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3G

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  • 1. 3G Presentation On 3 Generation rdMobile Communication
  • 2. 3G: What’s the hype all about ? 3G Emerging user demands to shift from voice centricto multimedia-oriented services (voice, data, video, fax) Until recently, data traffic over mobile networksremained low at around 2% due to the bandwidthlimitations of 2G wireless networks. New technology required for optimal transport andhigher bandwidth.
  • 3. GSM Technology 3GBefore talking about 3G We will discussabout mobile communication
  • 4. 3GEquip. Id Reg Home location Reg Auth Visitor location Reg
  • 5. GSM Services-Voice Services 3G-Data Services-Multicast Services GSM-900:Uplink: 890.2 MHz – 915 MHz (25 MHz)-Short Messaging Services Downlink: 935.2 MHz – 960 MHz (25 MHz)-Location Based Services(LBS)GSM - Frequencies GSM Products (Mobile GSM-1800: Devices)Uplink: 1725.2 – 1780.4 MHz -Subscriber Identity ModuleDownlink:1820,2 - 1875,4MHz (SIM)Separation: 95 MHz -Mobile Telephones384 pairs of channels -PCMCIA Air Cards -Embedded Radio Modules -External Radio Modems
  • 6. GSM Network-Base Stations, Repeaters, Switching Centers 3G-Network Databases Wireless Network SystemInterconnection , Customized Applications forMobile Network Enhanced Logic.
  • 7. SIM - Subscriber Identity Module, ME - Mobile Equipment,BTS - Base Transceiver Station, BSC - Base Station Controller, 3GTCU - Transcoder Unit, MSC - Mobile Switching Centre,PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network,HLR - Home Location Register,VLR - Visitor Location Register,AUC - Authentication Centre, EIR - Equipment Identity Register,OMC - Operations &Maintenance Centre,OMC-R - OMC devoted to BSS,OMC-S - OMC devoted to NSS.
  • 8. Base Station Sub-system(BSS) 3G The Base Station function isdivided into two main functionalelements, the Base Station Controller(BSC) which also includes theTranscoder Unit (TCU), and the BaseTransceiver System (BTS). The BSC can control several BTSunits. Each BTS will consist of a numberof transceivers (TRX) and will serve acell or a number of cells. The BSC unitalso performs transcoding functions toconvert between 64Kbps channel rateused in the Switching System and the16Kbps channel rate for GSM traffic.
  • 9. Operation Sub-System (OSS) 3G The OMC provides remote monitoring of the network performanceand permits remote re-configuration and fault management activityas well as alarm and event monitoring.Mobile Station (MS)The MS comprises of Mobile Equipment (ME) and a Subscriber IdentityModule (SIM). The ME contains the software and hardware to operateas a mobile radio terminal. The SIM in conjunction with the networkAuthentication Centre (AUC) validates the MS.UMTS Network ArchitectureOne of the requirements for the Release 99 Architecture is tosupport roaming and inter-operation with the GSM system,hence the GSM system appears as one of the componentsof the UMTS Release 99 Architecture.
  • 10. Existing Mobile N/Ws 3G First Generation wireless technology, AMPS in North Americaand TACS in Europe based on circuit switched technology. 2G based on low band digital data signaling, most populartechnology being GSM, a combination of FDMA and TDMA, mostly inEurope. 2G systems can handle some data capabilities at therate up to 9.6 kbps 2G+ packet based and increases the data communication speedto as high as 384 kbps, based on GPRS,HSCSD and EDGE terminals.
  • 11. 3GTech 1G 2G 2.5G 3GDesign 1970 1980 1985 1990beganImpleme- 1984 1991 1991 2002ntationservice Analogue voice Digital voice Higher Higher Synchronous Short capacity, capacity, data upto 9.6Kbps message Packetis broadband ed data data Upto 2MbpsStandards AMPS. TACS,NMT TDMA, GPRS,ED WCDMA,CDM etc CDMA, GE A GSM,PDC
  • 12. 3GData BW 1.9Kbps 14.4 Kbps(9.6) 384Kbps(50) 2Mbps 128Kbps in mobileMUX FDMA TDMA,CDMA TDMA,CDMA CDMACore N/W PSTN PSTN PSTN,PACK Packet N/W ET N/WSupport GSM GSM(EUROPE) GSM,GPRS,E GSM,GPRS,EDGE,CD TDMA,CDMA DGE MA,TDMA (AMERICA)BW 800-900Mhz. 1850-1990Mhz For use ,text, digital data, voice, multimedia Other non global roaming Accessibility through tetra & satellite
  • 13. 3GAir Interfaces for Third Generation services: USA plans to deploy EDGE, WCDMA and multicarrier CDMA in the existing bands used by second-generation systems. Europe plans to use IMT-2000Band for WCDMA and EDGE for GSM 1800 bands. Asia is expected to utilize IMT-2000 Band forWCDMA and GSM 1800 band for EDGE. Korea isexpected to utilize IMT-2000 Band for WCDMA. Japanplans to deploy IMT-2000 band for WCDMA.
  • 14. 3G Networks 3G Consists of following air interface modules: WCDMA,CDMA2000 interfaces. WCDMA compatible with current 2GGSM networks, requires bandwidth between 5 and 10 MHz,can be overlaid into existing GSM,TDMA and IS95 networks. CDMA2000 backward compatible with the secondgeneration CDMA IS-95 predominantly used in US UWC-136,also called IS-136HS was designed to comply with ANSI-136,the North American TDMA standard.3G network constitution -consists of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a corenetwork -core network consists of a packet switched domainwhichincludes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs. -core network consists of a circuit switched domainwhich includes 3G MSC for voice calls.
  • 15. 3G networks (contd.) 3G core network also consists of a CGF (Charging Gateway function) to charge for services and access. RANs consist of new n/w elements, known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs) Node B is comparable to BTS in 2G systems.RNCs replace the BSCs. It provides the radio resource management, handover control and support for connection to packet as
  • 16. 3G is an ITU specification for the third generation of mobile communications 3Gtechnology. 3G promises increased bandwidth, up to 384 Kbps when a device isstationary or moving at pedestrian speed, 128 Kbps in a car, and 2 Mbps in fixed applications. 3G will work over wireless air interfaces such as GSM, TDMA, and CDMA. The new EDGE air interface has been developed specifically to meet the bandwidth needs of 3G.
  • 17. 3G
  • 18. 3G Network Components 3G• Radio Access Networks (RANs)• W-CDMA uses the 2GHz frequency band, can reach data transfer speeds of upto 2 Mbit/s but in reality transfer speed is closer to a couple of hundred kbit/s the actual bit rate depending on cell load and user mobility. basic modes of operation(FDD and TDD) with paired and unpaired bands respectively defined as follows.• FDD. Uplink and downlink transmissions use two different carriers located in specific frequency bands. Users using the same carrier sets are distinguished by different spreading codes.
  • 19. 3G Terminals 3G-will be multi-mode i.e. be able to support more than one- radio system- current terminals are multi band e.g. GSM dual bandthat is they can handle different frequency bands but notdifferent radio systems.- 3G terminals need to be both dual mode and dual band.-they would have a GSM call control stack, sessionmanagement and radio interface implemented togetherwith the corresponding UMTS terminal functionality.
  • 20. 3GTechnology
  • 21. UMTS - Applications• Fast Internet / Intranet• Streaming / Download (Video, Audio)• Videoconferences 3G• Multimedia-Messaging, E-Mail• Mobile E-Commerce (M-Commerce)• Location Based Services• Mobile Entertainment (Games,…)UMTS• Uplink: 1920 - 1980MHz• Downlink: 2110 - 2170MHz Umts architecture
  • 22. GPRS 3G The GPRS Core Network (General Packet RadioServices) provides mobility management,session management and transport for Internet Protocolpacket services in GSM and UMTS networks The first new technology when going from GSMtowards UMTS is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).It is the trigger to 3G services. The main point is that thenetwork connection is always on, so the subscriber isonline all the time.
  • 23. 3GServing GPRS Support Node
  • 24. GPRS Tunnelling Protocol is the defining IP protocol of the GPRS core 3Gnetwork. Primarily it is the protocol which allows end users of a GSM orUMTS network to move from place to place whilst continuing to connectto the internet as if from one location at the GGSN. It does this bycarrying the subscribers data from the subscribers current SGSN to theGGSN which is handling the subscribers session.
  • 25. GGSNs and SGSNs (collectively known as GSNs) listen for messages 3Gon UDP port 2123 and for GTP-U messages on port 2152. Thiscommunication happens within a single network or may, in the case ofinternational roaming, happen internationally, probably across aGPRS Roaming Exchange (GRX)GPRS Support Nodes (GSN)A GSN is a network node which supports the use of GPRS in the GSMcore network. All GSNs should have a Gn interface and support the GPRStunnelling protocol. There are two key variants of the GSN; the GGSN andthe SGSN defined
  • 26. GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support NodeThe GGSN is the interface between the GPRS data network and 3Gexternal Packet Data Networks (PDN) such as the Internet. From anexternal IP networks point of view, the GGSN acts as a router forthe IP addresses of all subscribers served by the GPRS network.The GGSN therefore exchanges routing information with theexternal network.SGSN - Serving GPRS Support NodeThe SGSN is the interface between the base station subsystem andthe data network. It is responsible for delivery of packets within itsown service area. The SGSN routes packets through the basestation controller and also signals the mobile switching centre,home location register and visitor location register.
  • 27. 3GCommon SGSN FunctionsDe-tunnel GTP packets from the GGSN (downlink)Tunnel IP packets toward the GGSN (uplink)Carry out mobility management as Standby mode mobile moves from Routing Area to Routing Area.Billing user data
  • 28. IMT-2000 3G International Mobile Telecommunications-2000(IMT-2000) are third generation mobile systems which wasscheduled to start service subject to market considerations. They will provide access, by means of one or moreradio links, to a wide range of telecommunications servicessupported by the fixed telecommunication networks, and toother services which are specific to mobile users. A range of mobile terminal types is encompassed,linking to terrestrial and/or satellite based networks, and theterminals may be designed for mobile or fixed use.
  • 29. 3GKey features of IMT-2000 are:• high degree of commonality of design worldwide;• compatibility of services within IMT-2000 and with the fixed networks;• high quality;• small terminal for worldwide use;• worldwide roaming capability;• capability for multimedia applications, and a wide range of services and terminals.• IMT 2000 is a result of the collaboration of many entities, inside the ITU (ITU-R and ITU-T), and outside the ITU
  • 30. 3G The IMT-200 vision encompassescomplementary satellite and terrestrialcomponents. Close integration between the satellite andterrestrial components of IMT-2000 facilitate thedeployment of mobile services via satellite,enabling users to roam on satellite networks andto gain access to service where there is noterrestrial system in place.
  • 31. --they would have to be multi-mode to support 3G global roaming i.e. to be able to handle the W-CDMAand CDMA2000 modes.-support for the 2 W-CDMA modes FDD and TDD issomething which needs to be considered.-This is because it is more difficult to build wide areacoverage with TDD, but easier to cater to asymmetrictraffic than it is with FDD mode. So operators mightchoose to use FDD for outdoor service and TDD forindoor service.
  • 32. International Telecommunications Unit (ITU):IMT-2000 consists of following radio interfaces 3G•W-CDMA•CDMA2000•CDMA2001•TD-CDMA / TD-SCDMANetworks versus Standards : Cellular Networks:GSM 850MHz GSM 900MHz GSM 1800MHzGSM 1900MHz CMDA 800MHz CDMA 1900MHzCDMA 2100MHz UMTS 800MHz UMTS 850MHzUMTS 900MHz UMTS 1800MHz UMTS 1900MHzUMTS 2100MHz iDEN 800MHz iDEN 900MHz PHSTDMA FDMA
  • 33. Cellular Data Standards:CSD HSCSD GPRS EDGE UMTS 3GCDMA2000 1x CDMA2000 1xEV-DV CDMA2000 1xEV-DOWCDMA FOMAEven though 3G has successfully been introduced to Europeanand Asian mobile users, there are some issues that are debatedby 3G providers and users:•High input fees for the 3G service licenses•Great differences in the licensing terms•Current high debt of many telecommunication companies, making it more of a challenge to build the necessary infrastructure for 3G•Member State support to the financially troubled operators•Health aspects of the effects of electromagnetic waves
  • 34. Spread Spectrum communication 3G The main principle of Spread Spectrumcommunication is that the bandwidth occupancy ismuch higher than usual. Because of this much larger bandwidth thepower spectral density is lower, in the channel thesignal just looks like noise. The Spreading is done by combining the datasignal with a code (code division multiple access) whichis independent of the transmitted data message.
  • 35. Spread Spectrum Techniques 3G•Direct-Sequence (DS)•Frequency-Hopping (FH). Direct Sequence is the most famous Spread Spectrum Technique.The data signal is multiplied by a Pseudo Random Noise Code (PN-code).Frequency Hopping When using Frequency Hopping, the carrier frequency ishopping according to a known sequence (of length ). In this way thebandwidth is also increased. Frequency Hopping is a from of spreadspectrum in which spreading takes place by hopping from frequency tofrequency over a wide band. A combination of these two offers a lot of advantages over theother two and will be the basis of the proposed system.
  • 36. 3G The main principle of Spread Spectrumcommunication is that the bandwidth occupancy is muchhigher than usual. Because of this much larger bandwidth the powerspectral density is lower, in the channel the signal justlooks like noise. The Spreading is done by combining the datasignal with a code (code division multiple access)which is independent of the transmitted data message.
  • 37. A number of advantages are: 3GAs the signal is spread over a large frequency-band, thePower Spectral Density is getting very small, so othercommunications systems do not suffer from this kind ofcommunications.Random Access can be dealt with, as a large number of codescan be generated a large number of users can be permitted.The maximal number of users is interference limited.Security: without knowing the spreading code, it is (nearly)impossible to recover the transmitted data.Fading rejection: as a large bandwidth is used the system isless susceptible to distortions.
  • 38. 3G WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) isthe radio access scheme used for third generation cellularsystems that are being rolled out in various parts of the globe. The 3G systems to support wideband services like high-speed Internet access, video and high quality imagetransmission with the same quality as the fixed networks. InWCDMA systems the CDMA air interface is combined withGSM based networks. The WCDMA standard was evolved through the ThirdGeneration Partnership Project (3GPP) which aims to ensureinteroperability between different 3G networks.
  • 39. EDGE, Enhanced Data GSM Environment 3G Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution(EDGE) is a radio based high-speed mobile datastandard. It allows data transmission speeds of 384 kbpsto be achieved when all eight timeslots are used.EDGE enhancesthe throughput pertimeslot for bothHSCSD and GPRS.ECSD (max datarate 64 kbps andEGPRS data rateper time slottriples to astaggering 384kbps.
  • 40. From GPRS, operators could go directly to UMTS, but they 3Gcould also invest in an EDGE system. One advantage of EDGE isthat there is no new licence needed as in UMTS. The frequencieswill also be re-used and no new antennas are needed. The mainissue is that subscribers will have to buy new EDGE terminals.From GSM radio network, the following network elements canNOT be reused. Note, however they can remain in the network andbe used in dual network operation where 2G and 3G networks co-exist while network migration and new 3G termials becomeavailable for use in the network.•BSC (base station controller)•BTS (base transceiver station)
  • 41. Wide band CDMA (W-CDMA) 3GW-CDMA, also known as CDMA Direct Spread, is a 3Gradio transmission technology favored by Europe. It canbe built upon existing GSM networks and represents theobvious next step for current system operators. As such,it is expected to gain widespread acceptance in Asia,where GSM systems are prevalent.cdma2000Also called CDMA Multi-Carrier, cdma2000 is a 3G standarddeveloped by the CDMA Development Group (CDG) and favoredby the U.S. It is derived from the narrow band CDMA One digitalstandard and provides a clear evolutionary path for existingCDMA One operators.
  • 42. 2G+ networks 3GHSCSD one step towards 3G wideband mobile data networks. Thiscircuit switched technology improves data rates up to 57.6 kbps.GPRSpacket based and designed to work in parallel with 2G GSMand TDMAtechnologies.Protocols in the GPRS network infrastructureSub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) Logical Link Control (LLC)Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP)GPRS Tunnel Protocol (GTP)GPRS Mobility Management (GMM/SM)
  • 43. 3G 3G is short for third-generation technology.It is used in the context of mobile phonestandards. The services associated with 3G provide theability to transfer simultaneously both voice data(a telephone call) and non-voice data (such asdownloading information, exchanging email, andinstant messaging). In marketing 3G services, video telephonyhas often been used as the killer application for3G.
  • 44. 3G Worldwide roll-out of 3G networks was delayed insome countries by the enormous costs of additionalspectrum licensing fees. In many parts of the world 3Gnetworks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G,requiring mobile operators to build entirely newnetworks and license entirely new frequencies The license fees in some European countries wereparticularly high, bolstered by initial excitement over3Gs potential. Other delays were as a result of theexpenses related to upgrading equipment for the newsystems.
  • 45. Japan and South Korea were relatively quick 3Gto adopt 3G, because their governments prioritizetechnological infrastructure development, and spectrumlicensing fees are minimal. The first country which introduced 3G on a large commercial scale was Japan. In 2005, about 40% of subscribers used 3G networks only, with 2G being on the way out in Japan. It was expected that during 2006 the transition from 2G to 3G would be largely completed in Japan, and upgrades to the next 3.5G stage with 3 Mbit/s data rates were underway.
  • 46. 3G The official 3G mobile network is the systems andservices based on the ITU family of standards under theInternational Mobile Telecommunications programme,IMT-2000. The most significant features offered by thirdgeneration (3G) mobile technologies are the momentouscapacity and broadband capabilities to support greaternumbers of voice and data customers - especially inurban centres - plus higher data rates at lowerincremental cost than 2G.
  • 47. •Expense and bulk of 3G phones•Lack of 2G mobile user buy-in for 3G wireless service 3G•Lack of coverage because it is still new service•High prices of 3G mobile services in some countries, including Internet access
  • 48. 3G handsets are far more advanced and havemuch more functionality than conventional 2G handsets. 3G3G handsets usually include cameras, music players, videoplayers, contactless smartcards for payment functions (walletphones), web browsers, email clients and more. This showsthat UMTS system is based on layered services and futureapplications can be supported without too much impact to theunderlying radio access network.
  • 49. Use of 3G 3G Checking traffic conditions from home and on the road to helpplan route and allocate traveling time; alerting the driver if there isan accident, and suggesting an alternate route. Directory services - enhanced wireless devices will allow users tofind the nearest theatre, buy the tickets electronically, anddownload e-tickets at the theatre. Booking travel reservation on-line - booking a tour, checking onscheduled flights to make sure they are on time, checking itinerary,changing flight plans if a connection is missed and booking ahotel. News - all types of information for various purposes, for example,business managers looking for the latest information about theircompanies, and stock traders checking news developments thatmight affect their portfolios.
  • 50. WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Bit rates IEEE 802.11 GPRS 3G 170 kbit/s theoretically WLAN 3G (WCDMA)Hundreds of meters (atbest) around each AP Up to 2 Mbit/s (in indoor etworks) Full outdoorcoverage is difficult toachieve.WLANs are optimised for Macro/micro/picocellindoor usage. networks cover all kinds of environments (indoor, urban, rural) Full coverage even in remote areas.
  • 51. WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Frequency bands IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G 3GThe 2.4 GHz ISM band (free Frequency bands arefor all) causes problems. reserved for 2G/3G networks.Interference from otherWLAN networks, Bluetooth Interference is usually notequipment, microwave a problem (good networkovens, etc. planning).The CSMA/CA accessmethod is not very Spectrum efficiency isspectrum efficient. better than for WLAN.Spectrum efficiency Various advanced methodsis given as for increasing spectrum efficiency. bits/Hz/area
  • 52. WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Roaming IEEE 802.11 2G/3G 3G WLAN InternationalWLANs do not roaming agreementssupport roaming in a between operatorsstrict sense.However, WLANssupport portability. 2G/3G networks support roaming on a wide scale.Terminal mobility is Terminal mobility isnot supported supported (using(except techniques such aswhen moving within location updating,the WLAN). paging, and handover).Personal mobility requires e.g. SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) and specialised network resources (SIP proxy, location server)
  • 53. WLAN vs. 2G/3G: SecurityIEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G 3G Always supported:No security as default.WEP (if used) offers poor User authenticationsecurity. Encryption over the radioWPA (if used) provides interfacebetter security due to the Key management.support of keymanagement. 3G provides additional security features.Usually no networkplanning (due to the Network planning is ratherinexpensive network parts). complicated (sinceThis (+ usage of ISM band) equipment is expensive andmay result in poor WLAN should not be underused).network performance. As a benefit => good coverage and spectrum utilisation.
  • 54. WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Cost of equipment IEEE 802.11 2G/3G 3G WLANNetwork infrastructure isinexpensive (existing LAN + Network infrastructure isadditional APs) if no expensive.advanced network concepts 2G/3G terminals are notare used. dramatically moreEnd user equipment is also expensive than WLAN cards.inexpensive.Charging solutions are Charging is part of thedifficult to implement system infrastructure.(specialised networkelements required). Without charging, the expensive 2G/3G networkWLAN users are used to infrastructure would not behaving “free” access in economically viable.many places.
  • 55. Services: Web browsing 3GWeb browsing applications are of client - servertype. 802.11 WLAN and 2G/3G networks areequally well suited for such applications(disregarding differences in bitrates, coverage,etc.). 1 http request Web html page server Terminal = Client download 2
  • 56. Services: VoIP 3GIf reachability is an important issue, a client - clienttype of communication system requires some IPlayer or application layer mobility solution => newnetwork elements are required both in 2G/3G andin WLAN. Terminal = IP Terminal = Client network(s) Client
  • 57. What is 4G? 3G 4G is the next generation of wireless networks that will replace 3G networks sometimes in future. In another context, 4G is simply an initiative by academic R&D labs to move beyond the limitations and problems of 3G which is having trouble getting deployed and meeting its promised performance and throughput.
  • 58. Motivation for 4G Research Before 3GHas Not Been Deployed? 3G• 3G performance may not be sufficient to meet needs of future high-performance applications like multi-media, full-motion video, wireless teleconferencing. We need a network technology that extends 3G capacity by an order of magnitude.• There are multiple standards for 3G making it difficult to roam and interoperate across networks. we need global mobility and service portability• 3G is based on primarily a wide-area concept. We need hybrid networks that utilize both wireless LAN (hot spot) concept and cell or base-station wide area network design.
  • 59. 3G• We need wider bandwidth• Researchers have come up with spectrally more efficient modulation schemes that can not be retrofitted into 3G infrastructure• We need all digital packet network that utilizes IP in its fullest form with converged voice and data capability.
  • 60. Rising use 3GAs prices get more attractive, more and more people will use wireless networks for data applications. Consequently, bandwidth demand will rise.Multimedia contentMobile Social NetworksVoice over IPFixed line Internet replacementCompetition from alternative wireless Internet providers
  • 61. There are two main goals of 4G wirelesssystems. 3GFirst of all, more bandwidth will be requiredSecondly, 4G networks will no longer have a circuit switchedsubsystem as current 2G and 3G networks. Instead, the networkis based purely on the Internet Protocol (IP). The main challengeof this design is how to support the stringent requirements ofvoice calls for constant bandwidth and delay.Having sufficient bandwidth is a good first step. Mobility andQuality of Service for a voice connection is clearly another andtaking a look at these topics is better left to another articleseries. So let’s focus on the additional bandwidth 4G networksare to deliver
  • 62. 4G N/W will go far beyond this by mainlyimproving three things 3GAir Interface Technology: 2G networks use (TDMA) on the air interface.3G networks made a radical change and use CDMA.4G standards will make another radical change and will use OFDM. The new modulation itself will not automatically bring an increase in speed but very much simplifies the following two enhancements:Channel BW: 2G systems use a channel bandwidth of 0.2 MHz. UMTS made a great leap forward and uses 5 MHz. 4G systems will use a BW of up to 20 MHz, i.e. the channel offers four times more bandwidth than channels of current systems. As 20 MHz channels might not be available everywhere, most 4G systems will be scalable, for example in steps of 1.25 MHz. It can therefore be expected that 4G channel sizes will range from 5 to 20 MHz.
  • 63. MIMO: 3G The second method to increase throughput on the airinterface is to use a technology called Multiple Input MultipleOutput, or MIMO for short. The idea itself is simple, the mathsbehind is everything but. The idea of MIMO is to use the phenomena that radiowaves bounce of objects like trees and buildings and thuscreate several wave paths from sender to receiver. While thisbehavior is often not desired, MIMO makes active use of it byusing several antennas at the sender and receiver side, whichallows the exchange of multiple data streams, each over asingle individual wave front. Two or even four antennas are foreseen to be used in adevice. How well this works is still to be determined in practicebut it is likely that MIMO can increase throughput by a factor oftwo.
  • 64. 3G 3G (including 4G 2.5G, sub3G)Major Requirement Predominantly voiceDriving driven - data was Converged data and voice over IPArchitecture always add on Hybrid - Integration of WirelessNetwork Wide area cell-based LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wideArchitecture areaSpeeds 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps 20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode Dependent on countryFrequency Band or continent (1800-2400 Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz) MHz)Bandwidth 5-20 MHz 100 MHz (or more)
  • 65. 3G (including 2.5G, 4GMajor sub3G) 3G Predominantly voiceRequirement Converged data and voice driven - data was alwaysDriving over IP add onArchitecture Network Wide area cell-based Hybrid - Integration of Architecture Wireless LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area 20 to 100 Mbps in mobileSpeeds 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps mode Dependent on country or Higher frequency bandsFrequency Band continent (1800-2400 (2-8 GHz) MHz)Bandwidth 5-20 MHz 100 MHz (or more)Switching Design All digital with packetized Circuit and PacketBasis voiceAccess OFDM and MC-CDMA W-CDMA, 1xRTT, EdgeTechnologies (Multi Carrier CDMA)
  • 66. 3GSwitching All digital with packetized Circuit and PacketDesign Basis voiceAccess OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi W-CDMA, 1xRTT, EdgeTechnologies Carrier CDMA)Forward Error Concatenated coding Convolutional rate 1/2, 1/3Correction scheme Smarter Antennas,Component Optimized antenna design, software multiband andDesign multi-band adapters wideband radios A number of air link protocols,IP All IP (IP6.0) including IP 5.0
  • 67. 3G In reality, as of first half of 2002, 4G is a conceptualframework for or a discussion point to address future needsof a universal high speed wireless network that will interfacewith wire line backbone network seamlessly. 4G is also represents the hope and ideas of a group ofresearchers in Motorola, Qualcomm, Nokia, Ericsson, Sun,HP, NTT DoCoMo and other infrastructure vendors who mustrespond to the needs of MMS, multimedia and videoapplications if 3G never materializes in its full glory.
  • 68. 3G4G standard 100Mbps (uplink) and 20Mbps (downlink),allowing more bandwidth for new applications such asvideo phones, video / audio download and interactivegames.One of the two competitor networks to NTT DoCoMo, runby KDDI/AU, has already upgraded to CDMA2000 1xEVDO(an intermediate 3.25G technology that allows a datatransmission rate of up to 2.4Mbps).
  • 69. 4G AND THE FUTURE 3G It is suggested that 4G technologies will allow 3D virtualreality and interactive video / hologram images. The technologycould also increase interaction between compatible technologies,so that the smart card in the handset could automatically pay forgoods in passing a linked payment kiosk (i-mode can already boastthis capability) or will tell your car to warm up in the morning,because your phone has noted you have left the house or have setthe alarm.4G is expected to provide high resolution images (better qualitythan TV images) and video-links (all of these will require a bandwidth of about 100MHz).
  • 70. 3G