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  • - 10 times more than pour countries
  • -Dominant countries USA EU -Petrol 80% of our needs -Reserves/-------------  by 2030 consumption -Coal no monopoly less harmful -fossil fuels harmful for the environment /greenhouse effect/acid rain
  • More ecological->but 1)Not continuous/Water? ---------  France \\ 80% electric energy…………Deduce harmful emit ions.
  • Jet JT-6OU
  • Larger project By Russia 1985 Many countries join….
  • By making a device that measures the atom’s mass Aston concluded that Many years later Einstein came to say that this mass defect is energy defect
  • Light nuclei too much energy per nucleon
  • Why should we use this reaction
  • Natural frequency
  • ITER

    1. 1. Name Panagopoulos George E-mail papageorge@edu.physics.uoc.grInstructors 1. Maria Pitsaki 2. Vasilis CharmandarisFoundation University of CreteDepartment Physics
    2. 2. ContentsEnergy needsWhat is ITERWhat is fusionConditions to make fusionFusion’s Safety
    3. 3. Lights on the earth at night
    4. 4. 2 billion peopleDo not have access tothe electricity
    5. 5. Vast needs in theindustrialized world.
    6. 6. Fossil fuels
    7. 7. Alternative ways of energy production
    8. 8. The current reactors
    9. 9. ITER a larger project
    10. 10. Structure of the atom• The nucleus of an atom is comprised by neutrons and protons.• Isotopes are the components that have the same number of protons
    11. 11. Mass defect Light nucleus Heavy nucleusEinstein’s Equation : ΔΕ=Δm c2
    12. 12. Mass and energy
    13. 13. Fusion
    14. 14. Fusion in ITER• Deuterium is a common isotope of hydrogen made by sea water.• Tritium is an other rare isotope of hydrogen. We can produce it from the following reaction. 6 Li + n → 4He +T
    15. 15. The most efficient reaction Cross sectionCross section is the probability of the reaction to happen
    16. 16. Conditions for fusion In order the particles to acquire Energy and collide we heat them in grate temperatures (150.000.000 oC). Thus they exist in a state called plasma where they have lost all their ele- Ctrons.For the reason why there is not a material than may holdthese temperatures we use magnetic field to control theindividual charges inside plasma in a process calledmagnetic confinement.
    17. 17. Magnetic confinement• The main method to make magnetic confinement, is to pass current through plasma and create an incoming magnetic force.• Because of the plasma’s instabilities we also use an additional toroidal magnetic field.
    18. 18. Plasma heating The plasma may be heated by its self. The helium nuclei that remain from the reaction offer energy to the other particles inside the reactor by collisions. Moreover we have three additional mechanisms for this procedure :  Ohmic heating where the current that passes trough plasma heats it like the a lamp during its operation.  Neutral beam injection where neutral particles are injected inside the reactor and give energy to the particles via collisions.  Radiofrequency heating where we the plasma in the same way that we heat our food in a microwave oven.
    19. 19. ITER ’s Safety Except from tritium we do not have any radioactivematerials inside the reactor. Any second inside the reactor there is less than agram of fuel . The reaction can not continue unlesswe have fuel. After keeping in safety the components of theinstallation for 100 they are as radioactive as a plantthat produces energy from coal.
    20. 20. Books Garry McCracken-Peter Strott,Fusion, the Energy of UniverseELSEVIER Academic press,Complementary Science Series, Copyright © 2005 ISBN: 0-12-481851-X.WebPages
    21. 21. Thank you !
    22. 22. In order to heat the plasma we haveto use a Specific type of RadiofrequencyFor each kind of particle Electron Ion ElectronCyclotron Cyclotron HybridFrequency Frequency Frequency 8 GHz 200 GHz 70 MHz