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Medical sensing, localization, and communications usingultra wideband technology, Ilangko Balasingham, Oslo universitetssykehus
 

Medical sensing, localization, and communications usingultra wideband technology, Ilangko Balasingham, Oslo universitetssykehus

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VERDIKT conference 2013

VERDIKT conference 2013

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    Medical sensing, localization, and communications usingultra wideband technology, Ilangko Balasingham, Oslo universitetssykehus Medical sensing, localization, and communications usingultra wideband technology, Ilangko Balasingham, Oslo universitetssykehus Presentation Transcript

    • Medical sensing, localization, and communications using ultra wideband technology (MELODY) Ilangko Balasingham Project Leader http://www.melody-project.info
    • Project info • Consortium core – – – – Oslo universitetssykehus HF NTNU Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt University of Oslo (2008-2012) • Industry panel • International expert panel – National Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Japan – Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan – Technical University of Dresden, Germany – GE Healthcare, UK – SORIN Group, France – Given Imaging, USA – OmniVision, Norway – – – – – Novelda IBM ABB Atmel Hospitality (2008-2012) (2008-2012) (2008-2012) (2008-2012) (2008-2012) NFR: StorIKT/VERDIKT program 01.09.2008 – 31.12.2015 : - Total budget: 48 M.kr. (NFR: 36 M.kr.) - 8 PhD and 17 Postdoc man-years
    • Results (2008-2012) • • • • • • 24 journals (4 in level 2) 1 book chapter 72 peer-reviewed full conference papers (level 1) 6 abstracts with poster/oral presentations 7 popular articles in Norwegian and international media 2 patents filed, 3 DOFIs submitted • 4 master theses • 4 PhD defended - 2 PhD theses submitted • 12 Postdoc projects completed • Int. visitors: 2 prof’s, 2 PhDs, 4 master students • 4 of our PhD students spent 3-12 months abroad • Organized special sessions in 4 international conferences and annual workshops with international talks given by international experts
    • Some of the future challenges • Increased cost due to readmissions and follow up treatment and care of chronic sick patients (diabetes, cardio vascular, cancer, etc.) to hospitals (“svingdør-pasienter) • Improved personalized healthcare (long term monitoring and customized treatment on an individual basis) in ubiquitous manner Wireless health technology?
    • Problem • Can wireless technology be used – to measure vital signs (heart rate, respiration, blood pressure) continuously and remotely without any contact? – to do high resolution, cost effective imaging without any contact with non ionizing radiation? – to localize and track objects inside the human body without imaging? – to transmit high data rate sensor signals from devices implanted deep inside the human body at receivers located outside in a robust, reliable manner?
    • MELODY Overview
    • Ultra wideband (UWB) technology (3.1 – 10.6 GHz) • Characteristics – ultra-short pulses, low duty cycle, fine time resolutions – Imaging, sensing, localization, tracking – very large bandwidth, extremely low power spectral density, excellent propagation, low interference generation and good interference rejection, coexistence with conventional systems, almost undetectable – wireless communication – Possibility to address all three application domains such as communications, localization and sensing within one single technology
    • Ultra Wide Band (UWB) • Regulations – 3.1-10.6 GHz – EIRP<-41.3 dBm – Max <0.5 mW • Bandwidth – > 500 MHz or – 20% of center frequency Largest unlicensed bandwidth ever released!
    • MELODY Research Fields (2008-2012-2015) UWB Technology Sensing/Imaging Localization/Tracking Signal Proc./Commun. Blood pressure, HR, etc. Radar imaging techniques High penetration in tissues Beams with mm range Distance measurements Accuracy in the mm scale Active echo engine Algorithms of localization Channel Modeling Joint source-channel coding Modulation, pulse shaping Cognitive networks
    • UWB radio interfaces for on-body sensor network EEG IR-UWB 3.1–4.8 GHz ECG Relay node PDA SpO2 WBAN controller EMG Patient monitor MB-OFDM UWB 3.1–10.6 GHz
    • In-body sensor network LOW DATA RATE IMPLANT SENSOR TO THE WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK CONTROLLER IR-UWB 3.1–4.8 GHz TO THE PATIENT MONITOR CAPSULE ENDOSCOPE Heart applications – leadless pacemaker, etc. Brain applications – Parkinson, Alzheimer, etc.
    • Capsule video endoscope • Use for examination of gastrointestinal track for bleeding, inflammation, tumor, cancer, etc. – ca. 15% of male and female above 50 years old are likely to get colorectal cancer – early detection can cure or extend the life with a few years – screening the entire population above 50 years! • Fiber optic cable – problems to reach small intestine – huge discomfort for the patient!
    • Wireless capsule endoscopy • Capsule Endoscope     A small camera the size of a pill that can be swallowed Enables visual inspection of small intestines Diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases Significantly less discomfort to patients • State of the Art     Trasmits still pictures (external video construction) Slow motion (typically 8 hours) No navigation system Localization and tracking with accuracy in the centimeter scale
    • Required characteristics for improvement • High data rate  73.8 Mbps for raw HD data • Extremely low power consumption  On the order of 1 mW • Circuitry simplicity/integrability  0.18 m CMOS technology • Reduced physical dimension  11 mm × 26 mm2 • Electromagnetic radiation safety  SAR limits, overheating below 1 °C Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) Technology
    • Capsule Endoscope Particularly useful for inspection of the small bowel 15
    • Example of Capsule Endoscope Video Capsule endoscope video quality (256 × 256 pixels, 2 fps)
    • Experimental Feasibility Verification A series of in-vivo video transmissions in porcine chirurgical models Transmission Characteristics  UWB transceivers  4224–4752 MHz, 528 MHz bandwidth  80 Mbps, 1280×720 pixel/30 fps 17
    • Wireless full HD video transmission • See the demo at http://www.melodyproject.info
    • GB 1220466.5 Video Camera Pill Opportunities to commercialize the invention Size: 11 × 26 mm Transmission frequency: 402405 MHz Bandwidth: 300 kHz Size: less than 11 × 26 mm Transmission frequency: 1063–3841 MHz Bandwidth: at least 500 MHz Data Rate: 800 kbps Image Rate: 2 to 10 fps Image Resolution: 256 × 256 pixels Data Rate: 80 Mbps Image Rate: 30 fps Image Resolution: 1920 × 1080 pixels Power consumption: 100 mW Operating life: 8 hours Power consumption: estimated 1 mW Operating life: more than 8 hours Possibility of smaller batteries Possibility of remote control
    • Video compression: Encoder • Frame-by-frame video coding applied due to low complexity requirement: limited size and limited power- and storage capacity • Capsule moves slowly → can reduce frame rate to 10-15 fps. Frame interpolation in receiver enhances viewing experience • Each frame should be coded with as low a rate as possible while maintaining adequate quality • Coder built on: Differential pulse coded modulation (DPCM) which removes correlation between pixels Very Low Complexity Low Rate Image Coding for the Wireless Endoscope, US 61/717,963
    • Video coding: Encoder architecture
    • Original vs. compressed Original Compressed 0.67 bpp with 2x2 decimation: Compression ratio ≈ 97%
    • Localization – Need to know where anomalies are located – Adapt frame rate – Control transmission power and save energy by turning device on and off
    • Methods for in-body localization • Electromagnetic: (Received signal strength) PPM has constant amplitude. If path loss is known → Received signal strength from several sensors indicated where capsule is – RF power undergoes extreme link dependent shadowing • Fixed magnetic field (Ferro magnet) – – – – Magnetic field not absorbed by human body Can determine orientation of capsule as well Possibility to steer capsule from outside On-board magnet makes endoscope larger and heavier
    • Results: Localization • Cramer-Rao lower bounds calculated for electromagnetic- and magnetic based localization • Electromagnetic: Localization accuracy to 1 cm • Magnetic: Localization accuracy to 2 mm • Tracking of capsule makes localization more accurate. Principle built on multi-model Kalman filtering and matched filter detection
    • Application of medical radar
    • Medical radar measurements of human heart • Penetrating human body with body-contact antennas • Useable frequency range: 0.5 – 3 GHz
    • 1 GHz CW Radar measurements, single channel Radar (blue curve) ECG (red curve) The phase is related to the motion of the heart. The instantaneous frequency is related to the velocity of the heart movement.
    • Radar imaging UWB radar (0.5 – 3 GHz) Antenna array Combining UWB measurements from the elements of the antenna array gives a radar image Antenna
    • Time-lapsed imaging results Images are sequenced to a video with frame rate 25 Hz Heartbeat signals at different locations
    • Principle for Measurements (1) Quasi-linear relationship between radius r(t) and pressure P(t)
    • Multiple clutter objects
    • Results on blood pressure estimation • The backscattered signal from the aorta contains necessary information for estimating its diameter in time and frequency domains. • Trade-off between high frequency and bandwidth in order to achieve high resolution; high frequencies involve high attenuation. • Optimal points have been identified with good specificity and accuracy. • Studying to remove ”artifact” due to the physical heart motion embedded in the contraction/dilation cycle of the aorta.
    • Concluding remarks • Demonstrated that UWB technology for – Wireless capsule endoscope • Ultra low power communication architecture – source coding, channel coding, pulse shapes, modulations, and extremely simpler transmitter and simple receiver architectures based channel model and channel state information – new MAC protocol, cognitive network architecture, white-space detection scheme, and resource allocation (frequency, power) • Algorithms for localization and tracking for both electromagnetic (1 cm) and magnetic schemes (0.5 mm) – Medical radars for heart rate with finer details of opening and closing of heart values, preliminary studies on blood pressure estimation • New design architecture for the future wireless capsule endoscope: – diagnostics • improved imaging sensor for anomaly detection, RF based tomography for cancer tissue imaging • targeted drug delivery: wireless control with improved localization and tracking using diversity techniques and range estimation (multiple receivers, path loss, etc.) power control/transmission, nano particles, etc.