Name Panagopoulos George E-mail firstname.lastname@example.orgInstructors 1. Maria Pitsaki 2. Vasilis CharmandarisFoundation University of CreteDepartment Physics
ContentsEnergy needsWhat is ITERWhat is fusionConditions to make fusionFusion’s Safety
Lights on the earth at night
2 billion peopleDo not have access tothe electricity
Vast needs in theindustrialized world.
Alternative ways of energy production
The current reactors
ITER a larger project
Structure of the atom• The nucleus of an atom is comprised by neutrons and protons.• Isotopes are the components that have the same number of protons
Mass defect Light nucleus Heavy nucleusEinstein’s Equation : ΔΕ=Δm c2
Mass and energy
Fusion in ITER• Deuterium is a common isotope of hydrogen made by sea water.• Tritium is an other rare isotope of hydrogen. We can produce it from the following reaction. 6 Li + n → 4He +T
The most efficient reaction Cross sectionCross section is the probability of the reaction to happen
Conditions for fusion In order the particles to acquire Energy and collide we heat them in grate temperatures (150.000.000 oC). Thus they exist in a state called plasma where they have lost all their ele- Ctrons.For the reason why there is not a material than may holdthese temperatures we use magnetic field to control theindividual charges inside plasma in a process calledmagnetic confinement.
Magnetic confinement• The main method to make magnetic confinement, is to pass current through plasma and create an incoming magnetic force.• Because of the plasma’s instabilities we also use an additional toroidal magnetic field.
Plasma heating The plasma may be heated by its self. The helium nuclei that remain from the reaction offer energy to the other particles inside the reactor by collisions. Moreover we have three additional mechanisms for this procedure : Ohmic heating where the current that passes trough plasma heats it like the a lamp during its operation. Neutral beam injection where neutral particles are injected inside the reactor and give energy to the particles via collisions. Radiofrequency heating where we the plasma in the same way that we heat our food in a microwave oven.
ITER ’s Safety Except from tritium we do not have any radioactivematerials inside the reactor. Any second inside the reactor there is less than agram of fuel . The reaction can not continue unlesswe have fuel. After keeping in safety the components of theinstallation for 100 they are as radioactive as a plantthat produces energy from coal.