Figure 3.12 Illustrations of 5x3 arrays of sub modules to make 1 MW module The total area required for the ISS based solar power plant of the capacity of 10 MW is approximately as 70 acres. This are includes the inter dish spacing, area of cabling and internal transmission network of the power plant etc. As there are 333-334 ISS dishes are used for 1 MW concentrating solar power plant. Hence 3330-3340 ISS dishes are required in the power plant of the capacity of 10 MW.Estimation of power output The efficiency of the ISS system is claimed to be 24 percent. Accordingly the net annual electrical energy output of the ISS parabolic dish-sterling system mainly depends upon the following parameters; Direct normal incidence (DNI) De-rating factors - Ambient temperature (oC) - Prevailing wind speed (m/s) and - System age Field losses (~ 4.0 %) The efficiency distribution pattern of the complete system is shown in Figure 3.13. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 31 Proposed technology ISS Parabolic Dish Tracking & Optical Losses Sterling Engine Efficiency = 24% System Losses Inverter Cabling, Control, Interconnections, 4% Maximum losses Transformers up to HV side of 11/33 KVFigure 3.13 Process flow chart diagram of parabolic Dish-Sterling system of ISS The output of the ISS dish has been estimated on hourly basis incorporating the de-rating due to ambient temperature and prevailing wind speed. The de-rating because of system age has not been taken into account for estimating electrical output in first year only. It has been estimate that Bap, Jodhpur receives 2202 kWh/m2 annual equivalent effective DNI (150 W/m2 ≤ DNI ≥ 850 W/m2). Taking in to account the efficiency of the system (i.e. 24 percent) and the respective value of DNI along with the simultaneous de-rating factors due to ambient temperature and prevailing wind speed the annual electrical output of an ISS parabolic dish-sterling system of 3kW capacity has been estimated as 6946 Units per year at sterling engine terminal (i.e. AC terminals of inverter). Multiplying with the number of dishes (i.e. 334) in 1 MW capacity the aggregate electrical output per MW module at sterling engine terminals has been estimated as 2227579.6 (2.22 MU) Units annually at HV end of inverter considering cut off DNI of 150 W/m2 and maximum DNI clamped to 850 W/m2. Further considering the field losses from sterling engine terminal to HV side of 11/33 kV 16000 kVA transformer, including losses in cables, 1600 kvA 208 volt / 11 kV transformer etc., at 4 percent, the effective cumulative electrical output has been estimated as 2.14 MU per MW annually at PH bus bar. Hence the ISS based solar plant of 10 MW capacities will generate 21.39 MU sellable units per year. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • CHAPTER 4 Control, internal transmission and evacuation ofpower Interconnection facility for the proposed plan The electrical generation, transmission and synchronisation with grid will consist of; Panel – I: Power panel I with circuit breaker (MCB/MCCB), junction bus and general protection system including panel earthling for each 3 kW solar generators. Panel – II: Power panel II with circuit breaker (MCB/MCCB), junction bus and general protection system for each section consisting 5 nos of solar power generators. This circuit breaker will enable us to cut off the particular row from the system in case of any fault. Panel – III: Power panels III with ACB/VCB and protection system for 75 kW modules. Panel – IV: Power panels IV with VCB and necessary protection system for 1 MW modules. The panel will be indoor type along with the necessary protection and safety system. Step up power transformer of 1600 kVA, 208/11000 V, to interconnect the 1 MW power generator with local grid of 11 kV (approximate length of 2.3 km). Transmission line of 11 kV, 1.6 MVA capacity to interconnect power generation of phase I of 1 MW. The estimated length of the transmission line will be 1.5 km up to existing 11/33 kV substation of Jodhpur Vidyut Vitran Nigam Limited (JdVVNL) at village Bap. Power station with grid protection system Step up power transformers of 16 MVA, 11/33 kV, to interconnect the power generation with commissioning of phase II (9MW) with JdVVNL or Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut Prasaran Nigam Limited (RVPNL)’s grid. Double circuit transmission line of 33 kV, 16 MVA capacity. This transmission line will be the interconnection between 33kV substation of JdVVNL and the 10 MW solar power plant. The estimated length of the transmission line will be about 2 km. Also, RVPNL is proposing the 132 kV substation at Bap, Jodhpur. If permitted, 33 kV line will be extended to feed the power directly to the 132 kV grid of the state. The estimated length of the double circuit transmission line will be 4.5 km of 132 kV, 16 MVA capacity. Layout of 10 MW power plant is given in Annexure IV (a). Energy monitoring and information system: Energy Management Information System (EMIS) is a hardware interconnection of energy meter installed at PH bus bar of 11 kV in phase I and 33 kV in phase II, and power T E R I Report No.2009RT03
  • 33 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power distribution panel to PC based data acquisition system for report generation and analysis of energy generation profiling of the solar power generation system. The meter will communicate on RS – 485 modbus/RS - 232 protocol. The data communication may be the Power Line Communication (PLC) or RF communication over the plant. The estimated cost for electrical system like cables, power panels, power transformer and internal transmission lines is given in Annexure IV (b).Interfacing scheme proposed The power generated from the power plant will be transmitted through the grid of JdVVNL. JdVVNL operates a high voltage transmission and distribution network in the Jodhpur, Rajasthan. It is envisaged that the solar generation plant will be connected to the 33 kV high voltage network at Bap. The concentrating solar project size is proposed to be 10 MW. This higher rating solar power plant would feed the generated power to high voltage electricity grid of state distribution company. The proposed plant will be connected to the 33 kV transmission systems through an 11kV/33 kV substation. This involves an 11kV/33 kV power transformer; underground cables and overhead lines at 11kV and 33 kV with at least 15 MVA rated capacity. The network connection is designed to carry rated power on a 24-hour basis. For connection to the 33 kV transmission grid, Indian Electricity Rules / CEA’s regulations will be followed and the connection will meet State Grid code requirements. This study and design is based on the following Load flow studies, Dynamic stability assessment, Connection substation concept design, and Protection design (connection substation and transmission line). Further studies would be conducted, if required, in consultation JdVVNL /RVPNL’ The single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme is given in Appendix IV (c).Net Metering The Energy accounting metering system will be installed at 11 kV or 33 kV Power Station bus to account electric energy generated by the powerplant and delivered to the local grid of JdVVNL or State Grid of RVPNL and the electrical energy imported from the grid during the non – power period. The energy meter will measure import and export energy parameters. This meter will be sealed by JdVVNL/RVPNL. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 34 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,Rajasthan Additionally energy management and control system will beinstalled in the solar plant which will monitor and record theperformance at each power generator and each 1 MW module.Factors to be considered when selecting meters are the Possible harmonics content of metering signals Associated degree of inaccuracy of the meter selected; and Site specific that need to be considered in metering design.T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 35 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of powerT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • CHAPTER 5 Project execution plan Total project can be completed within 26 months from date of sanction of the project. The proposed execution plan is shown below. Table 5.1 Action Plan For Execution of 10 MW Solar Power Plant MonthsS.No Activity M9 J9 Ju9 A9 S9 O9 N9 D9 J10 F10 M10 A10 M10 J10 Ju10 Au10 S10 O10 N10 D10 J11 F11 M11 A11 M11 J11 Ju11 Au11 S11 O11 N11 Project Approval by1 SLEC with all prior approvals2 Tariff Petition3 Tariff Approval by RERC Site Allotment and4* possession5 Financial Closures6 Detailed Engineering Equipment Supply/7 Construction & Installation Commencement of8 Commissioning (First 1MW) Extension of9 Transmission line Installation and10 Commissioning for 9 MW T E R I Report No.2009RT03
  • 37 Transmission of power and evacuation planT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • CHAPTER 6 Financial analysis Assumptions & estimates The proposed solar parabolic Dish-Sterling power project is of 10 MW capacity. Estimate cost of the project is Rs. 23.0 crores per MW. The total project cost is Rs. 230 crores. Gross aggregate electricity generation has been arrived at 22.27 million kWh per annum at 3 kW sterling engines’ terminals at the proposed site at Bap, Jodhpur. The plant load factor is 25.42%. There will be losses between Sterling engines and substation out put, which is estimated at 4% maximum. Therefore, total annual sellable electricity has been estimated as 21.379 million kWh. There will be deterioration of 0.5% every year due to the aging of the plant Project cost break-up & means of finance Apart from machinery, installation and commissioning cost, interest during construction, financial institution fees and margin money for working capital is part of project cost. Project financial analysis has been carried out considering debt equity ratio of 70:30. Interest rate at debt part has been considered at 12.5%. The total project cost and means of finance are summarized in Table 6.1. Table 6.1 Project cost & means of finance (10 MW) PROJECT COST:BREAK-UP Cost, Rs. Lacs phase-2(9MW) phase-1(1MW) 20700 2300 Sr. No. Particulars 1 Project Cost 1.1 Imported Component 16884.62 1876.07 1.2 Local Component including EPC charges 2700 2430.00 270.00 2 preoperative costs 40 36.00 4.00 3 Interest During Construction (IDC) 1132.03 125.78 4 Financial Institiution Fees 217.35 24.15 5 Project Cost 20700.00 2300.00 6 Total Project Cost 23000.00 20700.00 2300.00 7 Sources of fund 7.1 Loan 70% 14490.00 1610.00 7.2 Equity 30% 6210.00 690.00 Project implementation schedule Based on international practices and technological advancements, it is estimated that 1 MW capacity phase of the project will be supplied, installed and commissioned in 13 months from project approval and additional 9 MW of phase – II of the project will be installed and commissioned in 26 months from project approval. T E R I Report No.2009RT03
  • 39 Transmission of power and evacuation planProposed electricity tariff Project will be implemented as IPP (Independent Power Project) and envisages sale of generated electricity to the grid. The tariff calculations are at Annexure V.The technical and financial parameters are also listed therein.The tariff works out to be at Rs. 19.03/kWhr for the whole project life of 25 years. This tariff has been considered with 16% post tax return on equity. The details of the local components (estimation of cost of electrical & civil works) are attached as Annexure IV(b). The solar power plants are entitled to CDM benefit. The Developer shall endeavour for CDM benefit. CDM benefit , interalia, depends on non firm/firm nature of supply of power and is market driven. The generation from this power plant, which can not have thermal storage and thus will be infirm. On account of these, it will attract lower CDM credit. Therefore, it will not be possible to quantify it beforehand. Its certification also involves cost and time. Developer will share the CDM benefits as per RERC regulations. It is anticipated the average CDM credit of 30 paisa/KWh and corresponding reduction in annual tariff. T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 40 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanAnnexure I: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Bap, Jodhpur It has been estimated that Jodhpur receives 3301 kWh/m2 annual average extraterrestrial solar radiation, which has been considered for parabolic dish sterling engine power plant at Bap. Table 1A presents the daily total values of extraterrestrial solar radiation based on its hourly values. It has been estimated that the annual average global solar radiation availability on horizontal surface over Bap, Jodhpur is 2051 kWh/m2; direct component is 1395 kWh/m2 and diffuse is 656 kWh/m2 on horizontal surface. The daily total along with the monthly total and average values of global, diffuse and direct solar radiation on horizontal surface are presented in Tables 2A to Table 4A respectively. Only direct solar radiation is directional and can be reflected /concentrated using mirrors. Further the direct solar radiation has been processed using TRNSYS and hourly values of direct radiation have been estimated over tracking surfaces. Since the selected technology (i.e. parabolic dish-sterling) comprises two axis tracking hence the results have been reported under two axis tracking conditions only. Table 5A presents the daily total values of direct normal irradiance (DNI) for Bap, Jodhpur. It has been estimated that the total annual DNI over Jodhpur is 2241 kWh/m2. The DNI has been estimated maximum in the month of September (270.4 kWh/m2) and minimum in the month of August (63.4 kWh/m2). The parabolic Dish-Sterling technology uses only direct normal incident solar radiation; which is transient and varies with time. It has been observed that in early morning and late evening hours the fraction of beam radiation is quite low. Hence ISS Dish-Sterling technology has low efficiency at low irradiance levels. For present Infinia Solar System technology the minimum level of instantaneous direct solar radiation for power generation is 150 W/m2. Therefore the analysis has been made considering this aspect also. Table 6A presents the effective DNI (more than 150 W/m2) over Bap, Jodhpur which shows that the location receives 2202 kWh/m2 annual effective DNI. The effective number of sunshine hours has also been carried out and it has been obtained that Bap, Jodhpur receives 2202 kWh/m2 effective DNI in 3342 effective sunshine hours (DNI>150 W/m2). The daily total effective sunshine at Bap, Jodhpur hours are presented in Table 7A. It has been noticed that the efficiency of ISS parabolic Dish- Sterling technology reduces when DNI goes above 850 W/m2; while the electrical output becomes constant. The effective sunshine hours have also been estimated for DNI more that 850 W/m2. Table 8A presents the effective sunshine hours at more T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • Annexuresthan 850 W/m2 DNI. It has been estimated that during 846sunshine hours the DNI remains more than 850 W/m2 atJodhpur throughout the year. The overall performance of the selected technology criticallydepended on the climatic parameters namely ambienttemperature, prevailing wind speed, etc. The daily averagevalues of day time ambient temperature of Bap, Jodhpur arepresented in Table 9A; which indicated that the monthlyaverage temperature varies from 17.6 oC to 34.8oC. The annual average wind speed has been observed from 0.59m/s in October to 2.30 m/s in the month of June. The dailyaverage values of prevailing wind speed have been presented inTable 10A. The other climatic parameters namely relativehumidity (%) and visibility (km) have also analyzed and theirdaily average values are represented in Tables 11A and Table12A respectively.T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 42 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Table 1A. Daily total values of Extraterrestrial (IExt) solar radiation (kWh/m2) in Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 6.23 7.07 8.41 9.89 10.86 11.27 11.26 10.95 10.12 8.85 7.31 6.34 2 6.24 7.12 8.46 9.93 10.89 11.27 11.25 10.93 10.08 8.80 7.27 6.33 3 6.25 7.16 8.51 9.97 10.91 11.28 11.24 10.92 10.05 8.76 7.23 6.31 4 6.27 7.20 8.56 10.01 10.93 11.28 11.24 10.90 10.01 8.70 7.19 6.29 5 6.28 7.25 8.62 10.05 10.95 11.28 11.23 10.88 9.97 8.66 7.14 6.27 6 6.30 7.29 8.67 10.08 10.97 11.29 11.22 10.86 9.93 8.61 7.10 6.26 7 6.32 7.34 8.72 10.12 10.99 11.29 11.21 10.84 9.89 8.55 7.06 6.24 8 6.34 7.38 8.77 10.15 11.00 11.29 11.20 10.82 9.84 8.50 7.02 6.23 9 6.36 7.43 8.82 10.19 11.02 11.29 11.20 10.80 9.77 8.45 6.91 6.22 10 6.38 7.47 8.87 10.22 11.04 11.30 11.19 10.78 9.73 8.40 6.88 6.20 11 6.40 7.52 8.93 10.26 11.06 11.30 11.18 10.76 9.69 8.35 6.84 6.19 12 6.42 7.57 8.98 10.29 11.07 11.30 11.18 10.73 9.66 8.30 6.81 6.19 13 6.45 7.62 9.03 10.32 11.08 11.30 11.17 10.71 9.61 8.25 6.78 6.18 14 6.47 7.66 9.08 10.35 11.10 11.30 11.16 10.68 9.57 8.20 6.74 6.17 15 6.50 7.71 9.13 10.38 11.11 11.29 11.15 10.66 9.53 8.15 6.71 6.16 16 6.53 7.76 9.18 10.41 11.13 11.29 11.14 10.63 9.49 8.09 6.68 6.16 17 6.55 7.81 9.23 10.44 11.14 11.29 11.13 10.61 9.45 8.04 6.65 6.16 18 6.58 7.86 9.27 10.47 11.15 11.29 11.12 10.58 9.41 7.99 6.62 6.15 19 6.61 7.91 9.32 10.49 11.16 11.29 11.11 10.55 9.36 7.94 6.59 6.15 20 6.64 7.96 9.37 10.52 11.18 11.28 11.10 10.52 9.32 7.89 6.56 6.15 21 6.67 8.00 9.42 10.55 11.18 11.28 11.09 10.49 9.27 7.84 6.53 6.15 22 6.70 8.05 9.46 10.57 11.19 11.28 11.08 10.46 9.23 7.79 6.50 6.15 23 6.73 8.10 9.51 10.60 11.20 11.27 11.07 10.43 9.18 7.74 6.48 6.15 24 6.76 8.15 9.55 10.62 11.21 11.27 11.06 10.40 9.14 7.69 6.45 6.16 25 6.80 8.20 9.60 10.65 11.22 11.27 11.04 10.37 9.09 7.64 6.43 6.16 26 6.84 8.25 9.64 10.67 11.23 11.26 11.03 10.33 9.04 7.59 6.41 6.17 27 6.87 8.30 9.69 10.73 11.24 11.28 11.01 10.30 8.99 7.54 6.39 6.17 28 6.91 8.36 9.73 10.76 11.24 11.28 11.00 10.27 8.95 7.48 6.36 6.18 29 6.95 9.77 10.80 11.25 11.28 10.98 10.23 8.90 7.43 6.26 6.19 30 6.99 9.81 10.83 11.26 11.28 10.97 10.20 8.87 7.38 6.22 6.20 31 7.03 9.85 11.26 10.98 10.16 7.33 6.21 Total 203 216 284 311 344 339 345 329 285 251 202 192Average 6.6 7.7 9.2 10.4 11.1 11.3 11.1 10.6 9.5 8.1 6.7 6.2 T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • Annexures Table 2A Daily total values of global solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface in Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 4.16 5.01 5.74 6.72 7.22 7.42 7.68 7.47 7.44 5.55 5.23 3.95 2 4.39 4.99 6.12 5.03 6.11 7.70 7.72 5.61 7.41 5.44 5.04 4.36 3 4.34 5.13 6.40 7.11 7.66 7.87 6.59 3.62 7.36 5.05 4.89 4.29 4 4.32 5.02 6.19 6.78 7.01 6.03 1.48 3.43 7.34 5.69 5.04 4.03 5 4.13 5.00 6.26 7.24 7.52 7.47 1.42 3.55 7.32 6.20 5.03 4.43 6 4.11 5.17 6.15 6.53 6.46 7.70 5.98 4.26 7.33 6.05 4.95 4.26 7 4.17 5.32 6.46 7.05 5.38 7.89 5.98 5.22 7.30 6.09 4.96 3.54 8 4.50 5.36 6.37 6.74 7.04 7.23 4.54 5.45 7.27 4.50 4.69 3.56 9 4.58 5.30 6.29 6.72 7.31 7.55 2.49 7.09 7.25 5.75 4.69 4.03 10 4.37 5.57 5.95 6.81 7.19 3.71 4.41 3.69 7.20 5.79 4.82 3.99 11 4.56 5.30 6.15 7.28 7.63 6.50 3.30 1.98 7.17 5.83 4.46 4.11 12 4.59 5.55 6.42 7.34 7.17 3.89 7.71 3.09 7.19 5.14 4.78 4.15 13 4.61 5.63 6.14 7.16 7.86 5.23 7.91 3.18 7.17 5.78 4.45 4.16 14 4.64 5.44 6.20 6.90 7.75 3.71 7.52 6.04 7.04 5.99 4.75 4.34 15 4.44 5.41 6.07 7.18 7.74 2.89 1.56 7.01 7.12 5.76 4.48 4.33 16 4.47 5.65 6.57 7.21 7.28 5.78 5.23 3.27 7.03 5.65 4.14 3.88 17 4.70 5.97 5.92 7.54 7.31 6.74 4.11 2.98 7.05 5.63 4.60 4.11 18 4.53 5.51 6.79 7.42 6.88 7.45 2.85 2.41 7.02 5.56 3.97 4.17 19 4.58 4.75 6.65 6.95 7.57 6.28 2.07 2.03 6.96 5.78 3.93 3.94 20 4.39 5.62 6.28 7.12 7.47 3.50 6.42 3.10 6.96 5.73 3.68 4.15 21 4.84 5.61 6.87 7.36 7.23 7.87 4.05 2.97 6.88 5.49 4.08 4.12 22 4.87 5.63 7.07 7.06 7.62 5.59 6.54 5.48 6.88 5.34 4.30 4.24 23 4.56 6.16 6.27 7.53 7.43 7.79 7.29 3.02 6.81 5.63 3.93 4.01 24 4.90 6.01 6.99 7.24 7.71 2.70 6.25 3.41 6.83 5.35 4.49 3.92 25 4.84 5.93 6.93 7.12 6.37 8.06 2.63 4.41 6.78 5.21 4.41 4.23 26 5.03 5.96 6.88 7.57 7.49 7.60 3.74 4.01 6.75 5.23 4.30 3.87 27 4.79 6.31 7.13 7.65 7.50 7.82 1.93 3.52 6.75 5.59 4.63 3.93 28 4.76 5.95 6.48 7.67 8.07 8.03 3.26 7.25 6.72 4.95 4.33 3.76 29 5.10 7.14 7.64 7.62 3.90 4.71 4.12 6.68 5.32 4.48 3.97 30 5.14 7.17 7.92 7.96 7.46 3.75 5.57 6.63 4.91 2.79 4.19 31 5.06 7.11 7.89 4.74 6.53 4.92 4.36 Total 142 154 201 214 226 189 146 135 212 171 134 126Average 4.6 5.5 6.5 7.1 7.3 6.3 4.7 4.3 7.1 5.5 4.5 4.1 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 44 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanTable 3A. Daily total values of diffuse solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface in Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 0.92 0.97 1.61 2.16 2.59 2.69 2.22 2.36 1.24 2.26 1.08 1.48 2 0.90 1.02 1.20 3.21 3.35 2.39 2.42 3.67 1.22 2.35 1.29 0.92 3 0.87 1.06 0.89 1.50 1.82 2.14 3.40 3.02 1.19 2.61 1.29 0.89 4 0.87 1.10 1.23 2.10 2.85 3.41 1.47 3.17 1.23 2.04 1.14 1.26 5 1.13 1.18 1.14 1.49 2.11 2.72 1.41 2.92 1.25 1.17 1.12 0.83 6 1.18 1.21 1.38 2.35 3.26 2.49 3.43 3.08 1.17 1.34 1.12 0.82 7 1.09 0.99 1.04 1.85 3.53 2.03 3.51 3.30 1.14 1.30 1.05 1.66 8 0.86 0.98 1.17 2.35 2.80 2.94 3.33 3.36 1.12 2.67 1.36 1.71 9 0.79 1.10 1.49 2.43 2.56 2.72 2.37 2.46 1.17 1.66 1.34 1.04 10 1.02 0.83 1.82 2.29 2.69 2.70 3.45 2.93 1.19 1.65 1.07 1.06 11 0.86 1.12 1.63 1.78 2.28 3.52 2.91 1.94 1.19 1.40 1.45 1.00 12 0.76 1.02 1.35 1.74 2.77 3.31 2.19 2.71 1.07 2.20 1.03 1.00 13 0.70 0.88 1.82 2.03 1.82 3.61 1.96 2.81 1.06 1.40 1.32 1.01 14 0.75 1.11 1.84 2.50 2.14 3.12 2.48 3.38 1.14 1.09 1.02 0.69 15 1.03 1.24 2.07 1.99 2.19 2.55 1.53 2.50 1.04 1.22 1.36 0.75 16 1.04 1.11 1.41 2.11 2.65 3.62 3.34 2.49 1.13 1.50 1.69 1.34 17 0.85 0.72 2.27 1.53 2.67 3.26 3.13 2.76 0.99 1.51 1.11 1.05 18 0.96 1.27 1.25 1.86 3.08 2.67 2.60 2.24 0.98 1.42 1.84 1.04 19 1.03 2.11 1.37 2.55 2.30 3.63 2.03 1.94 1.09 1.06 1.73 1.19 20 1.23 1.24 2.04 2.39 2.48 2.66 3.35 2.79 0.99 1.13 1.79 0.96 21 0.91 1.33 1.27 2.08 2.95 2.19 3.45 2.34 1.07 1.34 1.50 1.02 22 0.81 1.32 1.05 2.49 2.48 3.83 3.16 3.40 0.97 1.46 1.20 0.85 23 1.27 0.75 2.16 1.76 2.74 2.30 2.61 2.84 1.03 0.94 1.68 1.14 24 0.78 1.04 1.41 2.31 2.13 2.47 3.47 2.77 0.96 1.30 1.05 1.18 25 0.93 1.16 1.53 2.52 3.46 1.88 2.27 3.28 0.98 1.34 1.12 0.84 26 0.82 1.14 1.58 1.79 2.41 2.47 2.61 3.41 1.00 1.27 1.25 1.38 27 1.01 0.83 1.26 1.80 2.67 2.22 1.91 3.00 0.89 0.86 0.84 1.23 28 1.14 1.18 2.22 1.76 1.79 1.88 2.97 1.76 0.88 1.60 1.19 1.33 29 0.82 1.28 1.93 2.46 3.15 3.43 3.22 0.88 1.08 0.87 1.25 30 0.81 1.28 1.50 2.13 2.62 3.00 3.36 0.94 1.62 2.14 1.07 31 0.92 1.38 2.11 3.26 2.60 1.54 0.73 Total 29 31 46 62 79 83 85 88 32 47 39 34Average 0.9 1.1 1.5 2.1 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.8 1.1 1.5 1.3 1.1 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresTable 4A. Daily total values of direct solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 3.24 4.04 4.13 4.56 4.64 4.73 5.46 5.11 6.20 3.29 4.15 2.47 2 3.49 3.97 4.93 1.82 2.76 5.31 5.31 1.94 6.19 3.08 3.75 3.44 3 3.47 4.08 5.51 5.61 5.84 5.73 3.19 0.61 6.17 2.44 3.61 3.41 4 3.45 3.92 4.96 4.68 4.16 2.61 0.01 0.26 6.11 3.65 3.90 2.78 5 3.01 3.82 5.12 5.74 5.41 4.75 0.01 0.63 6.06 5.04 3.91 3.60 6 2.94 3.96 4.77 4.18 3.20 5.21 2.55 1.17 6.16 4.71 3.83 3.44 7 3.08 4.32 5.41 5.20 1.85 5.86 2.47 1.91 6.16 4.79 3.92 1.89 8 3.64 4.39 5.19 4.39 4.24 4.29 1.21 2.09 6.15 1.83 3.33 1.85 9 3.79 4.20 4.80 4.29 4.76 4.83 0.12 4.63 6.08 4.08 3.35 2.99 10 3.35 4.74 4.13 4.52 4.50 1.01 0.96 0.76 6.02 4.13 3.74 2.93 11 3.70 4.19 4.52 5.49 5.35 2.98 0.38 0.05 5.98 4.43 3.01 3.11 12 3.83 4.53 5.07 5.61 4.40 0.57 5.52 0.39 6.12 2.94 3.75 3.15 13 3.91 4.75 4.32 5.13 6.04 1.62 5.94 0.37 6.11 4.38 3.13 3.15 14 3.89 4.32 4.36 4.41 5.61 0.59 5.05 2.66 5.90 4.91 3.74 3.64 15 3.41 4.17 4.01 5.19 5.55 0.34 0.03 4.51 6.08 4.54 3.13 3.59 16 3.43 4.54 5.17 5.09 4.64 2.16 1.89 0.78 5.90 4.15 2.45 2.54 17 3.86 5.25 3.65 6.01 4.64 3.48 0.98 0.22 6.05 4.12 3.49 3.07 18 3.58 4.24 5.53 5.56 3.80 4.78 0.25 0.17 6.04 4.14 2.13 3.13 19 3.55 2.63 5.29 4.41 5.27 2.65 0.04 0.08 5.87 4.72 2.20 2.75 20 3.17 4.38 4.24 4.73 4.99 0.84 3.07 0.31 5.97 4.61 1.89 3.19 21 3.92 4.27 5.60 5.27 4.28 5.68 0.59 0.63 5.81 4.15 2.57 3.10 22 4.06 4.31 6.02 4.57 5.14 1.76 3.38 2.08 5.91 3.87 3.11 3.40 23 3.29 5.41 4.10 5.77 4.69 5.49 4.68 0.18 5.77 4.68 2.26 2.88 24 4.12 4.98 5.58 4.93 5.57 0.23 2.78 0.64 5.87 4.05 3.44 2.73 25 3.91 4.77 5.40 4.59 2.91 6.17 0.36 1.13 5.80 3.86 3.29 3.40 26 4.21 4.82 5.30 5.78 5.08 5.14 1.13 0.61 5.74 3.96 3.05 2.49 27 3.77 5.49 5.87 5.84 4.82 5.60 0.03 0.52 5.85 4.73 3.79 2.70 28 3.62 4.77 4.26 5.91 6.28 6.15 0.29 5.49 5.84 3.35 3.14 2.43 29 4.29 5.86 5.71 5.16 0.76 1.28 0.90 5.81 4.23 3.61 2.73 30 4.33 5.88 6.42 5.83 4.84 0.75 2.21 5.69 3.29 0.65 3.12 31 4.13 5.72 5.77 1.48 3.93 3.38 3.62 Total 113 123 155 151 147 106 61 47 179 124 95 93Average 3.7 4.4 5.0 5.0 4.7 3.5 2.0 1.5 6.0 4.0 3.2 3.0 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 46 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanTable 5A. Daily total values of direct normal incidence (DNI) at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 6.86 7.72 6.99 7.40 6.40 6.40 6.86 7.56 9.05 5.23 7.55 4.99 2 7.09 7.32 7.47 2.52 3.83 6.86 7.24 2.49 9.07 4.81 6.91 6.68 3 6.84 7.05 9.31 8.58 7.78 7.38 4.51 0.95 9.00 3.85 6.84 6.87 4 7.07 7.07 8.34 6.80 5.38 3.47 0.01 0.57 8.90 6.10 7.24 6.01 5 6.05 6.40 8.75 8.21 6.91 6.59 0.02 0.82 8.86 7.50 7.50 6.88 6 5.97 7.38 7.55 6.30 4.56 7.54 3.03 1.47 9.09 7.60 7.33 6.89 7 5.86 7.71 8.27 7.43 2.81 7.53 3.27 2.87 9.08 7.53 7.46 4.09 8 7.25 8.11 8.45 6.59 6.33 5.55 1.51 2.57 9.09 3.36 5.74 3.78 9 7.58 7.44 7.66 5.88 6.59 6.85 0.14 5.89 8.98 6.66 6.13 5.59 10 7.10 8.52 6.84 6.40 6.45 1.65 1.10 1.00 8.85 6.69 7.35 5.71 11 7.34 7.65 6.65 7.96 7.45 4.26 0.74 0.06 8.79 7.76 5.42 6.16 12 7.76 8.13 8.08 7.90 6.14 0.65 7.34 0.53 9.15 5.36 7.31 6.28 13 7.99 8.59 6.41 7.54 8.16 3.15 8.35 0.55 9.16 7.05 5.70 6.60 14 7.73 7.46 6.95 6.37 7.82 0.83 6.72 3.48 8.70 8.22 7.26 7.34 15 6.91 7.76 6.29 7.03 8.00 0.53 0.03 5.82 9.16 7.41 6.13 7.29 16 6.77 7.60 7.78 7.43 6.27 2.69 2.89 0.87 8.75 6.83 4.55 5.10 17 7.68 9.32 6.01 8.43 6.66 5.31 1.45 0.40 9.18 6.96 6.80 5.93 18 7.08 7.18 8.35 7.94 5.34 6.07 0.41 0.48 9.20 7.05 4.42 6.49 19 6.78 4.25 7.85 6.31 7.05 3.52 0.05 0.10 8.69 8.05 4.16 5.48 20 6.61 7.34 6.97 6.86 7.25 1.81 4.35 0.38 9.12 8.03 3.28 6.44 21 7.32 7.19 8.80 7.96 5.92 8.15 0.87 1.11 8.77 7.54 5.01 6.39 22 7.82 7.59 9.40 6.35 7.04 2.83 4.55 3.68 9.17 6.42 5.78 6.82 23 6.33 9.41 6.24 8.06 6.64 7.26 6.70 0.22 8.79 7.78 4.68 5.68 24 7.70 8.48 8.22 6.83 7.78 0.51 3.75 0.85 9.18 6.95 6.95 5.65 25 7.09 7.41 8.38 6.06 4.28 8.66 0.43 1.35 8.99 6.44 6.19 6.78 26 8.04 8.17 7.70 8.09 6.45 6.56 1.37 0.96 8.85 6.97 5.76 4.93 27 7.13 9.43 8.36 8.06 6.83 7.78 0.03 0.69 9.25 8.42 7.30 5.50 28 6.94 7.29 6.15 8.42 8.66 8.03 0.48 7.79 9.27 5.99 6.40 4.90 29 8.02 9.02 7.87 6.93 1.52 2.00 1.28 9.26 7.28 7.20 5.68 30 8.28 8.73 9.28 8.44 6.99 1.07 3.02 8.99 5.77 1.45 6.44 31 7.33 8.19 8.25 1.80 5.57 6.21 7.47 Total 222 215 240 217 204 147 83 65 270 208 182 187Average 7.2 7.7 7.7 7.2 6.6 4.9 2.7 2.1 9.0 6.7 6.1 6.0 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresTable 6A. Daily total values of effective direct normal incidence (IB>150W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 6.76 7.70 6.99 7.30 6.39 6.33 6.59 7.43 8.91 5.23 7.38 4.80 2 7.02 7.31 7.47 2.38 3.57 6.82 7.13 2.19 8.93 4.68 6.76 6.62 3 6.69 6.93 9.31 8.53 7.78 7.21 4.51 0.41 8.96 3.75 6.84 6.69 4 7.04 6.95 8.34 6.71 5.23 3.17 0.00 0.28 8.85 6.10 7.24 5.88 5 5.94 6.27 8.75 8.11 6.76 6.59 0.00 0.31 8.75 7.34 7.45 6.83 6 5.97 7.34 7.53 6.30 4.44 7.52 2.78 1.07 8.99 7.52 7.28 6.88 7 5.79 7.67 8.27 7.36 2.35 7.50 3.27 2.56 9.04 7.53 7.40 4.04 8 7.25 7.95 8.45 6.53 6.20 5.55 1.24 2.17 9.05 3.13 5.59 3.59 9 7.44 7.40 7.66 5.88 6.45 6.58 0.00 5.85 8.91 6.66 5.97 5.50 10 7.10 8.34 6.84 6.38 6.22 1.53 0.83 0.56 8.82 6.69 7.33 5.69 11 7.30 7.59 6.64 7.92 7.45 4.12 0.57 0.00 8.77 7.76 5.40 6.09 12 7.76 8.08 8.08 7.87 6.14 0.21 7.23 0.00 9.13 5.27 7.28 6.23 13 7.99 8.55 6.40 7.39 8.07 2.66 8.35 0.22 9.13 7.05 5.64 6.50 14 7.63 7.37 6.95 6.30 7.75 0.23 6.59 3.22 8.63 8.22 7.25 7.31 15 6.91 7.66 6.29 6.82 8.00 0.17 0.00 5.79 9.16 7.37 6.13 7.24 16 6.65 7.53 7.69 7.38 6.11 2.29 2.57 0.73 8.60 6.83 4.45 5.07 17 7.66 9.21 6.01 8.36 6.59 5.11 1.12 0.18 9.18 6.96 6.63 5.80 18 6.93 7.05 8.20 7.90 5.20 5.89 0.15 0.34 9.20 7.05 4.25 6.41 19 6.64 4.18 7.85 6.16 6.95 3.41 0.00 0.00 8.69 7.94 4.00 5.46 20 6.61 7.24 6.97 6.76 7.25 1.57 4.15 0.00 9.12 7.97 2.89 6.37 21 7.24 7.09 8.80 7.84 5.79 8.15 0.15 0.69 8.77 7.40 4.91 6.33 22 7.74 7.46 9.40 6.26 6.99 2.18 4.55 3.18 9.17 6.29 5.78 6.73 23 6.27 9.41 6.24 7.91 6.64 7.17 6.43 0.00 8.67 7.66 4.54 5.59 24 7.70 8.48 8.22 6.71 7.78 0.31 3.60 0.47 9.18 6.85 6.95 5.60 25 7.09 7.41 8.38 6.06 4.28 8.57 0.17 0.85 8.99 6.41 6.10 6.76 26 8.04 8.09 7.70 7.95 6.45 6.48 0.99 0.34 8.85 6.86 5.68 4.90 27 7.13 9.43 8.24 8.04 6.75 7.70 0.00 0.24 9.25 8.42 7.19 5.43 28 6.89 7.11 6.02 8.28 8.66 7.90 0.25 7.64 9.27 5.96 6.25 4.87 29 8.02 9.02 7.76 6.83 0.95 1.72 0.62 9.26 7.16 7.10 5.68 30 8.28 8.60 9.17 8.44 6.99 0.84 2.84 8.87 5.68 0.98 6.35 31 7.28 8.19 8.15 1.30 5.33 5.99 7.39 Total 221 213 239 214 202 141 77 56 269 206 179 185 Average 7.12 7.60 7.73 7.14 6.50 4.69 2.49 1.79 8.97 6.64 5.95 5.96 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 48 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanTable 7A. Daily total values of effective sunshine hours (IB>150W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 9 10 11 11 12 11 10 12 11 11 9 8 2 9 10 10 8 9 12 12 8 11 10 9 9 3 9 9 11 11 12 11 13 2 11 9 10 8 4 9 9 11 11 11 9 0 1 11 11 10 9 5 9 9 11 11 11 13 0 1 11 9 10 9 6 9 10 10 11 12 12 8 3 11 10 10 9 7 9 10 10 11 7 12 10 8 11 11 10 9 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 5 6 11 8 9 7 9 9 10 11 11 11 11 0 11 11 11 9 8 10 10 9 11 11 10 5 3 2 11 11 10 9 11 9 10 10 11 13 11 2 0 11 11 9 9 12 10 10 11 11 13 1 11 0 11 10 10 9 13 10 10 10 11 11 6 13 1 11 10 9 9 14 9 9 11 11 12 1 11 9 10 11 10 9 15 10 10 11 10 13 1 0 11 11 10 10 9 16 9 10 10 11 11 7 7 3 10 11 9 9 17 9 10 11 11 12 11 3 1 11 11 9 8 18 9 9 10 11 11 11 1 1 11 11 9 9 19 9 9 11 11 11 12 0 0 11 10 8 9 20 10 10 11 11 13 3 10 0 11 10 5 9 21 9 10 11 12 12 13 1 2 11 10 9 9 22 9 10 11 11 12 7 12 8 11 10 9 9 23 9 11 11 11 12 12 11 0 10 10 9 9 24 9 11 11 11 12 1 11 2 11 10 10 9 25 10 10 11 11 12 12 1 3 11 10 9 9 26 10 10 11 11 12 11 3 2 11 10 9 9 27 10 11 10 12 12 12 0 1 11 10 9 9 28 9 9 10 12 13 12 1 11 11 10 9 9 29 10 11 11 12 4 7 2 11 10 9 9 30 10 10 12 13 13 3 10 10 10 4 9 31 9 11 12 0 4 10 9 0 9 Total 289 274 331 330 361 269 173 131 326 315 270 273 Average 9.3 9.8 10.7 11 11.6 8.7 5.6 4.2 10.9 10.2 8.7 8.8 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresTable 8A. Daily total values of effective sunshine hours (IB>850W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 2 5 3 2 0 0 0 3 6 0 5 1 2 4 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 2 4 3 4 4 7 4 2 0 0 0 6 0 2 5 4 5 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 3 1 5 2 4 5 3 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 4 6 0 5 4 0 0 2 0 0 6 2 5 4 7 3 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 6 3 6 0 8 5 4 5 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 9 6 4 2 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 3 3 10 3 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 2 0 11 6 3 1 3 0 0 0 0 7 3 0 2 12 5 6 4 3 0 0 0 0 7 1 3 1 13 6 7 1 1 1 1 0 0 7 3 0 2 14 6 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 7 3 5 6 15 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 2 4 16 4 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 7 1 1 1 17 5 8 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 2 18 5 3 5 4 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 3 19 3 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 0 0 20 2 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 0 2 21 5 2 5 1 0 2 0 0 7 4 0 3 22 6 2 7 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 2 3 23 2 7 0 3 0 0 0 0 7 6 0 1 24 6 8 5 0 1 0 0 0 6 3 3 0 25 4 5 4 0 0 3 0 0 7 2 3 5 26 5 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 1 1 27 4 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 6 1 28 4 5 0 2 3 1 0 0 7 3 3 0 29 6 5 1 0 0 0 0 7 5 4 0 30 6 6 3 3 0 0 0 7 1 0 2 31 5 4 2 0 0 0 5 Total 132 133 109 39 13 10 0 3 200 76 65 66 Average 4.3 4.8 3.5 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.1 6.7 2.5 2.2 2.1 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 50 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanTable 9A. Average day time daily values of ambient air temperature (oC) at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 23.3 21.6 25.4 25.9 34.2 34.4 33.7 29.6 31.7 28.1 21.0 21.9 2 19.8 20.7 25.4 27.2 35.1 35.3 33.7 29.2 32.0 27.4 21.8 18.7 3 20.5 19.4 23.1 25.7 35.4 34.9 34.5 28.2 32.6 28.5 22.2 23.1 4 18.9 15.0 22.3 27.5 35.0 31.6 32.4 26.3 34.1 29.5 22.3 23.1 5 18.7 18.9 23.5 31.2 35.8 33.7 32.3 28.2 33.3 30.0 24.3 21.0 6 17.7 18.2 24.6 29.2 36.0 33.4 31.1 28.6 32.2 30.8 23.8 20.3 7 18.5 19.8 24.4 33.7 34.3 33.3 32.0 27.4 30.6 31.2 24.3 20.5 8 17.2 17.9 20.9 33.4 32.8 28.9 32.8 28.8 30.1 29.7 26.9 21.3 9 16.6 16.0 21.8 31.4 31.7 30.4 39.0 28.3 29.0 31.2 27.2 19.7 10 17.1 19.2 23.9 34.2 30.4 32.1 33.0 29.7 28.9 33.2 28.1 20.8 11 17.7 20.5 25.0 34.4 33.5 33.9 33.4 30.6 27.5 33.4 28.6 18.3 12 14.3 20.0 24.5 32.7 29.3 34.2 33.4 30.8 28.4 32.8 26.1 21.5 13 16.4 22.5 25.8 31.2 32.3 38.0 33.0 29.7 27.5 32.5 25.6 19.1 14 16.6 16.8 26.0 31.6 31.4 32.8 29.8 30.9 30.9 32.0 24.7 22.4 15 15.6 17.6 26.6 30.1 34.7 35.0 28.8 29.4 29.4 31.7 23.2 22.3 16 16.5 21.3 26.8 30.0 33.6 35.1 30.1 30.0 28.6 29.4 22.7 24.7 17 18.1 23.0 31.5 29.2 33.4 33.5 31.1 31.7 27.4 30.4 24.2 21.8 18 19.1 21.5 28.1 28.9 32.9 35.1 32.7 33.4 29.8 30.1 23.2 24.4 19 19.8 22.3 27.9 28.3 34.3 38.9 33.5 33.9 28.7 28.8 28.0 23.4 20 19.5 23.5 26.4 29.2 39.2 38.6 30.7 32.7 28.4 31.4 26.4 23.6 21 21.2 25.1 27.0 29.5 37.6 37.9 37.2 30.9 29.2 30.7 22.9 17.9 22 21.7 26.8 29.5 31.2 36.7 37.6 35.5 29.3 29.2 28.8 23.5 22.3 23 20.0 23.7 28.2 30.0 37.0 37.4 34.3 28.8 29.0 27.2 25.2 18.6 24 17.0 24.6 28.9 30.8 35.9 36.1 32.6 30.1 31.8 28.5 22.2 17.4 25 18.4 24.2 29.1 33.3 36.3 36.9 30.5 31.7 30.6 26.0 24.4 15.7 26 21.2 23.1 27.6 32.1 36.6 32.1 27.7 30.4 29.8 24.8 22.8 16.8 27 20.8 26.0 30.7 34.3 37.4 34.6 30.0 32.2 29.7 25.1 22.7 17.6 28 19.3 27.4 31.1 30.6 38.5 33.8 30.8 30.3 28.3 23.7 20.4 17.7 29 20.3 29.6 30.6 36.3 32.6 33.4 30.5 28.0 26.4 18.9 19.6 30 20.5 30.1 29.5 35.5 34.1 29.3 30.7 30.8 27.1 19.6 21.6 31 22.7 32.1 36.5 30.3 31.2 26.6 18.5 21.0 Average 18.9 21.3 26.7 30.6 34.8 34.5 32.3 30.1 29.9 29.3 23.7 20.6 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresTable 10A. Average daily values of wind speed (m/s) at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 0.78 0.99 1.20 1.64 2.08 2.33 2.39 1.55 1.49 0.42 0.60 0.39 2 0.80 1.18 1.16 1.76 1.26 1.91 2.23 2.26 1.25 0.48 0.70 0.53 3 0.45 0.64 1.26 0.78 1.00 3.13 1.25 1.24 0.43 0.48 0.78 0.46 4 0.53 0.68 1.26 0.84 1.80 3.36 0.73 0.94 0.32 0.76 1.08 0.30 5 0.62 0.76 0.71 1.32 0.86 2.72 1.54 0.88 0.39 0.62 1.19 0.45 6 0.88 0.76 0.99 1.00 1.88 2.07 2.95 0.56 0.36 0.65 1.05 0.66 7 0.39 0.62 1.11 1.83 1.81 2.00 1.21 1.60 0.49 0.75 0.66 0.73 8 0.42 0.45 1.11 1.36 1.89 1.26 1.35 2.29 1.00 0.90 0.55 0.46 9 0.69 0.69 1.26 1.74 1.98 2.29 1.97 1.84 0.95 0.76 0.60 0.30 10 1.05 0.49 1.24 1.73 1.58 3.30 1.46 1.41 0.85 1.05 0.46 0.29 11 1.41 0.77 0.53 0.71 2.16 1.98 1.14 1.92 0.93 0.88 0.77 0.37 12 1.40 1.06 0.30 1.82 1.40 1.17 1.67 1.68 1.02 0.75 0.70 0.65 13 1.13 1.31 0.37 1.06 2.33 1.30 1.54 0.76 0.80 0.43 0.81 0.95 14 0.69 1.13 0.64 2.24 2.63 2.39 1.76 2.04 1.06 0.33 0.64 1.61 15 0.96 2.35 0.90 2.15 2.68 3.71 0.67 1.81 1.49 0.40 0.47 1.25 16 1.05 2.24 1.23 0.97 3.16 1.83 1.96 1.01 1.79 0.41 0.53 1.02 17 1.04 2.70 0.90 0.77 1.96 1.55 0.81 1.16 1.51 0.49 0.44 1.35 18 1.14 2.61 0.77 1.00 2.05 3.47 1.89 0.95 0.97 0.49 0.76 1.65 19 1.82 1.96 0.56 1.44 1.53 2.53 1.11 1.34 0.86 0.52 0.93 1.35 20 1.95 1.48 0.67 1.43 1.24 1.88 1.71 1.26 0.67 0.40 1.11 1.50 21 2.42 1.63 0.74 1.58 1.66 2.07 0.73 1.29 0.60 0.52 0.78 0.88 22 2.25 1.19 1.09 1.15 2.51 2.11 2.52 1.54 0.74 1.00 0.64 0.80 23 1.43 1.39 1.16 2.06 2.73 0.80 2.06 1.23 0.95 0.87 0.84 0.79 24 0.54 1.18 0.99 1.29 2.35 1.53 1.87 1.05 1.44 0.89 0.96 0.52 25 0.44 1.17 1.05 1.12 1.54 1.59 1.59 0.78 1.12 0.78 0.99 0.62 26 0.50 0.71 1.43 1.90 2.11 1.68 1.32 1.23 1.56 0.65 0.55 0.48 27 1.19 0.69 1.27 1.46 1.82 1.62 2.30 2.00 2.04 0.45 0.28 0.62 28 1.70 0.81 2.06 1.58 1.03 3.50 1.21 1.37 1.15 0.35 0.39 0.69 29 1.50 1.94 0.96 1.71 2.55 1.09 1.12 0.95 0.26 0.48 0.94 30 1.36 2.15 1.34 1.33 5.24 1.75 1.05 0.93 0.29 0.35 1.04 31 1.22 1.89 2.71 1.76 2.38 0.39 1.07 Average 1.09 1.20 1.10 1.40 1.90 2.30 1.60 1.40 1.00 0.59 0.70 0.80 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 52 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanTable 11A. Average daily values of Relative Humidity (%) values at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 60 46 29 46 28 24 61 81 67 31 37 33 2 67 51 32 71 23 26 58 79 68 24 38 33 3 51 58 47 63 24 27 64 81 70 29 40 32 4 51 49 52 47 37 28 73 80 67 46 38 33 5 54 45 51 38 48 31 74 78 64 63 35 32 6 59 47 41 34 42 36 73 67 67 69 50 46 7 74 41 34 36 33 41 71 58 64 61 70 24 8 59 42 24 49 40 45 67 59 60 43 69 26 9 54 42 36 43 38 49 64 60 59 46 61 31 10 41 44 34 36 34 57 64 60 55 42 59 29 11 44 43 24 28 31 56 66 61 62 38 52 52 12 30 44 23 27 29 55 69 62 60 38 57 56 13 43 60 28 38 36 58 72 77 55 27 62 58 14 42 69 25 27 36 55 65 79 59 21 59 47 15 46 76 20 23 39 52 63 71 57 22 59 41 16 56 64 25 20 35 51 63 84 60 27 55 39 17 50 59 28 22 33 52 63 81 59 23 65 34 18 54 45 39 29 42 54 67 84 59 23 62 29 19 42 46 34 32 44 56 66 78 56 33 49 27 20 40 52 41 32 39 55 63 82 49 33 51 26 21 44 56 47 26 21 52 61 84 45 34 48 24 22 46 55 51 20 14 53 60 77 50 31 44 26 23 52 50 40 20 20 51 59 74 56 27 40 26 24 49 49 43 26 30 48 60 78 53 38 36 36 25 46 41 30 32 54 53 59 74 50 34 36 60 26 65 44 30 25 58 48 58 72 49 32 40 37 27 65 37 33 30 58 56 73 71 43 32 40 50 28 52 40 25 36 64 55 78 67 47 32 38 45 29 52 30 36 62 55 78 65 38 34 53 43 30 50 37 34 65 56 72 63 44 35 47 37 31 57 33 65 69 73 28 40 Average 51 50 34 34 39 48 66 73 56 35 50 37 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresTable 12A. Average daily values of visibility (km) values at Bap, Jodhpur Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 1.9 2.8 3.7 4.0 4.0 2.9 2.5 3.5 4.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 2 1.9 2.9 4.0 3.6 4.0 2.5 3.1 3.7 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 3 2.0 2.8 3.5 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.4 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.2 4.0 4 2.0 2.7 3.5 4.0 3.1 3.1 6.0 4.0 3.4 4.0 3.2 4.0 5 2.0 2.4 2.8 4.0 4.0 2.5 5.6 5.5 3.3 4.0 2.2 4.0 6 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.3 3.9 3.7 3.4 4.0 2.8 4.0 7 1.7 2.9 4.0 4.0 3.5 1.9 3.3 4.0 3.7 4.0 2.0 4.0 8 1.9 4.0 6.2 3.4 1.3 2.2 3.6 2.3 4.0 4.0 2.2 4.0 9 2.2 3.1 4.0 1.5 4.9 2.3 2.2 6.2 4.0 4.0 1.6 4.0 10 2.3 3.2 4.0 1.8 5.5 2.7 2.5 3.8 4.0 4.0 3.5 4.0 11 2.2 4.2 6.2 2.4 6.2 3.2 2.6 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.4 12 2.3 3.5 4.7 1.9 4.2 2.5 3.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.0 13 2.0 3.0 4.0 1.9 3.2 2.5 4.3 3.7 3.7 4.0 2.9 4.0 14 2.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 2.4 2.1 2.5 3.3 3.9 4.0 5.1 4.0 15 1.9 3.3 4.8 3.7 3.2 2.1 2.9 3.8 4.0 3.8 4.4 4.0 16 2.0 3.7 5.5 4.0 3.0 2.7 2.8 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.5 4.0 17 2.0 3.0 4.0 3.8 2.7 2.1 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.3 4.0 18 2.0 4.1 6.2 3.9 2.1 2.6 2.8 3.6 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0 19 2.0 3.8 5.5 3.8 5.0 3.5 3.0 3.7 4.0 4.0 3.2 4.0 20 2.0 3.4 4.7 3.7 3.4 2.5 2.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 4.0 21 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.8 2.3 2.4 3.8 4.0 4.0 2.7 4.0 22 2.0 3.0 4.0 3.8 6.2 2.2 2.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 4.0 23 2.0 4.1 6.2 2.5 3.3 2.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.5 4.0 24 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 2.2 2.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.5 4.0 25 2.0 4.2 6.4 3.7 2.4 1.9 4.0 3.2 4.0 4.0 3.3 4.0 26 2.0 4.1 6.2 3.8 2.6 1.9 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.0 27 1.7 3.9 6.2 3.5 2.2 1.0 8.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.6 3.9 28 1.9 3.2 4.5 3.4 2.4 0.6 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.7 29 2.0 2.6 3.8 2.8 0.7 6.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.8 4.0 30 2.0 5.7 2.1 2.7 1.8 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.5 4.0 31 2.0 6.7 3.9 4.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 Average 2 3 5 3 3 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 54 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Annexure II: Product brochuresPlease refer the attached file Product_Specification.pdf T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 56 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanAnnexure III: MOU letters between Dalmia group and INIFINA T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 58 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Annexure IV(a): Layout of 10 MW power plant 20 mt. 250 mt. HT Substation and 1 MW solar Transmission200 mt. power plant Station 350 mt. 20 mt. 30 mt. General facility Zone 11 kV internal Transmission Line T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 60 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Annexure IV (b): Estimation of cost of electrical & civil worksSr. No. Particulars Hardware Cost EPC Charges Remarks INR (INR)1 Power Distribution Cables 44052500 41849882 Power Distribution Panels 75425000 56568753 Power Transformers 42500000 2337500 1.6 MVA/0.208/11 kV 10 Nos & 16 MVA/11/33 kV 02 Nos4 Transmission Line (11 kV) 819000 102375 Total length of the internal transmission line is approximate 2.3 km.5 EMIS 36850000 1289750 Individual generator level and data communication line6 Other Electrical Work 2500000 Include the panel earthling of generation and transmission facility, ground mat and trenches.7 Civil Works (Electrical 5500000 Substation rooms and System) generation station along with the basic equipments like area lighting, safety and security system, power backup to the facility etc.8 Civil Works (Generator) 35000000 Generators and Invertors foundation9 Land Planning and Civil 1500000 Land planning, contour Work survey, leveling, soil testing, area fencing10 Misc. expenses 12275000 Included the and necessary facilities for the operation and maintenance team like accommodation, main control station and other necessary civil work. land acquisition, other necessary construction for the project.Total, INR 199646500 70346488Grand Total, Cr 27.0Rupees twenty seven crore only T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 62 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanAnnexure-IV (c) Single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 64 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan Annexure V: Financial sheetsAssumptionsTable 1: Assumptions and Financials of the Project1 Project Specifications Solar Dish 1.1 Name of the project Unit Stirling 1.2 Country where the project is situated India 1.3 Project Capacity KW 10,000 MW 102 Generation and sale of energy 2.1 Annual power generation from the Lacs kWhr 222.7 2.2 Plant Load Factor Percent 25.42% 2.3 Maximum field Losses Percent 4.0% 2.3 Net power generated Lacs kWhr 213.79 2.4 Net power sold 213.79 2.5 Tariff Required (levelised for 25 Rs/kWhr 19.0 Escalation in selling rate from 20th to 2.6 25th year Rs/kWhr 10.00 2.7 Annual Degration in efficiency (%) % 0.5% Operation and maintenance(incl3 insurance) Rs lacs/Year 287.50 O& M Per year per centage of 3.1 Project cost % 1.25% 3.2 Annual Escalation percentage 5.00%4 Long term loan 4.1 The interest rate Percent 12.50%7 Depreciation 7.1 Plant life assumed for working of Year 25 7.2 Salvage value % 10 7.3 Rate of Depreciation (1st 12 years) % 5.28% 7.4 Rate of Depreciation (From 13th years) % 2.05%8 Financial Parameters 8.1 Debt / equity ratio Debt 70% Equity 30% 8.2 Equity Rs. Lacs 6,900.00 8.3 Long Term loan Rs. Lacs 16,100.00 8.4 Total cost Rs. Lacs 23,000.00 8.5 Cost Per MW Rs. Lacs 2,300.000 8.6 Income tax holiday Years 10.00 8.7 Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) 10.00% Surcharge 10.00% Edu. Cess 3%Percent 11.33% 8.8 Income tax rate after 11th year 30% Surcharge 10.00% Edu.Cess 3% Percent 33.99% 8.9 Project Cost Rs in Lacs 23,0009 Results Financial Parameters 9.1 ROE Percent 16.0% 9.2 Discounting Rate % 10.50 Levelized cost of generation 9.3 (Tariff)(25 years basis) Rs per kWhr 19.03 month of commissioning ph-2 in Financial Year 5 month of commissioning ph-1 in Financial Year 6 T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • AnnexuresT E R I Report No. 2009RT03
  • 66 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, RajasthanTariff calculation for 10 MW plantTariff Calculation for 10 MW plant: Financial Year ----> FY-10 FY-11 FY-12 FY-13 FY-14 FY-15 FY-16 FY-17 FY-18 FY-19 FY-20 FY-21 FY-22 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Generation Phase-1 10.69 21.27 21.17 21.06 20.95 20.85 20.75 20.64 20.54 20.44 20.33 20.23 20.13 Generation Phase-2 112.24 191.45 190.49 189.54 188.59 187.65 186.71 185.78 184.85 183.93 183.01 182.09 Total Generation 10.69 133.51 212.62 211.55 210.50 209.44 208.40 207.35 206.32 205.29 204.26 203.24 202.22 Annual Expences Phase-1 240.34 470.63 456.79 443.04 429.37 415.79 402.29 388.90 375.61 362.42 392.76 379.81 296.20 Annual Expences Phase-2 2,520.20 4,224.08 4,099.58 3,975.79 3,852.75 3,730.51 3,609.09 3,488.53 3,368.89 3,250.21 3,523.31 3,406.68 Total Annual Expences 240.34 2,990.83 4,680.87 4,542.62 4,405.16 4,268.54 4,132.80 3,997.99 3,864.14 3,731.31 3,642.98 3,903.11 3,702.89 Cost of Generation 22.48 22.40 22.02 21.47 20.93 20.38 19.83 19.28 18.73 18.18 17.84 19.20 18.31 Discounting factor 0.905 0.819 0.741 0.671 0.607 0.549 0.497 0.450 0.407 0.368 0.333 0.302 0.273 Discounted Tariff 20.35 18.35 16.32 14.40 12.70 11.20 9.86 8.67 7.63 6.70 5.95 5.80 5.00 Levellised Tariff 19.03Net Annual expences in case CDM Benefit availed 237.13 2,950.77 4,617.08 4,479.15 4,342.01 4,205.71 4,070.28 3,935.78 3,802.25 3,669.73 3,581.70 3,842.14 3,642.22 Levelised Tariff with CDM Benefit availed 18.73 FY-23 FY-24 FY-25 FY-26 FY-27 FY-28 FY-29 FY-30 FY-31 FY-32 FY-33 FY-34 FY-35 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 20.03 19.93 19.83 19.73 19.63 19.53 19.44 19.34 19.24 19.15 19.05 18.96 181.18 180.27 179.37 178.48 177.58 176.70 175.81 174.93 174.06 173.19 172.32 171.46 170.60 201.21 200.20 199.20 198.21 197.22 196.23 195.25 194.27 193.30 192.34 191.37 190.42 170.60 292.93 289.80 286.81 285.38 287.09 290.56 294.20 298.02 302.03 306.24 310.67 315.31 2,654.25 2,624.82 2,596.62 2,569.69 2,562.60 2,583.85 2,615.04 2,647.79 2,682.18 2,718.29 2,756.20 2,796.01 2,837.81 2,947.18 2,914.62 2,883.42 2,855.07 2,849.70 2,874.41 2,909.24 2,945.81 2,984.21 3,024.53 3,066.87 3,111.32 2,837.81 14.65 14.56 14.47 14.40 14.45 14.65 14.90 15.16 15.44 15.73 16.03 16.34 16.63 0.247 0.224 0.202 0.183 0.166 0.150 0.136 0.123 0.111 0.101 0.091 0.082 0.075 3.62 3.26 2.93 2.64 2.40 2.20 2.02 1.86 1.72 1.58 1.46 1.35 1.24 2,886.82 2,854.56 2,823.66 2,795.61 2,790.53 2,815.55 2,850.67 2,887.53 2,926.22 2,966.83 3,009.46 3,054.20 2,786.63 T E R I Report No. 2009RT03