• Like
Mushroom poisoning
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Mushroom poisoning

  • 1,049 views
Published

Mushroom poisoning

Mushroom poisoning

Published in Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,049
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
39
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Definition • Poisoning occurs when any substance interferes with normal body functions after it is swallowed, inhaled, injected, or absorbed. • The branch of medicine that deals with the detection and treatment of poisons is known as toxicology. • Nearly above 100 plants are toxic to humans. • (Lethal)
  • 2. Examples : 1. AloeAloe: • Latin name -Vera 2. Cannabis • Latin name - Cannabis Sativa
  • 3. 3. Mushroom : Latin name : Boletus edulis
  • 4. Mushroom’s poisoning There are three types of effects; POSITIVE • Mood lift, Euphoria • Increased giggling and laughing • May interrupt cluster sequences in those suffering from cluster headaches
  • 5.  NEUTRAL : • Feeling more emotionally sensitive • General change in consciousness • Sleepiness, lethargy • Pupil dilation.  NEGATIVE : • Intense feelings of fear, nausea, confusion • Mild to severe anxiety, dizziness,.
  • 6. • Mushroom poisoning (also known as mycetism) • Refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom. • They are unique. • They are neither animal or plant. • The Kingdom of “ Fungi”
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION 1. Cyclopeptide – containing mushrooms - AMANITA SPECIES 2. Mono methyl hydrazine - Gyromitra species 3. Muscarine containing mushrooms – Inocybe species 4. Coprine – coprinus – Atramentarius 5. Gastroenteritis including mushrooms – Chlorophyllum molybdites.
  • 8. USES OF MUSHROOMS • Production of foodstuffs like wine and cheese. • Mushrooms has immune system enhancement properties. • Used for dyeing wool and other natural fibers. • Used as a antioxidant.
  • 9. AMANITA SPECIES  Fly agaric or fly amanita  Poisonous and psychoactive basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. DESCRIPTION:  A large conspicuous mushroom  Fly agaric fruiting bodies emerge from the soil looking like a white egg, covered in the white warty material of the universal veil.
  • 10. M.O.A : • Amatoxins are potent and selective inhibitors of RNA polymerase II, a vital enzyme in the synthesis of messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA, and small nuclear RNA (snRNA). • Without mRNA, which is the template for protein synthesis, cell metabolism stops and cytolysis ensues. • The RNA polymerase of Amanita phalloides is insensitive to the effects of amatoxins; thus, the mushroom does not poison itself. • Fatal dose – 2 to 3 mushrooms ( A.phalloides)
  • 11.  Early symptom category - 6 hours • Allergic, and neurologic syndromes (Hallucinations, Convulsions,coma )  Late symptom category – 6 and 24 hours • Hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic.  Delayed symptom category – After 24 hours • Jaundice, hypoglycemia, MODS followed by death.
  • 12. Other symptoms : • Diarrhea, • Fever, • Headache, • Weakness, • Drowsiness, • Dizziness, sweating, • Confusion, and hallucination.
  • 13. Complications • Kidney damage, Kidney failure & Death  Indications: • Don't believe that boiling, salting, or drying mushrooms will purified ones • Don't use alcohol. Some edible mushrooms can cause an abnormal reaction when taken with alcohol.
  • 14. DIAGNOSIS : • Arterial blood gas analysis may demonstrate hypoxia and acidosis. • Electrolyte disturbances (eg, hypokalemia) may occur in patients with severe gastroenteritis. • LFT & RFT
  • 15. • Monitoring BGL • Detection of toxins in gastric aspirate, serum, urine, stool. • Liver & kidney biopsies has to done.
  • 16. • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of urinary amanitin appears to be efficacious in diagnosing amatoxin poisoning. • TLC, • GLC and • HPLC.
  • 17. Treatment • The initial treatment is supportive. • Control the ABCs • Hydration with intravenous fluid is essential to maintain a strong blood pressure. • Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, packed RBC is necessary. • Oxygen therapy and, if necessary, a breathing machine (mechanical ventilator) can be used. • Decontamination of GUT (A+ charcoal, emesis, catharsis, forced diuresis, hemoperfusion)
  • 18. • Drugs used include anticonvulsants, antiemetics, gastrointestinal (GI) decontaminants, antidotes, and anticholinergic agents.  Anticonvulsants - Lorazepam (Ativan)  Antiemetic Agents - Metoclopramide (Reglan)  Gastrointestinal Agents - PEG  Anticholinergic Agents - Atropine
  • 19. Antidote : • BENZYL PENICLLIN : • DOSE : 300000 – 1,000,000units/day is effective. • M.O.A : By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, penicillin G inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. • Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysis.
  • 20. • ADR :, hypersensitivity, rashes, neurotoxicity , erythema, dermatitis , angioedema , seizures. • Thioctic acid – hepatic damage • Silybinnin – hepatic toxicity • Cimetidine (have hepato protector against alpha amanitin) Dose – 4-6gm/day
  • 21. How to get infect from mushrooms??????????????
  • 22. IF….  Eat poisonous mushroom.  Eat rotten mushroom.  Eat mushrooms sprayed with pesticides. Eat mushrooms if the person is allergic too. Eat safe mushrooms but have a panic reaction.
  • 23. Tips For Identifying Poisonous Mushrooms • Should never pick little brown mushrooms or umbrella- capped ones with white gills. • Always leave out the mushroom that has a bulbous cap or sac around its base. • This ring or ‘annulus’ is a clear indication of the toxicity of a mushroom. • Just bite into its fleshy cap and wait for 24 hours to see any possible signs of poisoning. • Also, avoid eating wild mushrooms in raw form or in large quantities as these are difficult to digest.
  • 24. mycotoxins