Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Biomedical waste management
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Biomedical waste management

1,207

Published on

regarding the management of bio medical waste …

regarding the management of bio medical waste
through collection, treatment and disposal
including 8 categories of waste segregation in comparison with 10 old categories
and including hydroclave

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
2 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,207
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
88
Comments
2
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Emphasize waste generators must take the lead in complying with regulations.
  • Main superior feature of the Hydroclave
  • Emphasize sterility under any waste load conditions – even high liquid load.
  • Transcript

    • 1.  Bio Medical WasteBio Medical Waste managementmanagement
    • 2.  It is defined asIt is defined as “A“Any solid and/or liquid wasteny solid and/or liquid waste including its container and anyincluding its container and any intermediate product, which is generatedintermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment orduring the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings orimmunization of human beings or animalsanimals”.”.  Total waste in India- 3,30,000 tons/yearTotal waste in India- 3,30,000 tons/year  Average 1-2 kg/bed/dayAverage 1-2 kg/bed/day
    • 3. GENERATORS OF BIOMEDICALGENERATORS OF BIOMEDICAL WASTEWASTE  Government & Private hospitalsGovernment & Private hospitals  Nursing homesNursing homes  Medical research & training establishmentsMedical research & training establishments  MortuariesMortuaries  Blood banksBlood banks  Slaughter housesSlaughter houses  Animal housesAnimal houses  Vaccinating centersVaccinating centers  Biotechnology institutionsBiotechnology institutions
    • 4.  The waste produced in the course ofThe waste produced in the course of health-care activities carries a higherhealth-care activities carries a higher potential for infection & injury than anypotential for infection & injury than any other type of waste.other type of waste.  Appropriate management of health-careAppropriate management of health-care waste is thus a crucial component ofwaste is thus a crucial component of environmental health protection & itenvironmental health protection & it should become an integral feature ofshould become an integral feature of health-care services.health-care services.
    • 5. General algorithm for wasteGeneral algorithm for waste  GenerationGeneration  SegregationSegregation  CollectionCollection  StorageStorage  TransportTransport  TreatmentTreatment  Disposal/recycleDisposal/recycle
    • 6. Working theme for biomedicalWorking theme for biomedical waste managementwaste management  ReduceReduce  ReuseReuse  RecycleRecycle
    • 7. CATEGOCATEGO RYRY TYPE OF WASTETYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT &TREATMENT & DISPOSALDISPOSAL CategoryCategory 11 Human anatomical wastesHuman anatomical wastes Incineration/ deepIncineration/ deep burialburial CategoryCategory 22 Animal wastesAnimal wastes Incineration/ deepIncineration/ deep burialburial CategoryCategory 33 Microbiology &Microbiology & biotechnology wastebiotechnology waste Local autoclaving/Local autoclaving/ microwaving/incinermicrowaving/inciner ationation CategoryCategory 44 Waste sharps like needles,Waste sharps like needles, syringes, scalpels, blades,syringes, scalpels, blades, glass etcglass etc DisinfectionDisinfection (Chemical/autoclavin(Chemical/autoclavin g/micro waving &g/micro waving & mutilation/shreddingmutilation/shredding )) CategoryCategory 55 Discarded Medicines &Discarded Medicines & cytotoxic drugscytotoxic drugs Incineration/destructIncineration/destruct ion & disposal inion & disposal in land fillsland fills
    • 8. CATEGORYCATEGORY TYPE OF WASTETYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT &TREATMENT & DISPOSALDISPOSAL Category 6Category 6 Soiled wastesSoiled wastes Items contaminated withItems contaminated with blood, body fluids includingblood, body fluids including cotton, dressings etccotton, dressings etc Incineration,Incineration, autoclaving,autoclaving, microwavingmicrowaving Category 7Category 7 Solid wastes like catheters, IVSolid wastes like catheters, IV sets etc.sets etc. Disinfection byDisinfection by chemicalchemical treatment/autoclavingtreatment/autoclaving /micro waving and/micro waving and mutilation &mutilation & shreddingshredding Category 8Category 8 Liquid wastesLiquid wastes Laboratory, blood banks,Laboratory, blood banks, hospitals, house etc.hospitals, house etc. Disinfection byDisinfection by chemicals andchemicals and discharge into drainsdischarge into drains Category 9Category 9 Incineration ashIncineration ash Disposal in municipalDisposal in municipal land fillsland fills Category 10Category 10 Chemical wastesChemical wastes Chemical treatment &Chemical treatment & discharge into drainsdischarge into drains for liquid and securedfor liquid and secured land fills for solids.land fills for solids.
    • 9. CATEGORCATEGOR YY TYPE OF WASTETYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT &TREATMENT & DISPOSALDISPOSAL Category 1Category 1 Human anatomical wastesHuman anatomical wastes Incineration/ deepIncineration/ deep burialburial Category 2Category 2 Animal wastesAnimal wastes Incineration/ deepIncineration/ deep burialburial Category 3Category 3 Microbiology & biotechnologyMicrobiology & biotechnology waste,waste, Liquid wastes, wasteLiquid wastes, waste from Laboratory, bloodfrom Laboratory, blood banks, hospitals, house etc.banks, hospitals, house etc. Local autoclaving/Local autoclaving/ microwaving/microwaving/ incineration/incineration/ Disinfection byDisinfection by chemicalschemicals Category 4Category 4 Waste sharps like needles,Waste sharps like needles, syringes, scalpels, blades,syringes, scalpels, blades, glass etcglass etc DisinfectionDisinfection (Chemical/autoclaving/(Chemical/autoclaving/ micro waving &micro waving & mutilation/shredding)mutilation/shredding) Category 5Category 5 Discarded Medicines &Discarded Medicines & cytotoxic drugscytotoxic drugs Incineration/Incineration/ destruction & disposaldestruction & disposal in land fillsin land fills
    • 10. CATEGORYCATEGORY TYPE OF WASTETYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT &TREATMENT & DISPOSALDISPOSAL Category 6Category 6 Soiled wastesSoiled wastes Items contaminated withItems contaminated with blood, body fluids includingblood, body fluids including cotton, dressings etccotton, dressings etc Incineration,Incineration, autoclaving,autoclaving, microwavingmicrowaving Category 7Category 7 Solid wastes like catheters, IVSolid wastes like catheters, IV sets etc.sets etc. Disinfection byDisinfection by chemicalchemical treatment/autoclavingtreatment/autoclaving /micro waving and/micro waving and mutilation &mutilation & shreddingshredding Category 8Category 8 Chemical wastesChemical wastes Chemical treatment &Chemical treatment & discharge into drainsdischarge into drains for liquid and securedfor liquid and secured land fills for solids.land fills for solids.
    • 11. COLORCOLOR CODECODE TYPE OF CONTAINERTYPE OF CONTAINER WASTEWASTE CATEGORYCATEGORY TREATMENTTREATMENT OPTIONSOPTIONS YellowYellow Plastic bagsPlastic bags 1, 2, 3 and 61, 2, 3 and 6 Incineration/deepIncineration/deep burialburial RedRed DisinfectedDisinfected container/plastic bagcontainer/plastic bag 3, 6 & 73, 6 & 7 Autoclaving/MicroAutoclaving/Micro Waving/ChemicalWaving/Chemical treatmenttreatment Blue/whiteBlue/white transparenttransparent Plastic bags/puncturePlastic bags/puncture proof containerproof container 4 & 74 & 7 Autoclaving/MicroAutoclaving/Micro waving/chemicalwaving/chemical treatment, Destructiontreatment, Destruction & shredding& shredding BlackBlack Plastic bagPlastic bag 5, 8 & 95, 8 & 9 Disposal in securedDisposal in secured land fillsland fills
    • 12. Colour CodingColour Coding Type of container to Type of container to  be usedbe used Waste Category Waste Category  NumberNumber TreatmentTreatment YellowYellow Non Chlorinated Non Chlorinated  plastic bagsplastic bags Category 1,2,5,6Category 1,2,5,6 IncinerationIncineration RedRed Non Chlorinated Non Chlorinated  plastic bags/puncture plastic bags/puncture  proof container for proof container for  sharpssharps Category 3,4,7Category 3,4,7 Disinfection, Disinfection,  autoclave, autoclave,  microwave, microwave,  mutilation & mutilation &  shredding, shredding,  landfillinglandfilling BlueBlue Non Chlorinated Non Chlorinated  plastic bags containerplastic bags container Category 8Category 8 BlackBlack Non Chlorinated Non Chlorinated  plastic bagsplastic bags Municipal WasteMunicipal Waste
    • 13. COLOUR CODING AND TYPE OFCOLOUR CODING AND TYPE OF CONTAINER FOR DISPOSAL OF BIO-CONTAINER FOR DISPOSAL OF BIO- MEDICAL WASTES-NewMEDICAL WASTES-New
    • 14. Day ............ Month .............. Year ...........Day ............ Month .............. Year ........... Date of generation ...................Date of generation ................... Waste category No ........Waste category No ........ Waste class Waste descriptionWaste class Waste description Sender's Name & AddressSender's Name & Address-- Phone No...........Telex No .... Fax No .................Phone No...........Telex No .... Fax No ................. Receiver's Name & AddressReceiver's Name & Address-- Phone No ……..Telex No ...........Fax No ...............Phone No ……..Telex No ...........Fax No ............... Contact Person ........Contact Person ........ In case of emergencyIn case of emergency
    • 15.  The Air (PControl of Pollution) Act, prevention and 1981The Air (PControl of Pollution) Act, prevention and 1981  The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986  The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989  The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995  The Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling)The Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998Rules, 1998  The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000
    • 16. Waste survey is an important component of the wasteWaste survey is an important component of the waste management scheme. A survey helps in evaluation both the typemanagement scheme. A survey helps in evaluation both the type and quantity of waste generated in hospitals.and quantity of waste generated in hospitals. Aims:Aims: • Differentiate the types of wasteDifferentiate the types of waste • Quantify the waste generatedQuantify the waste generated • Determine the points of generation & type of waste generated atDetermine the points of generation & type of waste generated at each pointeach point • Determine the level of generation & disinfection within the hospitalDetermine the level of generation & disinfection within the hospital • To find out the type of disposal carried outTo find out the type of disposal carried out
    • 17.  Segregation refers to the basic separation of differentSegregation refers to the basic separation of different categories of waste generated at source and thereby reducingcategories of waste generated at source and thereby reducing the risks as well as cost of handling and disposal.the risks as well as cost of handling and disposal.  Segregation is the most crucial step in bio-medical wasteSegregation is the most crucial step in bio-medical waste management. Effective segregation alone can ensure effectivemanagement. Effective segregation alone can ensure effective bio-medical waste management.bio-medical waste management.  The BMWs must be segregated in accordance to guidelinesThe BMWs must be segregated in accordance to guidelines laid down under schedule 1 of BMW Rules, 1998.laid down under schedule 1 of BMW Rules, 1998.
    • 18.  TrolleysTrolleys  WheelbarrowsWheelbarrows
    • 19. Waste treatment processWaste treatment process categoriescategories  Five broad categories:Five broad categories: (1) Mechanical processes(1) Mechanical processes (2) Thermal processes(2) Thermal processes (3) Chemical processes(3) Chemical processes (4) Irradiation processes(4) Irradiation processes (5) Biological processes.(5) Biological processes.
    • 20. Mechanical processesMechanical processes  Used to change the physical form orUsed to change the physical form or characteristics of the wastecharacteristics of the waste  To facilitate waste handling or toTo facilitate waste handling or to process the waste in conjunction withprocess the waste in conjunction with other treatment steps.other treatment steps.  Includes-compactionIncludes-compaction -shredding-shredding - land fill and burial- land fill and burial
    • 21.  Compaction- compressing the waste intoCompaction- compressing the waste into containers to reduce its volume.containers to reduce its volume.  Shredding – includes granulation, grinding,Shredding – includes granulation, grinding, pulping & the like, is used to break thepulping & the like, is used to break the waste into smaller pieces.waste into smaller pieces.  Health & safety reasons and good practiceHealth & safety reasons and good practice prohibit compacting/shredding untreated medicalprohibit compacting/shredding untreated medical waste, because of concerns of aerosoling /spillingwaste, because of concerns of aerosoling /spilling of micro-organisms.of micro-organisms.  However, there are no ill effects if waste isHowever, there are no ill effects if waste is sheredded after it has been decontaminated insheredded after it has been decontaminated in order to make it unrecognisable.order to make it unrecognisable.
    • 22. Sanitary & secured land fillingSanitary & secured land filling  Deep burial of human anatomicalDeep burial of human anatomical waste, when the facility of properwaste, when the facility of proper incineration is not available.incineration is not available.  Animal wasteAnimal waste  Disposal ofDisposal of autoclaved/hydroclaved /microwavedautoclaved/hydroclaved /microwaved wastewaste  Disposal of sharpsDisposal of sharps  Disposal of incineration ash.Disposal of incineration ash.
    • 23. Pit for deep burrialPit for deep burrial  Depth 2 meterDepth 2 meter  Waste fill 1 meter from bottomWaste fill 1 meter from bottom  Cover of lime- 50 cmCover of lime- 50 cm  Galvanised iron/ wire mesh at theGalvanised iron/ wire mesh at the toptop  Secure the areaSecure the area
    • 24. Thermal processesThermal processes  Srerilize or destroyes medical waste.Srerilize or destroyes medical waste.  Two categories-low heat systems & highTwo categories-low heat systems & high heat systemsheat systems  Low heat systems-use steam, hot waterLow heat systems-use steam, hot water or electromagnetic radiation to heat &or electromagnetic radiation to heat & decontaminate the waste.decontaminate the waste.  High heat systems-combustion, pyrolysisHigh heat systems-combustion, pyrolysis & high temp. plasmas to decontaminate && high temp. plasmas to decontaminate & destroy the waste.destroy the waste.
    • 25. • Hot air oven:Hot air oven: Temperature of 160 degree for 2 h. or 170 degreeTemperature of 160 degree for 2 h. or 170 degree for 1 h.for 1 h. For glass ware, and metallic instruments.For glass ware, and metallic instruments. • Incineration:Incineration: Destruction of contaminated materials in theDestruction of contaminated materials in the incinerator.incinerator. • Autoclave steam sterilisation under pressure by bringing thesteam sterilisation under pressure by bringing the Steam into direct contact with the waste material toSteam into direct contact with the waste material to sterilize it.sterilize it.
    • 26. AutoclaveAutoclave Principle:Principle:  When water is heated in a closedWhen water is heated in a closed vessel under pressure, the boilingvessel under pressure, the boiling point of water rises above 100point of water rises above 100 degree.degree.  Water is heated atWater is heated at 2 atmospheric2 atmospheric pressurepressure and the boiling temperatureand the boiling temperature will bewill be 121 degree121 degree or ator at 33 atmospheric pressureatmospheric pressure and theand the boiling temperature will beboiling temperature will be 134134 degree.degree.
    • 27. 2)2) Autoclaving is highly efficientAutoclaving is highly efficient because:because:  High temperature.High temperature.  High penetrating power of the steamHigh penetrating power of the steam under pressure.under pressure.  When steam condenses on the articles,When steam condenses on the articles, it liberates latent heat to the articles toit liberates latent heat to the articles to be sterilized.be sterilized.  Non toxicNon toxic  Not time consuming.Not time consuming.
    • 28. Simple laboratory autoclave
    • 29. Directions for use of the simpleDirections for use of the simple laboratory autoclave:laboratory autoclave:  It is a metal cylinder with tightly fittingIt is a metal cylinder with tightly fitting lid. The lid is connected to a steamlid. The lid is connected to a steam discharge tap, safety valve anddischarge tap, safety valve and manometer.manometer.  Water is placed in the bottom and theWater is placed in the bottom and the articles to be sterilized are placed onarticles to be sterilized are placed on top of a perforated tray above watertop of a perforated tray above water level, then the lid is tightly closed.level, then the lid is tightly closed.  Water is heated electrically.Water is heated electrically.
    • 30.  The steam discharge tap is opened andThe steam discharge tap is opened and the safety valve is adjusted to 15 lbsthe safety valve is adjusted to 15 lbs per square inch= double atmosphericper square inch= double atmospheric pressure.pressure.  Steam will come out of the tap inSteam will come out of the tap in interrupted jets as it mixes with air.interrupted jets as it mixes with air.  When steam is released in a continuousWhen steam is released in a continuous stream, the tap is closed.stream, the tap is closed.  When the steam pressure reaches theWhen the steam pressure reaches the desired level, safety valve will allowdesired level, safety valve will allow excess steam to escape.excess steam to escape.
    • 31.  From this point, the holding sterilizationFrom this point, the holding sterilization time which is 20-30 minutes istime which is 20-30 minutes is calculated.calculated.  Then, the heater is turned off and theThen, the heater is turned off and the autoclave is allowed to cool downautoclave is allowed to cool down before opening the lid.before opening the lid. Used for-Used for-  Surgical instruments and dressings.Surgical instruments and dressings.  Bed linen.Bed linen.  Cotton, gauzeCotton, gauze  Culture mediaCulture media
    • 32. Temperature in degree celcius Holding period In minutes 121 15 126 10 134 3
    • 33.  Types:Types:  Gravity type autoclave:Gravity type autoclave: rely on the steam pressurerely on the steam pressure alone to evacuate air from thealone to evacuate air from the autoclave chambers.autoclave chambers. -temp.121-temp.121 C,press.15 lbs psi.◦C,press.15 lbs psi.◦
    • 34. Steam jacketed autoclave:Steam jacketed autoclave:  Double walled chamber in which steamDouble walled chamber in which steam at 121 degree is introduced from anat 121 degree is introduced from an external source.external source.  Steam enters the jacket from which itSteam enters the jacket from which it enters the chamber migratingenters the chamber migrating downwards replacing the air which isdownwards replacing the air which is expelled through a discharge tap at theexpelled through a discharge tap at the bottom.bottom. Flash autoclaves:Flash autoclaves:  It sterilizes at 134 degree for 3 – 5It sterilizes at 134 degree for 3 – 5 minutes.minutes.  Used in operation rooms in emergencyUsed in operation rooms in emergency situations.situations.
    • 35.  Pre-vaccume type autoclave:Pre-vaccume type autoclave: utilizes vaccume pumps to evacuateutilizes vaccume pumps to evacuate air from autoclave chambers &air from autoclave chambers & thereby increase steam penetrationthereby increase steam penetration & contact efficiencies.& contact efficiencies. -time cycle-30-60 min.-time cycle-30-60 min. -operates at about 132-operates at about 132 C.◦C.◦
    • 36.  Retort-type autoclave:Retort-type autoclave: large chambers, operate at higherlarge chambers, operate at higher temp.& pressures than others.temp.& pressures than others. -large capacity units, upto 60 tonnes-large capacity units, upto 60 tonnes per day per unit.per day per unit. -not available in our country.-not available in our country.
    • 37.  Parameters which influence effectivenessParameters which influence effectiveness of steam autoclave T/t.of steam autoclave T/t. -temp.& pressure achieved by autoclave-temp.& pressure achieved by autoclave -size of waste load-size of waste load -composition of waste load-composition of waste load -steam penetration of the waste-steam penetration of the waste -packaging of the waste for treatment-packaging of the waste for treatment -Orientation of the waste load within-Orientation of the waste load within autoclave.autoclave.
    • 38. 7)7) Testing the efficiency of autoclave:Testing the efficiency of autoclave:  Mechanical methods:Mechanical methods: o Daily measurement of temperature, pressureDaily measurement of temperature, pressure gauge.gauge.  Chemical indicators:Chemical indicators: o Change its color at the end of sterilizationChange its color at the end of sterilization cycle. (Browne’s tube)cycle. (Browne’s tube)  Biological indicators:Biological indicators: o Using spores ofUsing spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus.Bacillus stearothermophilus.
    • 39. IncinerationIncineration  Incineration fundamentals:Incineration fundamentals: -incineration comes from a greek word-incineration comes from a greek word meaning burn to ashes.meaning burn to ashes. -initially incinerators were just-initially incinerators were just uncontrolled single chamber fire boxesuncontrolled single chamber fire boxes provided with smoke stocks.provided with smoke stocks. -now modern incineration systems are-now modern incineration systems are well engineered,well designed,wellwell engineered,well designed,well controlled,well monitoredcontrolled,well monitored
    • 40. --incineration is a high temperature thermalincineration is a high temperature thermal process employing combustion of theprocess employing combustion of the waste under controlled condition forwaste under controlled condition for converting them into inert material &converting them into inert material & gases.gases. -this can be oil fired/electrically-this can be oil fired/electrically powered/combination.powered/combination.
    • 41. Alternate incineration technologiesAlternate incineration technologies  Broadly 3 types: multiple chamberBroadly 3 types: multiple chamber incinarator, controlled air incinerator,incinarator, controlled air incinerator, rotary Kiln incinerator.rotary Kiln incinerator.  All 3 types have primary & secondaryAll 3 types have primary & secondary combustion chambers.combustion chambers.  Primary chamber-temp.800 +/- 50Primary chamber-temp.800 +/- 50 C◦C◦  Primary chamber-temp.1000 +/- 50Primary chamber-temp.1000 +/- 50 C◦C◦  Volatiles are liberated in the first chamber, whereasVolatiles are liberated in the first chamber, whereas they are destroyed in the second onethey are destroyed in the second one  The negative pressure is maintained inside theThe negative pressure is maintained inside the incinerator by the system, thereby forcing the endincinerator by the system, thereby forcing the end gases out of the chimney.gases out of the chimney.
    • 42.  Multiple chamber incinirator:Multiple chamber incinirator: primary chamberprimary chamber-solid phase-solid phase combustioncombustion secondary chambersecondary chamber-gas phase-gas phase combustioncombustion tertiary chambertertiary chamber-condenses the-condenses the gases & air particulates.gases & air particulates.
    • 43.  Controlled air incinerator:Controlled air incinerator: in this type,the first chamber is operatedin this type,the first chamber is operated at low air levels,followed by an excess airat low air levels,followed by an excess air chamber.chamber.  Rotary Klin Incinerator:Rotary Klin Incinerator: cylindrical refractory lined shell that iscylindrical refractory lined shell that is mounted at a slight tilt to facilitate mixingmounted at a slight tilt to facilitate mixing & movement of the waste inside.& movement of the waste inside. -has provision for air circulation.-has provision for air circulation. -The Klin act as the primary solid phase-The Klin act as the primary solid phase chamber, which is followed by thechamber, which is followed by the secondary chamber for gaseoussecondary chamber for gaseous combustion.combustion.
    • 44.  Use some in-house technology, whichUse some in-house technology, which will turn Medical Waste into ordinarywill turn Medical Waste into ordinary non-regulated municipal waste.non-regulated municipal waste.  Select aSelect a non-incineration technology,non-incineration technology, whichwhich  Is easy and safe to operateIs easy and safe to operate  Has no harmful emissionsHas no harmful emissions  Sterilizes to a high level, at aSterilizes to a high level, at a lowlow cost.cost.
    • 45. PerformancePerformance  GuaranteedGuaranteed high levelhigh level of sterilization,of sterilization, including wet waste,including wet waste, metals, liquids andmetals, liquids and sharps.sharps.  Automatic operation,Automatic operation, and not dependent onand not dependent on operator skill foroperator skill for sterility.sterility.  No infectious orNo infectious or harmful emissions.harmful emissions.  Mechanical destructionMechanical destruction of the waste, and safeof the waste, and safe for land-fill.for land-fill. EconomicEconomic  Low operating costLow operating cost with low energywith low energy consumption.consumption.  Low maintenanceLow maintenance costs.costs.  No costly bags, filtersNo costly bags, filters or chemicals in theor chemicals in the process.process.  Very large weight andVery large weight and volume reduction ofvolume reduction of the waste.the waste.  Cost-effective purchaseCost-effective purchase price withprice with leasing/financeleasing/finance options.options.  Strong warranty.Strong warranty.
    • 46. The Hydroclave can process: •Bagged waste, in ordinary bags •Sharps containers •Liquid containers •Cardboard containers •Metal objects
    • 47. A. Powerful rotators mix the waste and breaks it into small pieces. B. Steam fills the double wall (jacket) of the vessel and heats the vessel interior. C. The liquids in the waste turn to steam. D. After 20 minutes the waste and liquids are sterile.
    • 48. A. The vent is opened, and the vessel is de- pressurizes. B. Steam heat and mixing continue until all the liquids are evaporated and the waste is dry.
    • 49. A. The unloading door is opened. B. The mixer now rotates in the opposite direction, so angled blades on the mixer can push the waste out the unloading door. C. The dry, sterile waste can be fine-shredded further or dropped in a waste disposal bin. The waste is now ready for safe disposal!
    • 50. Working temp and holding timeWorking temp and holding time  132132oo C at 36 lbs psi for 20 minutesC at 36 lbs psi for 20 minutes  Total time required for 150kg/cycleTotal time required for 150kg/cycle capacity- 60 minutescapacity- 60 minutes
    • 51. Dries waste, regardless of its original water content. Low odor, due to the dryness. Volume reduction to 85% Weight reduction to 70% Accepted as harmless waste. AdvantagesAdvantages
    • 52.  The Hydroclave achieves a highThe Hydroclave achieves a high degree of sterility due to a vigorousdegree of sterility due to a vigorous mixing and fragmenting of the wastemixing and fragmenting of the waste inside the hot vessel:inside the hot vessel: • it breaks apart the sharps container …it breaks apart the sharps container … • sets free the sharps into the vessel …sets free the sharps into the vessel … • where they are thoroughly exposed to thewhere they are thoroughly exposed to the required temperature and pressure.required temperature and pressure.
    • 53.  If for any reason temperature andIf for any reason temperature and pressure parameters are not met, thepressure parameters are not met, the Hydroclave automatically resets andHydroclave automatically resets and initiates a repeat sterilization cycle.initiates a repeat sterilization cycle.  It is IMPOSSIBLE for a needle or sharp toIt is IMPOSSIBLE for a needle or sharp to be shielded from the temperature as therebe shielded from the temperature as there are no “cold spots”, assuring total sterility.are no “cold spots”, assuring total sterility.  No bacterial growth is recorded on needlesNo bacterial growth is recorded on needles during tests conducted.during tests conducted.
    • 54.  HydroclaveHydroclave  No pre-shreddingNo pre-shredding of infectiousof infectious wastewaste  High level ofHigh level of sterility,sterility,  Low operatingLow operating cost(by steam)cost(by steam)  MicrowaveMicrowave (non-pressure type)(non-pressure type)  Must pre-shredMust pre-shred  No sterility, onlyNo sterility, only “disinfection”“disinfection”  High operating costHigh operating cost  (expensive(expensive electricity)electricity)
    • 55.  HydroclaveHydroclave  Low operating cost byLow operating cost by recycling steam.recycling steam.  No special bagsNo special bags requiredrequired  Treats wet or liquidTreats wet or liquid loads easilyloads easily  Strong weightStrong weight reductionreduction  Strong volumeStrong volume reductionreduction  Consistent highConsistent high sterilitysterility  AutoclaveAutoclave  Higher operating cost,Higher operating cost, no steam recyclingno steam recycling  High temp. bags req’dHigh temp. bags req’d  Cannot treat wet orCannot treat wet or liquid loadsliquid loads  Weight increaseWeight increase  No volume reductionNo volume reduction  Spotty sterilitySpotty sterility
    • 56. When installed Sept./99 As it looks today This unit ran 2,200 cycles, has treated 88,000 Kg of medical waste, and never failed a sterility test on any cycle, (2001) Downtime was less than 1%, and maintenance cost minimal
    • 57. Chemical processesChemical processes --Most chemical waste treatment systemsMost chemical waste treatment systems use a disinfectant solution in combinationuse a disinfectant solution in combination with shredding to provide decontaminationwith shredding to provide decontamination & disfigurement.& disfigurement. -1% hypochlorite solution with a minimum-1% hypochlorite solution with a minimum contact period of 30 min.contact period of 30 min. -phenolic-phenolic compounds,iodine,hexachlorophene,iodinecompounds,iodine,hexachlorophene,iodine -alcohol,formaldehyde-alcohol.-alcohol,formaldehyde-alcohol. -Pre-shredding of the waste is desirable for-Pre-shredding of the waste is desirable for better contact with the waste material.better contact with the waste material.
    • 58. Irradiation processesIrradiation processes  Ionizing- Xray, gamma ray, cosmicIonizing- Xray, gamma ray, cosmic raysrays  Non ionizing- infra red, ultra violetNon ionizing- infra red, ultra violet  Swabs, plastic materials, oil, metalSwabs, plastic materials, oil, metal foils, etcfoils, etc  These system requires post-These system requires post- irradiation shredding to render theirradiation shredding to render the waste unrecognisable.waste unrecognisable.
    • 59. Microwave treatmentMicrowave treatment  Radiations produced by theRadiations produced by the microwave are involved to breakmicrowave are involved to break apart molecular chemical bonds &apart molecular chemical bonds & thus disinfect infectious waste.thus disinfect infectious waste.  Temp-97Temp-97 -100 C◦ ◦-100 C◦ ◦  Cycle time-40-45 min.Cycle time-40-45 min.  Advantage of disinfecting the wasteAdvantage of disinfecting the waste  No hazardous emissions.No hazardous emissions.  Can not be used to treat body parts & tissues.Can not be used to treat body parts & tissues.
    • 60. AdvantagesAdvantages -absence of harmful air emissions--absence of harmful air emissions- environment friendlyenvironment friendly -absence of liquid discharges-absence of liquid discharges -non-requirement of chemicals-non-requirement of chemicals -reduced volume of waste (due to shredding-reduced volume of waste (due to shredding & moisture loss)& moisture loss) -operator safety-worker friendly-operator safety-worker friendly -- However, the investment costs areHowever, the investment costs are high at present.high at present.
    • 61. Biological processesBiological processes  Uses biological enzymes for treatingUses biological enzymes for treating medical waste.medical waste.  It not only decontaminate the waste butIt not only decontaminate the waste but also cause the destruction of all thealso cause the destruction of all the organic constituents.organic constituents.  The shredded residue is mixed with waterThe shredded residue is mixed with water & pumped as a slurry to a tank containing& pumped as a slurry to a tank containing enzymes where biological reactions takeenzymes where biological reactions take place.place.  Treated residue is pumped from the tankTreated residue is pumped from the tank through a screw press to separate solids.through a screw press to separate solids.  Solid residues are compacted & collectedSolid residues are compacted & collected in a bin for disposal.in a bin for disposal.
    • 62. ConclusionConclusion  Prevent & minimize waste productionPrevent & minimize waste production  Reuse or recycle the waste to theReuse or recycle the waste to the extent possibleextent possible  Treat waste by safe &Treat waste by safe & environmentally sound methodsenvironmentally sound methods  Dispose off the final residue byDispose off the final residue by landfill in confined & carefullylandfill in confined & carefully designed sitesdesigned sites

    ×