A person’s vocabulary is the set of words within a language that arefamiliar to that person. A vocabulary usually develops with age and serves as ausual and fundamental1tool for communication and acquiring knowledge.Acquiring an extensive2vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learninga second language.1basic2widebackDo youknow?Vocabulary is thebasic tool of writing.Can you write withoutvocabulary?
Vocabulary Development2 Vocabulary is of much more importance than grammar. It is the key tocommunicate3successfully with other people. Words are the currency ofcommunication. A robust vocabulary improves all areas ofcommunication-Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. To have mastery over vocabulary4is of much importance because thepeople judge you by the words you use. Secondly,having a better vocabulary really improvesyour ability to think. Vocabulary is the most important skill to learn any language.3commune4lexis
Vocabulary Development3Do you know? We have fullcommand onour activevocabularyus thahere are two kinds of vocabulary:1- Active vocabulary2- Passive vocabulary1. Active vocabulary:he active vocabulary of a person consists of thosewords that he can usecorrectly in his own speech andwriting. He fully understandsthe meaning of those words. It isalso called working or functional5vocabulary.5usefulTT
Vocabulary Development4Do you know? Passivevocabularyis always smallerno larger thanActive vocabulary2. Passive vocabulary:he passive vocabulary of a person consists of those wordswhich he recognizes when he encounters them in print or inthe speech of others. He can make out the meanings of thosewords e.g while reading an editorial in the newspaper, he finds anumber of unfamiliar words,but he has not sufficientmastery over those words. Heis able to judge their meaningsfrom the context but can’t use themin his own speech and piece of writing. It is also calledrecognition6vocabulary. Passive Vocabulary is always largerthan Active Vocabulary.6identificationT
Vocabulary Development5ords are of two kinds:1. Content Words2. Structural Words1.Content Words:ontent words are those that stand for Things , ideas and entities7. They are called Nouns . Actions- they are called Verbs. Qualities- they are called adjectives and adverbs.7individualitiesWC
Vocabulary Development6 All the pronouns: I, You, He, They, etc. All the prepositions: on, under, at, etc. All the auxiliary verbs: did, shall, etc. All the conjunctions: and, but, or, etc. All the relatives: whose, which, etc. Some structural adjectives: that, any, etc. Some structural adverbs: again, even, etc.2- Structural Words:tructural words are those which have little or no meaning in themselves, but theybind together other words to make phrases, clauses and sentences.The following is the list of structural wordsS
Vocabulary Development7 Expansion through reading Expansion through repetition Expansion through words in context Expansion through vocabulary trees Expansion through word walls Expansion through root words Expansion through prefixes and suffixes Expansion through synonyms and antonyms Expansion through word formation charts Expansion through word list Expansion through visual dictionaries Expansion through word gamesStrategies to improve vocabularyThere are many ways to improve your vocabulary. There are a number ofmethods to help you improve and expand your vocabulary. You must cultivate a habit ofextensive and regular reading.
Vocabulary Development81. Expansion through reading:eading is one of the best ways of expanding8vocabulary. While reading thereader should be encouraged to highlight familiar vocabulary in one color andthe unfamiliar vocabulary with another color. Teacher May also adopt the methods of“Pre teaching or Reading Vocabulary.” The teacher may write the unfamiliar words on theboard with their meanings before starting reading of the lesson.8growingR
Vocabulary Development92. Expansion through repetition:epeat, repeat and just repeat. Repetition has a powerful impact on learning.The more times we are exposed to a word, the stronger our understandingbecomes. It takes a minimum9fifteen encounters with a new word for a student tounderstand and apply the word independently.9Smallest amountR
3. Expansion through words in context:The very best way to learn and teach vocabulary is in context. When students seenew words or expression in context, there are two advantages:Do not select individual words, teach words in context. Teaching vocabulary “incontext” is more effective.
Vocabulary Development114. Expansion through vocabulary trees:Vocabulary trees help to provide content. Once you have mapped out a fewvocabulary trees, you will discover yourself teaching in vocabulary groups. When you see acup your mind will quickly relate such words as knife, fork and dishes etc.So it will help the students get started.
Vocabulary Development125. Expansion through word walls:word wall is systematically organized collection of key words from a unit ofstudy. Word walls receive a prominent place in a classroom environment10.They are usually front and center, large and easy to see. These word walls are great placesto put sight words and high frequency words throughout the year.10surroundingsA
Vocabulary Development136. Expansion through Root Words:eacher should focus first on teaching roots. Students should be familiar withthe basic word and, then, they will observe how the help them understandthe word’s definition.So, before teaching them the words: “Useful” “Helpless” “Careless” etcTech them about the words: “Use”T
Vocabulary Development14 “Help” “Care” etcThey know the meaning of root words; they will be able to understand words havingprefixes and suffixes.7. Expansion through prefixes & suffixes:hen students will have learnt the root words, the next step is to add prefixesand suffixes. This will help them in enriching their vocabulary. For example,if a student knows the meanings of the words ‘ ir ’ and ‘in’ are negativeprefixes and he knows the meaning of the words ‘regular’ and ‘correct’ he can easyunderstand meanings of the ‘irregular’ and ’incorrect’Similarly, if a student knows that the suffix ‘ness’ indicates11a noun andhe knows the meanings of the root word ‘kind’ he will find no difficulty in knowing themeaning of “kindnessPrefixes showing quantityMeaning Prefixes in English Wordshalf semiannual, hemisphereone unicycle, monarchy, monorailtwo binary, bimonthly, dilemma,dichotomyhundred century, centimeter, hectoliter11Points toW
Vocabulary Development16across, over transport, translatebelow,underinfrasonic, infrastructure,subterranean, hypodermicin front of proceed, prefixbehind recedeout of erupt, explicit, ecstasyinto injection, immerse, encourage,empoweraround circumnavigate, perimeterwith coexist, colloquy, communicate,consequence, correspond,sympathy, synchronize8. Expansion through synonyms & antonyms:Another way of teaching vocabulary is through synonyms and antonyms of the world.Synonyms and antonyms are fun and lively ways to teach your students new vocabularyand improve their English language skills e.g.Synonyms of“intelligence”: bright, smart, gifted, etcBack
Vocabulary Development17Antonyms of “intelligence: stupid, dim, slow, dull, etcTESTS OF SYNONYMS
Vocabulary Development199. Expansion through word formation charts:Word formation is one of the keys to success for students of high classes. These wordformation charts provide the concept nouns, personal noun, adjective and verb form of thekey word e.g.Word formation chart
Vocabulary Development20Key Word: Pollution10. Expansion through Word List:Provide students with any key word and make word lists of that word e.g
Vocabulary Development2111. Expansion through visual dictionaries or cues:A picture is worth a thousand words. It isalso very helpful for learning precise vocabularye.g you can show them the pictures of ‘painter’,‘policeman’, ‘judge’ etc. Relevant vocabulary willcome in their minds.
Vocabulary Development2212. Expansion through word games:Word games also improve vocabulary making the exercises fun andenjoyable. In these exercises you obtain meanings and are required to remember andassociate the right word with the right meaning. There are a number of games whichyou can utilize to expand vocabulary e.g.Games
Vocabulary Development23n short, vocabulary can make or break your life successful. These severaltechniques will dramatically change how you will express yourself. But there isno magic bullet; you can’t improve your vocabulary overnight. So, the more youpractice, the more you learn.Here are some worksheets attached to improve vocabulary for the learnersVocabulary Tests:IBACK