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FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME
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FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME

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Though i am not an applied physics /B.S.C physics student ,Science has always been something of my interest :) Presentation during "International School on Astronomy and Space Science organized by …

Though i am not an applied physics /B.S.C physics student ,Science has always been something of my interest :) Presentation during "International School on Astronomy and Space Science organized by Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology and B.P. Koirala Memorial Planetorium, Observatory and Science Museum Development Board "

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  • 1. FROM BIG BANG TO PRESENT TIME Presented by: Uttam Pudasaini 1
  • 2. Presentation Online  Big Bang  Timeline of Universe  Hubble's law and the age of Universe  Universe and its composition  Galaxy  Stars  Supernova  Planets  Formation of solar system  Information extraction  Telescopes  Satellites 2
  • 3. BIG BANG Prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe  Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state  After its initial expansion from a singularity, the Universe cooled sufficiently to allow energy to be converted into various subatomic particles 3
  • 4. Big Bang contd… The first element produced was hydrogen, along with traces of helium and lithium.  Giant clouds of these elements coalesce through gravity to form stars and galaxies 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. Hubble's law and age of Universe Edwin Hubble in 1920 discovered the expansion of the universe. Farther galaxies are moving at a higher speed following the law, v=Hod, where v is the velocity in km/s, d is the distance in Mpc, and Ho is the Hubble constant in km/s/Mpc.  Velocity is determined via the redshift in the spectrum and distance to the galaxy determined using observations of stars Up until the 1990's, the best estimates for Ho were between 50 km/s/Mpc and 90 km/s/Mpc, giving a range on the age of the universe between 7 and 20 billion years. 6
  • 7. UNIVERSE (COMPOSITION) Universe is 13.7 billion years old with an uncertainty of 200 million years. The WMAP value of Ho is 71 ± 4 km/s/Mpc 70% of the energy of the present universe is in the form of dark energy.  26% of the energy is in the form of cold (not thermalized) dark matter, and the remaining 4% of the energy is in the atoms and photons. 7
  • 8. Dust Particles Size: Few molecules to few microns in size Mass spectrometer in the satellites collect them (They get stuck on Aerogel) Possesses Scattering property Analyzed studying the properties of light emitted by the dust  ISM(Interstellar Matter),IGM(Inter Galactic Matter) and Inter Planetary Dust Particle(IDP) 8
  • 9. Dust particles contd… Universe was homogenous and there was little-to-no structure in it after Big Bang. As the universe cooled clumps of Dark matter began to condense, and within them gas began to condense. Large scale structure of the cosmos we observe today was formed as a consequence of the growth of the primordial fluctuations. The primordial fluctuations gravitationally attracted gas and dark matter to the denser areas, and thus the seeds that would later become galaxies were formed. 9
  • 10. Dust particles contd… 40 Tons of extraterrestrial matter falls to Earth everyday What happens to the Earth mass????? Using the isotropic ratio we can differentiate them from the common dust particle in the Earth 10
  • 11. Formation of Galaxy  At this point the universe was almost exclusively composed of hydrogen, helium, and dark matter.  Soon after the first proto-galaxies formed, the hydrogen and helium gas within them began to condense and make the first stars and finally the first galaxies were formed.  The discovery of a galaxy more than 13 billion years old, which existed only 480 million years after the Big Bang, was reported in January 2011.  A structure distributed in a great cosmic web of filaments throughout the universe which contains the fossil clues to this earlier time
  • 12. Galaxy contd..  Come in a variety of shapes, from round, featureless elliptical galaxies to the pancake-flat spiral galaxies.  In Milky Way there are an estimated 6,000 molecular clouds, each with more than 100,000 solar masses. 12
  • 13. STARS Higher density regions of the interstellar medium form clouds or diffuse nebula Much of the hydrogen is in the molecular (H2) form(molecular cloud) The nearest nebula to the Sun where massive stars are being formed is the Orion nebula, 1,300 ly (1.2×1016 km) away. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Stars contd… Another site of star formation is the opaque clouds of dense gas and dust known as Bok globules; so named after the astronomer Bart Bok. These can form in association with collapsing molecular clouds or possibly independently. The Bok globules are typically up to a light year across and contain a few solar masses.  Over half the known Bok globules have been found to contain newly forming stars. By other process: cloud collapse, empty space 15
  • 16. Supernova The most massive stars end their lives as supernova, the explosive destruction of a star. Occurs when a massive star suddenly becomes unable to sustain the core against its own weight The explosion expels much or all of a star's material at a velocity of up to 30,000 km/s (10% of the speed of light), driving a shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium. 16
  • 17. Planets 17
  • 18. Formation of Solar System  Stars formed by self gravity  Early solar system was a cloud of interstellar gas that had fairly fast rotation so not all of the gas could fall into the star forming at the center  Dust particles stuck by sticking process  Planetecimals grew by sticiking process  Protoplantes were formed  Protoplanets finally formed planets 18
  • 19. Information extraction Telescope on Earth surface and Satellites in space collects all the possible information Huge amount of data is then systematically processed 19
  • 20. Telescope :Design and working A segmented mirror telescope with displacement sensors Instead of eye a CCD camera as a detector Wave front distortion is avoided with the help of deformable mirror Fig: Advantage of using a large diameter telescope 20
  • 21. EELT(42 m diameter Telescopes) 21
  • 22. Satellites Hubble Space Telescope Fitted with telescopes for images of distant objects Infrared detectors of longer wavelength helps to take pictures of such regions Source:www 22
  • 23. Satellites contd… Thermal blanket working as a shield Prior to launch subjected to a thermal vacuum testing(temp range:-60 to 60 degree Celsius) Suffers gravity effects, radiations and collision with debris High frequency transmission suffers less attenuation 23
  • 24. SDSS(Sloan Digital Sky Survey) In February 2003, the WMAP project released an all-sky map of the radiation emitted before there were any stars. Output: 287 million objects 1.3 million spectra 10 TB imaging data 2 TB catalogue data 24
  • 25. Scope of Geomatics students in Astronomy  For those who want to continue their higher study in the filed of Astronomy and Space science  Site selection project for observation centers at Earth  Satellite communication and Space science  Computer programming and its use in Virtual Obeservatory 25
  • 26. Some Snapshots 26
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