A Study of Tamilnadu's Economy and its contribution to India's GDP

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A Study of Tamilnadu's Economy and its contribution to India's GDP

  1. 1. 2011A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP Navin Kumar (82) Nisheeth Gupta (90) Prateek Varma (99) Rajesh Allam (107) Rohit Deshpande (116) Saket Mishra (124) Saurav Gupta (133) Siddharth Arora (139) Subhiksha Sekhar (148) Uttam Kumar Satapathy (157)
  2. 2. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPContentsAim of the Project ................................................................................................................................... 3Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 4Tamil Nadu and the Four Largest Economies of India – A Comparison................................................ 5 NSDP .................................................................................................................................................. 5 Tax Revenues ...................................................................................................................................... 6 Human Development Indicator ........................................................................................................... 7State Economy ........................................................................................................................................ 8 Tamil Nadu’s GSDP ........................................................................................................................... 8 Tamil Nadu’s NSDP ........................................................................................................................... 9 Per Capita GSDP................................................................................................................................. 9 GDP of India and GSDP of Tamil Nadu........................................................................................... 10 Data Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 11GDP and Agricultural Growth in Tamil Nadu ...................................................................................... 11 Data Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 12GDP and Industrial Growth in Tamil Nadu .......................................................................................... 13 Data Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 14GDP and Services Growth in Tamil Nadu ............................................................................................ 14 Data Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 16Per capita Income: Tamil Nadu vis-à-vis All India .............................................................................. 16 GSDP and Per capita Income – A Comparison with Major States ................................................... 17References ............................................................................................................................................. 19 2
  3. 3. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPAim of the ProjectThe aim of this paper is to analyze the trends of economic growth in Tamil Nadu over theperiod 1999-2009. The relation between growth rate of National GDP and State GDP isestablished through variation analysis. This has been used to determine the contribution ofTamil Nadu’s GSDP towards the GDP of India. A parallel analysis has been performed todiscover the sectorwise contribution of agriculture and manufacturing towards the GSDP ofTamil Nadu. 3
  4. 4. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPIntroductionTamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 sq km. It is the eleventh-largest state and the seventh-most-populous state in India; it has 32 districts. Tamil Nadu is among the most industrialisedstates in the country. It also has a rich tradition of literature, music and dance. Tamil is thestate language; English is also commonly used for communication and as a medium ofeducation. Chennai is the capital city. Coimbatore, Madurai, Thiruchirappalli, Salem,Tirunelveli and Erode are some of the other key cities in the state.The following is a snapshot of the economic environment of the state: • Highly industrialised with greater level of urbanisation - Tamil Nadu has attracted several industrial sectors that are a part of India s new economy sectors. In the last three years, these industries have helped the state achieve over 13 per cent of GSDP growth. The Census 2001 highlighted that Tamil Nadu has the highest level of urbanisation rate (43.86 per cent) among all states. • Among the states with larger FDI inflows - The state attracted cumulative FDI inflows of US$ 5.7 billion between April 2000 and May 2010 and is amongst the highest FDI attracting states. FDI inflows have helped achieve greater technological advancement and more exportable products. • Rich labourpool and low cost of manpower - The state comprises of well-qualified, skilled, disciplined, productivity-oriented and English-speaking workforce. The standard of education and educational institutions is highly rated in the country. Average wages are also lower than similar workforce in the developed countries. • Facilitating infrastructure - Infrastructure development of Chennai have been rated better than other big cities by independent site evaluation studies of organisations such as Ford, the World Bank, BMW, Foxconn, Standard Chartered, Nokia and Flextronics. • Good living standards and low crime rate - The state has largely peaceful living conditions and has low crime rate, making it an attractive destination for industries. There are several places for recreation and tourism. • Political environment - The state has a stable political environment with a single- party government. Successive state governments have been committed towards creating a progressive business environment. 4
  5. 5. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPTamil Nadu and the Four Largest Economies of India – AComparisonNSDPThe graph shown below is for the data using the Net State Domestic Product obtained fromRBI website for years 1980 – 2009 (29 years). It shows the NSDP of the top 5 states over theyears and its growth.NSDP at current prices 900000 800000 700000 600000 Maharashtra 500000 UttarPradesh 400000 AndhraPradesh TamilNadu 300000 Gujarat 200000 100000 0 198019821984198619881990199219941996199820002002200420062008 State Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Gujarat CAGR 14.74 12.73 15.04 15.02 14.93While Maharashtra contributes the most, Tamil Nadu has a CAGR of 15.02 % which isgreater than Maharashtra’s 14.74 % over 29 years. Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh are closecompetitors with Tamil Nadu in NSDP, however having a higher growth rate Tamil Naduwill overtake Uttar Pradesh in the near future.In the period from 2000-2005, Tamil Nadu has shown a slightly more depleted growthpattern than the other states, mostly because it was late on capitalizing on the information 5
  6. 6. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPtechnology boom than the other states. It has now, however picked up and has invitedinvestments from across all sectors of the economy.Tax Revenues Estimated Tax Revenues 2011 2011-15 Estimated Tax Revenues 2011-15 3033087 296417 323369 451777 179578 273424All units are in Rs. CroresAs per the Planning commission predictions the tax revenues for the 13 planning period2011-2015 are shown above.Again, Maharashtra contributes the most to the Indian tax collections while Tamil Nadu ranks4th which is consistent with its GSDP ranking. The point to be noted is that wh Uttar whilePradesh has a higher GSDP than Andhra Pradesh, it actually collects less taxes owing to moreunorganized businesses and agricultural sector there.Tamil Nadu contributes to almost 9.01 % of tax collected in India. 6
  7. 7. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 TamilNadu Maharashtra 0.4 UttarPradesh 0.3 AndhraPradesh Gujarat 0.2 0.1 0 1981 1991 2001 2011Human Development Indica Indicator Year TamilNadu Maharashtra UttarPradesh AndhraPradesh Gujarat 1981 0.343 0.363 0.255 0.298 0.36 1991 0.466 0.452 0.314 0.377 0.431 2001 0.531 0.523 0.388 0.416 0.479 2011 0.675 0.689 0.49 0.572 0.621 CAGR 2.36 2.23 2.27 2.27 1.89Over 30 years from 1981-2011, the HDI of Tamil Nadu has increased from 0.343 to 0.675 2011,which in trend with the other big states as can be seen from the CAGR of 2.36 %.However, the HDI of 0.675 is still only in the medium range and very close to the nationalaverage of 0.647. 7
  8. 8. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPState EconomyTamil Nadu’s GSDPAt current prices, the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Tamil Nadu was about US$73.7 billion in 2008-09. The average GSDP growth rate from 1999-2000 to 2008-09 wasabout 11.0 per cent. Tamil Nadus GSDP (US$ billion) 2008-09 2007-08 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05 2003-04 Tamil Nadus GSDP (US$ 2002-03 billion) 2001-02 2000-01 1999-00 0 20 40 60 80 Sectoral Contribution in TN SDP Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing Total Industry Total Services Total 69% 69% 68% 70% 71% 72% 19% 19% 20% 18% 17% 17% 12% 12% 13% 12% 12% 11% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Source: CMIE 8
  9. 9. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPTamil Nadu’s NSDPThe Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) of Tamil Nadu was about US$ 65.0 billion in 2008-09. The average NSDP growth rate from 1999-2000 to 2008-09 was about 10.9 per cent. Tamil Nadus NSDP (US$ billion) 2008-09 2007-08 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05 2003-04 Tamil Nadus NSDP (US$ 2002-03 billion) 2001-02 2000-01 1999-00 0 20 40 60 80 Source: CMIEPer Capita GSDPIn 2008-09, the state s per capita GSDP was US$ 1,110.8. The per capita GSDP increased ata CAGR of 10.1 per cent between 1999-2000 and 2008-09. 9
  10. 10. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP Tamil Nadus Per Capita GSDP (US$ Billion) Tamil Nadus Per Capita GSDP (US$ Billion) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 1150.9 1110.8 1007.6 400 695.1 803.7 467.4 488.8 493.9 547.6 628.2 200 0 Source: CMIEGDP of India and GSDP of Tamil NaduState SDP has increased even though there is a slight decrease in the India GDP.The increment in the GSDP was majorly due to few factors: • Tamil Nadu is an important IT hub. It is the second-largest software exporter by value in India, after Karnataka. Software exports from Tamil Nadu have increased from US$ 3.0 billion in 2005-06 to US$ 8.9 billion in 2009-2010 at a CAGR of 31.2 percent. • In the last two decades, Tamil Nadu has attracted investments in the automotive industry, particularly, in cars, railway coaches, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. The automotive industry has a crucial role in driving the state s economy; it contributes about 8 per cent to GSDP, providing direct employment opportunities to about 300,000 people. • FDI inflows between April 2000 and May 2010 were at US$ 5.7 billion. 10
  11. 11. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP GDP growth rate and GSDP rate of Tamilnadu 14 12 12.1 11.75 10 10.51 9.51 9.58 9.33 8 8.32 7.95 7.14 6.75 % growth GDP 6 % growth GSDP 4 2 0 2005-06 2006-07 07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 CAGR of GSDP Tamilnadu India 11 7.3 1999-2009 Source: CMIEData AnalysisIndia’s GDP growth rate and Tamil Nadu’s growth rate for the period 20052005-06 to 2009-10was compared and the correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.44. This shows that there isa weak correlation between the two.GDP and Agricultural Growth in Tamil NaduTamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state, while its advances in other fieldslaunched the state into competition with other areas. Even so, Tamil Nadu is a leadingproducer of agricultural products in India. Tamil Nadu agriculture is heavily dependent on theriver water and Monsoon rains. The perennial rivers are Palar, Cheyyar, Ponnaiyar, Kaveri, Palar,Meyar, Bhavani, Amaravati, Vaigai, Chittar&Tamaraparani. Non perennial rivers include the Non-perennial 11
  12. 12. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPVellar, Noyal, Suruli, Gundar, Vaipar, Valparai and Varshali. Tamil Nadu is also the leadingproducer of kambu, corn, rye, ground nuts, oil, seeds and sugar cane in India.The principal food crops are rice, maize, jowar (cholam), bajra (cumbu), ragi, and pulses(Bengalgram, Redgram, Greengram, Blackgram and Horsegram). The cash crops includecotton, sugarcane, oilseeds, coffee, tea, rubber, coconut, gingelly and chillies. The importanthorticultural products are bananas and mangoes. The state is the largest producer of bananas,flowers, tapioca, the second largest producer of mangoes, natural rubber, coconut, groundnutand the third largest producer of coffee, sapota, tea and sugarcane. Tamil Nadus sugarcaneyield per hectare is the highest in India. The state has 17,000 hectares of land under oil palmcultivation, the second highest in India. Paddy is grown in large excess because rice is themain staple food of the state. Tamil Nadu AgricuIture Growth vs. SDP Growth SDP Agricuture 23.52% 25.36% 12.99% 11.91% 17.81% 21.24% 8.92% 13.41% 15.21% 15.42% 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Tamil Nadu AgricuIture Growth vs. Indias GDP Growth India GDP Growth TN Agriculture 23.52% 25.36% 12.99% 11.91% 8.92% 9.51% 9.58% 9.33% 6.75% 7.95% 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10Data AnalysisIndia’s GDP growth rate, Tamil Nadu’s GSDP and Agricultural growth rate for the period2005-06 to 2009-10 was compared. The correlation coefficient between India’s GDP growth 12
  13. 13. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPand Tamil Nadu’s agriculture sector was 0.71 and that of Tamil Nadu’s GDP and itsagriculture sector was calculated as 0.85. Thus the relation tends towards a strong correlationin both cases.GDP and Industrial Growth in Tamil NaduWith a view to promote the industrial activities, Tamil Nadu is creating a favourableindustrial climate in the state by announcing pro-active industrial policies. During 2008-09,the government has signed 12 memorandum of understandings with an investment ofRs.25050 crore and issued structured package sanctioning orders for 7 other projects with aninvestment of Rs.5462 crore.The `Global Economic Slowdown’ had its impact in the State economy also. Themanufacturing sub-sectors of the State economy viz. textiles, wearing apparels, leather, woodproducts, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, basic metals, software and hardware of ITindustries, transport equipments, automobiles have experienced lower production comparedto that of the previous year’s level due to lower demand and power shortages.The income originated from the manufacturing sector to GSDP increased from Rs.43874crore in 2007-08 to Rs.44758 crore in 2008-09 and thereby registered a growth of 1.77 percent but at a decelerated rate when compared to previous year.At the national level, the industrial scenario of Tamil Nadu continues to retain its position asin the previous year. As per the ASI data 2005-06, Tamil Nadu occupies the first position inhaving the number of factories and the total number of persons engaged in the industrialprocess. In respect of all the other principal characteristics, viz. Fixed capital, productivecapital, gross value of output and net value added, the State retains its third position as in theprevious year. At the national level, the State is sharing 15.17 per cent of factories, 9.94 percent in fixed capital, 14.88 per cent in persons engaged. 9.76 per cent in gross value of outputand 8.97 per cent in net value added. The Growth of Industrial Sector, measured by the Indexof Industrial production for the year 2008-09 showed a decelerated growth of 1.7 per centcompared to 5.0 per cent in 2007-08. The manufacturing sub–group also achieved a sub-duedgrowth of 2.4 per cent as against 5.0 per cent in the previous year. The other two sub-groupsviz. mining and electricity had registered a negative growth of 1.2 per cent and 2.3 per centrespectively. At the national level also, the overall growth of industrial productiondecelerated to 2.4 per cent in the review year from 8.5 per cent achieved in the previous year. 13
  14. 14. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP Tamil Nadu Industry Growth vs. SDP Growth SDP Industry 25.60% 17.81% 21.24% 15.21% 15.42% 13.41% 17.02% 14.22% 8.25% 4.23% 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Tamil Nadu Industry Growth vs. Indias GDP Growth India GDP Growth TN Industry 25.60% 17.02% 14.22% 9.58% 9.33% 8.25% 9.51% 7.95% 4.23% 6.75% 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10Data AnalysisIndia’s GDP growth rate, Tamil Nadu’s GSDP and Industrial growth rate for the period 2005-06 to 2009-10 was compared. The correlation coefficient between India’s GDP growth andTamil Nadu’s industrial sector was 0.42 and that of Tamil Nadu’s GDP and its industrialsector was calculated as 0.96. Thus the relation tends towards a strong correlation in the lattercase while there is a weak correlation in the former case.GDP and Services Growth in Tamil NaduChennai is the second largest software exporter in India, next to Bangalore. Indias largest ITpark is housed at Chennai. Software exports from Tamil Nadu during 2008-09 rose 29 percent to touch 36,680 crore, involving a workforce of 2.8 lakh. Chennai is a hub for e-publishing, as there are 47 e-publishing units registered with the STPI in Chennai and 25 inBangalore. Companies such as HCL, Wipro, TCS, Satyam, Infosys,Cognizant Technology 14
  15. 15. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDPSolutions, Covansys, Ford Information Technology, Xansa, Verizon, iSoft, iNautix,Electronic Data Systems, Bally and many others have offices in Chennai. InfosysTechnologies has set up Indias largest software development centre to house 25,000 softwareprofessionals at an estimated investment of 12,500 million ($270 million) in Chennai.[52]Indias largest IT park - SIPCOT is housed at Siruseri - Chennai, It has numerous ITcompanies such as TCS, CTS, Syntel, Steria, Polaris, Patni, Hexaware etc. TCS alone hasacquired 70 acres (280,000 m2) of land at a cost of about Rs.13 crore with an employee forceof 25,000.This is a chart of trend of software exports from Tamil Nadu published by ELCOT(Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu Ltd.) with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. Software Software Year Exports Companies 1995 370 34 2000 31,160 766 2005 1,41,150 1,427 2007– 2008 2,84,900 - 2008– 2009 3,66,800 - 2009– 2010 3,67,660 - Tamil Nadu Service Growth vs. SDP Growth SDP Service 21.24% 17.81% 17.60% 16.82% 16.14% 19.32% 17.07% 15.21% 15.42% 13.41% 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 15
  16. 16. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP Tamil Nadu Service Growth vs. Indias GDP Growth India GDP Growth TN Service 19.32% 17.60% 17.07% 16.82% 16.14% 9.58% 9.33% 9.51% 7.95% 6.75% 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10Data AnalysisIndia’s GDP growth rate, Tamil Nadu’s GSDP and Services growth rate for the period 2005-06 to 2009-10 was compared. The correlation coefficient between India’s GDP growth andTamil Nadu’s service sector was 0.11 and that of Tamil Nadu’s GDP and its service sectorwas calculated as 0.89. Thus the relation tends towards a strong correlation in the latter casewhile there is a weak correlation in the former case.Per capita Income: Tamil Nadu vis-à-vis All IndiaThe standard of living of the people is reflected through the per capita income earned by themin the respective year. In the State, the per capita income in real terms increased fromRs.29445/- in 2007-08 to Rs.30652/- in 2008-09 and registered a growth of 4.10 per cent,which is marginally higher than 3.97 per cent recorded in the previous year. However, thegrowth rate decelerated from 11.24 per cent achieved in 2005-06. It can be noted that atNational level, the per capita income both at current and constant prices is comparativelylower than at the State level. All India per capita income increased from Rs.24295/- in 2007-08 to Rs.25474/- in real terms and recorded a growth of 4.94 per cent which decelerated from7.60 per cent achieved in 2007-08. However, it can be seen that during the first two years ofthe Eleventh Plan period, in real terms, the Annual Average Growth Rate of State per capitaincome is 4.04 per cent which is lower than 6.27 per cent at national level.Per Capita Income (1999-2000 Series) Tamil Nadu All India At Current Prices At Constant Prices At Current Prices At Constant Prices Income Growth Income Growth Income Growth Income Growth (Rupees Rate (Rupees Rate (Rupees Rate (Rupees RateYear ) (%) ) (%) ) (%) ) (%)2000-01 20972 7.93 20318 4.56 16688 5.08 16173 1.842002-02 20942 -0.14 19748 -2.81 17782 6.56 16769 3.692002-03 21830 4.24 19662 -0.44 18885 6.20 17109 2.03 16
  17. 17. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP2003-04 24087 10.34 20707 5.31 20871 10.52 18301 6.972004-05 27512 14.22 22975 10.95 23198 11.15 19331 5.632005-06 31663 15.09 25558 11.24 26003 12.09 20868 7.952006-07 37190 17.46 28320 10.81 29524 13.54 22580 8.202007-08 40757 9.59 29445 3.97 33283 12.73 24295 7.602008-09 45058 10.55 30652 4.10 37490 12.64 25494 4.94Eleventh Plan 10.07 4.04 12.69 6.27PeriodAAGR Per Capita Income (1999-2000 Series) at Constant Prices 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 Tamil Nadu 10000 All India 0GSDP and Per capita Income – A Comparison with Major States Gross State Domestic Product and Per Capita Income – Major States (At 1999-2000 Prices) GSDP (Rs. Crore) Per Capita Income (Rupees) State 1999-00 2008-09 CAGR 1999-00 2008-09 CAGR Andhra Pradesh 128797 252318 7.76 15427 26983 6.41 Assam 34833 54477 5.09 12282 16597 3.40 Bihar 50174 98393 7.78 5786 9586 5.77 Gujarat* 109861 213674 8.67 18864 31780 6.74 Haryana 51391 112543 9.10 23229 42267 6.88 Karnataka 101247 181338 6.69 17502 27385 5.10 Kerala* 69168 126453 5.17 19461 32961 6.81 Madhya Pradesh * 80132 103503 3.25 12384 13299 0.90 Maharashtra 247830 416248 5.93 23011 33302 4.19 Orissa 42910 78410 6.93 10567 16945 5.39 Punjab 67162 103415 4.91 25631 33153 2.90 17
  18. 18. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP Rajasthan 82720 140523 6.06 13619 19079 3.82 Tamil Nadu 134185 228479 6.09 19432 30652 5.19 Uttar Pradesh 175159 270850 4.96 13516 25114 7.13 West Bengal * 135376 220198 6.27 15888 23229 4.86 All India 1786526 3339375 7.20 15881 25494 5.40 Note – * Up to 2007-08. Source: Central Statistical Organisation, New Delhi.The highest per capita income is noticed in Haryana where it increased from Rs.23229/- in1999-2000 to Rs.42267/- in 2008-09 with an Annual Compound Growth Rate of 6.88 percent. In Tamil Nadu, it increased from Rs.19432/- to Rs.30652/- which is higher thanthat of all India but registered a lower annual compound growth rate of 5.19 per cent.States like Gujarat (6.74%), Andhra Pradesh (6.41%), Kerala (6.81%), Orissa (5.39%) andUttar Pradesh (7.13%) had a higher growth rate in per capita income when compared toTamil Nadu and other States.The disparity in the growth rate of per capita income between the States is due to differencesin private investment and public expenditure, differences in the distribution of StateGovernments’ expenditure, State policies, implementation of welfare schemes, etc. Per Capita Income (Rs.) 2008-09 ( at 1999-2000 prices) 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 Per Capita 5000 Income (Rs.) 0The Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGR) for the period from 1999-00 to 2007-08 inreal terms for 15 major States representing nearly 90 per cent of population in the countrywas compared. The comparison showed that the Gross State Domestic Product at constantprices in Tamil Nadu increased from Rs.134185 crore in 1999-2000 to Rs.228479 crore in2008-09 which was fairly high in absolute value when compared to Haryana where itincreased from Rs.51391 crore to Rs.112543 crore for the respective period. However,Haryana occupied the first position with an annual compound growth rate of 9.10 per centwhereas Tamil Nadu was ranked seventh with 6.09 per cent whereas it was 7.20 per cent atthe national level. It is noted that the CAGR for Bihar (7.78%) and Orissa (6.93%) is higherthan Tamil Nadu (6.09%).Three major reasons for these differences can be said to be fiscal, infrastructure and humanresources development. 18
  19. 19. A Study of the Economy of Tamil Nadu and its contribution to India’s GDP GSDP (Rs. Crore) in 2008-09 ( at 1999-2000 prices) 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 GSDP (Rs. Crore) 0References • Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Chennai – 6. • Central Statistical Organisation, New Delhi. • http://www.tn.gov.in/ • http://www.tn.gov.in/deptst/Stat.htm • http://www.ait.com/ • http://www.rubberboard.org.in/RSN/RSNEWSOCT06.pdf • http://nhm.nic.in/ActionPlan/ActionPlan_TamilNadu.pdf • http://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/PublicationReportDetails.aspx?fromdate=10/07/05&Sec Id=21&SubSecId=0 • http://www.tn.gov.in/policynotes/agriculture.htmTN • http://www.tn.gov.in/crop/areaproduction.htm • www.cmie.com/ 19

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