Georgina Cairns Institute for Social Marketing University of Stirling & The Open University Social Marketing:  A Communica...
Outline <ul><li>History and definitions of social marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Social marketing as a strategic communicatio...
1951 – the beginning Why can’t you sell brotherhood like soap ?
1971 – The first  academic proposition
Marketing aims to understand and influence human behaviours <ul><li>Marketing achieves this through social and managerial ...
Social marketing aims to understand and influence human behaviours <ul><li>Through the application of commercial marketing...
Marketing and social marketing: Same, same but different <ul><li>In commercial marketing, the ultimate beneficiary is the ...
Essential elements of social marketing <ul><li>Behaviour change </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer research </li></ul><ul><li>Segm...
Social Marketing Planning Process Analysis of the issue: consumer characteristics, competition <ul><li>Who: Segmentation a...
UK case study:  smoking cessation in prisons Ref: MacAskill et al.(2008) Social marketing with challenging groups: smoking...
1. Behaviour Change <ul><li>Essential ‘bottom line ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Raise awareness    </li></ul><ul><li>Quit smoking ...
2. Consumer Research   <ul><li>Social marketing puts a  “fanatical emphasis”  on the consumer/client/audience.   </li></ul...
Consumer Orientation (Research) <ul><li>Intense pressures from peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little optimism </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Prison context: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking widespread – 80% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care > local heal...
Consumer Research: Methodology <ul><li>Pilot programmes in 4 prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Case study approach </li></ul><ul><...
3. Segmentation and Targeting <ul><li>Consumers are grouped according to similarity of needs/desires. </li></ul><ul><li>Ty...
Prison Study: Segmentation <ul><li>Assess motivation  tailored interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Different approaches for di...
4. Exchange <ul><li>There must be a mutually beneficial exchange.  If we want someone to give up, modify or adopt a behavi...
Mutually Beneficial Exchange <ul><li>Continuing  </li></ul><ul><li>Quitting hard & little diversion </li></ul><ul><li>Reli...
Benefits: emotional, physical, social “ It does feel good being yourself. And it gets that easy – you get the people askin...
5. Competition <ul><li>Strong, pervasive culture of smoking (social norm). </li></ul><ul><li>Few diversions from addiction...
6. Marketing Mix <ul><li>Social marketing manipulates the marketing mix in the best way, to deliver the best benefits, for...
Marketing Mix for Prison Setting <ul><li>P roduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reframe as gain not loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P ...
Prison Senior Management NRT suppliers Health & Safety/ Health Improvement PCTs & Stop Smoking  Specialists  Health care P...
Outcomes <ul><li>Quit levels achieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>56%-100% in groups, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% -18% for pr...
International applications of social marketing practice and research <ul><li>Condom use, sexual health and family planning...
International diffusion of social marketing research and practice 2008 First World Social Marketing Conference 2009 Declar...
Conclusions <ul><li>Social marketing is a process for thinking about, managing and developing  social change  (even when f...
More information and case studies
Georgina Cairns [email_address] ;  [email_address] Website www.ism.stir.ac.uk Thank you for your attention. Questions ?
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Georgina Cairns Social Marketing Gc

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Georgina Cairns Social Marketing Gc

  1. 1. Georgina Cairns Institute for Social Marketing University of Stirling & The Open University Social Marketing: A Communication Tool (and More) for Flemish Health Promotion Symposium, hosted by VIGEZ 29.10.09
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>History and definitions of social marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Social marketing as a strategic communication tool. </li></ul><ul><li>UK case study. </li></ul><ul><li>Some international examples </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1951 – the beginning Why can’t you sell brotherhood like soap ?
  4. 4. 1971 – The first academic proposition
  5. 5. Marketing aims to understand and influence human behaviours <ul><li>Marketing achieves this through social and managerial processes which promote the exchange of products, services and value. The objective is to fulfill consumer needs and wants. (Kotler et al 2001) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social marketing aims to understand and influence human behaviours <ul><li>Through the application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution and evaluation of programs designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of their society” (Andreasen 1995) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Marketing and social marketing: Same, same but different <ul><li>In commercial marketing, the ultimate beneficiary is the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>In social marketing, the ultimate beneficiary is the public good. </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise the theories, concepts and tools are (mostly) the same </li></ul>
  8. 8. Essential elements of social marketing <ul><li>Behaviour change </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer research </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation and targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing mix </li></ul>
  9. 9. Social Marketing Planning Process Analysis of the issue: consumer characteristics, competition <ul><li>Who: Segmentation and targeting </li></ul><ul><li>What: Clarify behaviour goals Formulate exchange </li></ul><ul><li>How: The Marketing Mix </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Implementation Monitoring and evaluation M A R K E T / C O N S U M E R R E S E A R C H
  10. 10. UK case study: smoking cessation in prisons Ref: MacAskill et al.(2008) Social marketing with challenging groups: smoking cessation in prisons in England and Wales. Int J Nonprofit Volunt Sect Mark. 13; 251-261.
  11. 11. 1. Behaviour Change <ul><li>Essential ‘bottom line ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Raise awareness  </li></ul><ul><li>Quit smoking  </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Consumer Research <ul><li>Social marketing puts a “fanatical emphasis” on the consumer/client/audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Just because people do stupid things, </li></ul><ul><li>it doesn’t mean they are stupid” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Consumer Orientation (Research) <ul><li>Intense pressures from peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little optimism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smoking is pervasive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prisoners and staff </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Prison context: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking widespread – 80% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care > local health services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prison service orders > health improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prisoner characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor health care habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life time of exclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly younger males </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard to reach groups </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoner demand for services </li></ul>Consumer Research: Setting
  15. 15. Consumer Research: Methodology <ul><li>Pilot programmes in 4 prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Case study approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative interviews (1-1 and groups) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of documentation & observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prisoners who participated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff delivering the service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff who quit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping provision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up of NRT funding </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 3. Segmentation and Targeting <ul><li>Consumers are grouped according to similarity of needs/desires. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical segmentation criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Characteristics : demographic, psychographic and geo-demographic variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past Behaviour : proximity to the desired behaviour (perhaps measured using Stages of Change) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits Sought : why people do as they do at present – and how these motives vary </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Prison Study: Segmentation <ul><li>Assess motivation tailored interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Different approaches for different segments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-1 support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Address wider audiences also (culture change) </li></ul>
  18. 18. 4. Exchange <ul><li>There must be a mutually beneficial exchange. If we want someone to give up, modify or adopt a behaviour, we must offer them something very appealing in return. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers understand that what people buy (exchange money for) is a bundle of benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>“ You cannae just take cigarettes away </li></ul><ul><li>from somebody and no’ gie them </li></ul><ul><li>something back.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mutually Beneficial Exchange <ul><li>Continuing </li></ul><ul><li>Quitting hard & little diversion </li></ul><ul><li>Relief from boredom / stress </li></ul><ul><li>Normative behaviour / part of group </li></ul><ul><li>Quitting </li></ul><ul><li>Health & financial benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional benefits (achievement, freedom ……) </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in group activity </li></ul><ul><li>>> Promote these </li></ul>OR
  20. 20. Benefits: emotional, physical, social “ It does feel good being yourself. And it gets that easy – you get the people asking you, ‘Ah do you want a cigarette?’ ‘Nah, I’m a non-smoker’, just saying that” “ We sit down and talk about how we got on” “ It’s a bit of support in the group … So if he has a cigarette and he’s telling anybody he hasn’t, everybody knows”
  21. 21. 5. Competition <ul><li>Strong, pervasive culture of smoking (social norm). </li></ul><ul><li>Few diversions from addiction withdrawal symptoms available. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic of personal control. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 6. Marketing Mix <ul><li>Social marketing manipulates the marketing mix in the best way, to deliver the best benefits, for targeted consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Product, price, place, promotion is guiding framework. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Marketing Mix for Prison Setting <ul><li>P roduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reframe as gain not loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P rice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address financial and social costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De-market benefits of continued smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P lace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailor location of delivery to segment needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of advice ‘on the doorstep’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P romotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong word-of-mouth most influential </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Prison Senior Management NRT suppliers Health & Safety/ Health Improvement PCTs & Stop Smoking Specialists Health care Prison Pharmacy National policy makers Regional leads General prison staff Prisoners Stop smoking services for public An Additional ‘P’: Partners Prison networks
  25. 25. Outcomes <ul><li>Quit levels achieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>56%-100% in groups, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% -18% for prisoner one-one, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>88% among one-one staff intervention. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvement in health and fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>Better-off financially. </li></ul><ul><li>NRT provided free of charge was an important motivation and support. </li></ul><ul><li>Other social and institutional benefits such as reduction in black market activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse effects – internal market for NRT patches. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Feeling good about this achievement” </li></ul>
  26. 26. International applications of social marketing practice and research <ul><li>Condom use, sexual health and family planning in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Malarial bed net provision and dipping in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral rehydration practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of youth smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking cessation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer screening. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased physical activity and personal travel change. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-environmental behaviours. </li></ul>
  27. 27. International diffusion of social marketing research and practice 2008 First World Social Marketing Conference 2009 Declaration of intent to establish Global Association of Social Marketing 1980 1990 2000 Overseas aid & development – especially condom distribution Growing academic interest in USA Critical scrutiny of tobacco marketing
  28. 28. Conclusions <ul><li>Social marketing is a process for thinking about, managing and developing social change (even when focused on public health). </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is 2-way and is one of the tools to achieving behaviour change goals. </li></ul><ul><li>It puts the target group at the centre of thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>It factors in the setting(s). </li></ul>
  29. 29. More information and case studies
  30. 30. Georgina Cairns [email_address] ; [email_address] Website www.ism.stir.ac.uk Thank you for your attention. Questions ?

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