Whois I Functions Sysadmin, DBA, CIO, ADP instructor, SSO,Security consultant Career (20 y) NATO – Local government – Youth care Training Lots of Microsoft, Linux, networking,programming… Security: Site Security Officer, CISSP, BCM,Ethical Hacking, network scanning,…
Course outline Information security? Security Why? Security approach Vocabulary The weakest link Real life security sample
Information security?According to Wikipedia, ISO2700x, CISSP,SANS,…. Confidentiality: Classified information must, be protectedfrom unauthorized disclosure. Integrity: Information must be protected againstunauthorized changes and modification. Availability: the information processed, and the servicesprovided must be protected from deliberate or accidentalloss, destruction, or interruption of services.
Information security?Security attributes according to the Belgianprivacycommission Confidentiality Integrity Availability+ Accountability Non-repudiation Authenticity Reliability
Security approach Both technical and non-technical countermeasures. Top-management approval and support! Communicate! Information security needs alayered approach!!! Best practices COBITControl Objectives for Information and related Technology ISO 27002 (ISO 17799)Code of practice for information security management …..
ISO 27002 Section 0 Introduction Section 1 Scope Section 2 Terms and Definitions Section 3 Structure of the Standard Section 4 Risk Assessment and Treatment Section 5 Security Policy Section 6 Organizing Information Security Section 7 Asset Management Section 8 Human Resources Security Section 9 Physical and Environmental Security Section 10 Communications and Operations Management Section 11 Access Control Section 12 Information Systems Acquisition, Development andMaintenance Section 13 Information Security Incident Management Section 14 Business Continuity Management Section 15 Compliance
ISO 27002 - Example10 9 11 15Procedures Physical access Logical accessSecurity audit local government > 500 employeesTechnique: Social EngineeringInternal audit
Security vocabulary - Threat A potential cause of an unwanted incident, which mayresult in harm to individuals, assets, a system ororganization, the environment, or the community.(BCI) Samples: Fire Death of a key person (SPOK or Single Point of Knowledge) Crash of a critical network component e.g. core switch (SPOF: singlepoint of failure) …
Security vocabulary - Damage Harm or injury to property or a person, resulting in loss ofvalue or the impairment of usefulness Damage in information security: Operational Financial Legal Reputational Damage defaced Belgian Army website? Operational: probably (temporary frontpage, patch management,….) Financial: probably (training personnel, hiring consultancy,….) Legal: probably (lawsuit against external responsible?) Reputational: certainly!
Security vocabulary - Risk Combination of the probability of an event and itsconsequence. Risk components Threat (probability) Damage (amount) Example:DamageProcess Threat O F L R Max impact Probability RiskFood freezing Electricity Failure > 24 h 4 3 2 2 4 2 8
The Zen of Risk What is just the right amount of security? Seeking Balance betweenSecurity (Yin) and Business (Yang)Potential Loss CostCountermeasures Productivity
Security vocabulary - AAA Authentication: technologies used to determine theauthenticity of users, network nodes, and documents Authorization: who is allowed to do what? Accountability: is it possible to find out who has madeany operations?• Strong authentication(two-factor or multifactor)• Something you know (password, PIN,…)• Something you have (token,…)• Something you are (fingerprint, …)
The weakest linkSEC_RITY is not complete without U!Countermeasures:• Force password policy onserver• Train personnel• Use strong authentication• …
The weakest linkAmateurs hack systems, professionals hack people!Countermeasures:• Implement security & accesspolicies• Job rotation• Encryption• Employee awareness training• Audit trail of all accesses todocuments• ….
Hacking stepsStep Countermeasures (short list)1. Reconnaissance Be careful with information2. Network mapping Network IDS – block ICMP3. Exploiting System hardening4. Keeping access IDS – Antivirus – rootkit scanners5. Covering TracksReconnaissance (information gathering):Searching interesting information on discussion groups/forum,social networks, customer reference lists, Google hacks…
We learned…. Security is CIA(+) Why: law, reputation, production continuity,… Approach: layered, technical & non-technical, supportfrom CEO, lots of communication Vocabulary: threat, damage, risk, (strong)authentication,authorization, accountability Risk = threat * damage Security balance: loss vs. cost& countermeasures vs. productivity The weakest link is personnel! A hacker starts with information gathering