Mushroom poisoning

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Mushroom poisoning

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Mushroom poisoning

  1. 1. Definition • Poisoning occurs when any substance interferes with normal body functions after it is swallowed, inhaled, injected, or absorbed. • The branch of medicine that deals with the detection and treatment of poisons is known as toxicology. • Nearly above 100 plants are toxic to humans. • (Lethal)
  2. 2. Examples : 1. AloeAloe: • Latin name -Vera 2. Cannabis • Latin name - Cannabis Sativa
  3. 3. 3. Mushroom : Latin name : Boletus edulis
  4. 4. Mushroom’s poisoning There are three types of effects; POSITIVE • Mood lift, Euphoria • Increased giggling and laughing • May interrupt cluster sequences in those suffering from cluster headaches
  5. 5.  NEUTRAL : • Feeling more emotionally sensitive • General change in consciousness • Sleepiness, lethargy • Pupil dilation.  NEGATIVE : • Intense feelings of fear, nausea, confusion • Mild to severe anxiety, dizziness,.
  6. 6. • Mushroom poisoning (also known as mycetism) • Refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom. • They are unique. • They are neither animal or plant. • The Kingdom of “ Fungi”
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION 1. Cyclopeptide – containing mushrooms - AMANITA SPECIES 2. Mono methyl hydrazine - Gyromitra species 3. Muscarine containing mushrooms – Inocybe species 4. Coprine – coprinus – Atramentarius 5. Gastroenteritis including mushrooms – Chlorophyllum molybdites.
  8. 8. USES OF MUSHROOMS • Production of foodstuffs like wine and cheese. • Mushrooms has immune system enhancement properties. • Used for dyeing wool and other natural fibers. • Used as a antioxidant.
  9. 9. AMANITA SPECIES  Fly agaric or fly amanita  Poisonous and psychoactive basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. DESCRIPTION:  A large conspicuous mushroom  Fly agaric fruiting bodies emerge from the soil looking like a white egg, covered in the white warty material of the universal veil.
  10. 10. M.O.A : • Amatoxins are potent and selective inhibitors of RNA polymerase II, a vital enzyme in the synthesis of messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA, and small nuclear RNA (snRNA). • Without mRNA, which is the template for protein synthesis, cell metabolism stops and cytolysis ensues. • The RNA polymerase of Amanita phalloides is insensitive to the effects of amatoxins; thus, the mushroom does not poison itself. • Fatal dose – 2 to 3 mushrooms ( A.phalloides)
  11. 11.  Early symptom category - 6 hours • Allergic, and neurologic syndromes (Hallucinations, Convulsions,coma )  Late symptom category – 6 and 24 hours • Hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic.  Delayed symptom category – After 24 hours • Jaundice, hypoglycemia, MODS followed by death.
  12. 12. Other symptoms : • Diarrhea, • Fever, • Headache, • Weakness, • Drowsiness, • Dizziness, sweating, • Confusion, and hallucination.
  13. 13. Complications • Kidney damage, Kidney failure & Death  Indications: • Don't believe that boiling, salting, or drying mushrooms will purified ones • Don't use alcohol. Some edible mushrooms can cause an abnormal reaction when taken with alcohol.
  14. 14. DIAGNOSIS : • Arterial blood gas analysis may demonstrate hypoxia and acidosis. • Electrolyte disturbances (eg, hypokalemia) may occur in patients with severe gastroenteritis. • LFT & RFT
  15. 15. • Monitoring BGL • Detection of toxins in gastric aspirate, serum, urine, stool. • Liver & kidney biopsies has to done.
  16. 16. • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of urinary amanitin appears to be efficacious in diagnosing amatoxin poisoning. • TLC, • GLC and • HPLC.
  17. 17. Treatment • The initial treatment is supportive. • Control the ABCs • Hydration with intravenous fluid is essential to maintain a strong blood pressure. • Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, packed RBC is necessary. • Oxygen therapy and, if necessary, a breathing machine (mechanical ventilator) can be used. • Decontamination of GUT (A+ charcoal, emesis, catharsis, forced diuresis, hemoperfusion)
  18. 18. • Drugs used include anticonvulsants, antiemetics, gastrointestinal (GI) decontaminants, antidotes, and anticholinergic agents.  Anticonvulsants - Lorazepam (Ativan)  Antiemetic Agents - Metoclopramide (Reglan)  Gastrointestinal Agents - PEG  Anticholinergic Agents - Atropine
  19. 19. Antidote : • BENZYL PENICLLIN : • DOSE : 300000 – 1,000,000units/day is effective. • M.O.A : By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, penicillin G inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. • Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysis.
  20. 20. • ADR :, hypersensitivity, rashes, neurotoxicity , erythema, dermatitis , angioedema , seizures. • Thioctic acid – hepatic damage • Silybinnin – hepatic toxicity • Cimetidine (have hepato protector against alpha amanitin) Dose – 4-6gm/day
  21. 21. How to get infect from mushrooms??????????????
  22. 22. IF….  Eat poisonous mushroom.  Eat rotten mushroom.  Eat mushrooms sprayed with pesticides. Eat mushrooms if the person is allergic too. Eat safe mushrooms but have a panic reaction.
  23. 23. Tips For Identifying Poisonous Mushrooms • Should never pick little brown mushrooms or umbrella- capped ones with white gills. • Always leave out the mushroom that has a bulbous cap or sac around its base. • This ring or ‘annulus’ is a clear indication of the toxicity of a mushroom. • Just bite into its fleshy cap and wait for 24 hours to see any possible signs of poisoning. • Also, avoid eating wild mushrooms in raw form or in large quantities as these are difficult to digest.
  24. 24. mycotoxins

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