Respiratory tract infection refers to any of a
number of infectious diseases involving
the respiratory tract
It is classified in to 2 types they are:
UPPER RESPIRATORYTRACT INFECTION
LOWER RESPIRATORYTRACT INFECTION
The upper respiratory tract
The lower respiratory tract consists of
Upper respiratory tract
infections (URI or URTI) are the illnesses caused
by an acute infection which involves the
upper respiratory tract
pharynx or larynx.
This commonly includes:
tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis
media, and the common cold.
X-RAY OF URTI
o Inflammation of the air passages within the
o Trachea(windpipe),and the large & small
bronchi(airways)within the lungs become
inflamed because of the infection.
• I t divided into 2 types :
BRONCHITIS DIVIDED INTO:
B. Chronic(prolonged smoking,heavy exposure
physical or close contact with someone with a
upper respiratory infection
poor hand washing after contact with an
individual with upper respiratory infection;
close contact with children in a group
setting, schools or daycare centers;
contact with groups of individuals in a closed
setting, such as, traveling, tours, cruises
smoking or second-hand smoking.
health care facilities, hospitals, nursing
immunocompromised state (compromised
immune system) such as, HIV, organ
transplant, congenital immune defects, long
term steroid use.
PATHOPYSIOLOGY OF URTI
Enters to the nose by
Hair lining filters and trap
Traps in URT which
coats by mucus
Junction of the
posterior nose to
Cntd… Impinge on the back
of the throat
response to immune
PATHOPYSIOLOGY OF LRTI
Increasing capillary permeability
Edema of mucous membrane
Hypersecretion of mucus
The diagnosis of upper respiratory infection
is based on :
2. Physical examination, and
3. Laboratory tests.
o By taking bacterial cultures with nasal swab,
o Evaluation of allergies,asthma
o Enlarged lymphnodes and sore throat
o BLOOD tests
o X-RAYs of the neck
o CT scan
o NASAL ANDTHROAT SWAB
In physical examination of an individual with upper
respiratory infection, a doctor may look for
1. swollen and redness inside wall of the nasal cavity (sign of
2. redness of the throat,
3. enlargement of the tonsils,
4. white secretions on the tonsils ,
5. enlarged lymph nodes around the head and neck,
6. redness of the eyes, and
7. facial tenderness (sinusitis).
8. Other signs may include bad
breath (halitosis), cough, voice hoarseness, and fever.
There are 2 types of treatments they are:
NON PHARMACOLOGICAL TRATMENT
Patients should be encouraged to drink fluids
prevent dehydration & possible decrease the
viscosity of respiratory secretions.
use of vaporization may further promote the
thinning & losening of RESPIRATORY
A. NSAIDS such as (T.IBUPROFEN +
T.PARACETAMOL) Dose: for
B. ANTIHISTAMINES such as
Syp.DIPHENEDRINE Dose: (10-20 ml) for
adults for children (5-7.5ml) Q4h
3. ANTITUSSIVES such as Syp.ROBITUSSIN
Dose: adults(10-20ml), children(5-10ml)
4.STEROIDS such as T.PREDNISONE Dose:
adults (5mg), children(4-5mg) BD.
5.DECONGESTANTS such as
1. CIPROFLOXACIN for adults (500mg) for
2. AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULATE for adults
(500+125mg), for children(250_125mg)TD
3. TETRACYLINE for adults(250_500mg), for
Rarely surgical procedures may be necessary
in case of complicated sinus
infections, comprised airway with difficulty in
Some of the home remedies for
1. Making steam in shower by turning on the hot
water (without going under it) and breathing the
2. Drinking warm beverages (hot tea, hot
chocolate, warm milk).
3. Using a vaporizer to create humidity in the
4. Avoid cold, dry air if possible.
5.HONEY can be used.