Diversity in living organisms utkarsh

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Diversity in living organisms utkarsh

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. TWO KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION BY - CAROLUS LINNEOUS KINGDOM - PLANTEA KINGDOM - ANIMALIA BY – ERNEST HEACKEL KINGDOM - PLANTAE KINGDOM - ANIMALIA KINGDOM - PROTISTA THREE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION
  3. 3. KINGDOM - PLANTEA KINGDOM - ANIMALEA KINGDOM - PROISTA KINGDOM - FUNGAI KINGDOM - MONERA FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION BY – ROBERT WHITTEKAR FOUR KINGDOM CLASSIFIACATION BY – HERBERT COPELAND KINGDOM - PLANTEA KINGDOM - ANIMALEA KINGDOM - PROISTA KINGDOM - FUNGAI
  4. 4. ARRANGEMENT OF THEIR CLASSIFICATION KINGDOM - MONERA - UNICELLULAR KINGDOM - PROTISTA - UNICELLULAR KINGDOM - FUGAI - MULTICELLULAR KINGDOM - PATNAE - MULTICELLULAR KINGDOM - ANIMALIA - MULTICELLULAR
  5. 5. THE HIERARCHY Classification GROUPS Kingdom:- The following classification “telescope” clearly indicates the mechanism behind the classification of the Kingdom
  6. 6. KINGDOM PHYLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES It is the sequence arrangement of classification from species to kingdom called hierarchy
  7. 7. KINGDOM : MONERA •THEY ARE UNICELLULAR AND PROKARAYOTES. • BODY ORGANISATION IS ON CLLULAR LEVEL. MODE OF NUTRITION - Heterotroph .Well defined nuclear membrane is absent. Example : Bacteria , Blue – Green algae ,Cynobacteria.
  8. 8. KINGDOM : protista • They are unicellular and eukaryotes means well developed nuclear membrane present . •MODE OF NUTRITION - Autotroph and hetrotroph both . •Example of Hetrotroph – chlamydomonas •Example of Autotroph - amoeba , paramecium , euglena. • They have flagella and cilia for their movement and locomotion . • Body organisation is on cellular level.
  9. 9. KINGDOM : fungi •They are multicellular and eukaryotic. •Body organisation is on tissue level. •MODE OF NUTRITION - Hetrotroph. •Example – 1. Parasite. • 2. Saprophyte. •Parasites – The organism which take nutrition from living host that is called parasites . (UPA) Ustilago , Pccinia and Albugo. •Saprophyta - (MRP)mucor , rhizopus, penicilline store food material in the form of glucose.
  10. 10. • cell wall of fungi is made up of chitin. • Name of bacteria cell wall- 1. NAM - N.Acetyl Mumaric Acid. 2. NAG - N.Accetyl Glutomic Acid . • They store food in the form of glucose. spores sporangium hyphal mycelium
  11. 11. Mycelium -mycelium it is a network like structure of fungi which increase in their surface area. Hyphal - It is a elongated and tube like structure present between sporangium and mycelium. It holds sporangium. Sporangium – It is a sack like structure in which spores are produced
  12. 12. KINGDOM : plantae PLANT KINGDOM CRYPTOGAMAE PHANEROGAMAE THALOPHYTA BRYOPHYTA PTERIDOPHYTA ALGAE FUNGI LICHENS GYMNOSPERMAE ANGIOSPERMAE MONOCOT DICOT
  13. 13. Thyllophyta • Stem absent , Root absent , Leaves absent. •Only a single structure present that is called thallus. • It have no vascular bundle. • They are multicellular • This division includes three sub-divisions: algae, fungi and lichens. • They are fruitless , flowerless and seedless plant. • Example – algae. Ulothrix Spirogyra
  14. 14. BRYOPHYTA • They are amphibian plant of plant kingdom. • Stem present , leaves present. • Root absent. • Their vascular bundle starts to develop. • They mostly grow in marshy and sandy areas. • Gametophyte generation is dominant. • They are photosynthetic and Autotroph.
  15. 15. PTERIDOPHYTA • Root present , stem present , leaves present. • Vascular bundle was well developed for the conduction of water mineral and food material. • Leaves usually have leaflets. Spores are borne on the undersurface of the leaf. • Saprophyte germination s dominant. • They are photosynthetic and Autotroph. • They are multicellular. • They are seedless fruit less and flowerless. Fern
  16. 16. KINGDOM PHANEROGAMAE This division is made up of plants that bear flowers and seeds and make up the majority of the larger plants. The body is differentiated into true stem, leaves and roots. Propagation of the plant takes place with the help of seeds. Seeds are formed as a result of sexual reproduction. The male and female gametes (sex cells) fuse together inside the ovary (female part of the flower) and develop into the seed. In some plants seed is not produced inside an ovary. Phanerogamae is made into two further divisions. Gymnosperms (naked seeded plants) Angiosperms (Seed borne within a fruit)
  17. 17. GYMNOSPERM • Naked seed is the most characteristics features of gymnosperm means seed coat are absent from the side • Root , stem , leaves are well developed. • Vascular bundle is well developed. • Fruit , Flower and Seed formation takes place. • Male and female plant are seperated and they are unisexual • Wood formation takes place. EXAMPLAE- pinus , cycas
  18. 18. ANGIOSPErm • It is the most advanced plant in the kingdom. • All the characters are well developed in angiosperm that is root stem and leaves are well developed. •Vascular bundle is well developed . • Seed coat was around the seed. • It is divided into two types- 1. Monocotyledons (One seed leaf) Example: Rice, Wheat 2. Dicotyledons (two seed leaves) Example: Beans, Mango
  19. 19. MONOCOTYLEDON The plant in which the seed can not be divided into two equal half called monocotyledon. Single cotyledon is called monocotyledon. EXAMPLE – wheat , rice , maize , barley . Paphiopedilum dicotyledon The seed which can be divided into two equal half is called dicotyledon. EXAMPLE – mango , pea , gram , mustard.
  20. 20. Kingdom : animalia INVERTIBRATES (BACKBONE ABSENT) 1. PHYLUM - PORRIFERA 2. PHYLUM - COELENTRATE 3. PHYLUM – PLATYHELMANTHES 4. PHYLUM - ASCALMENTHES 5. PHYLUM - MOLLUSKA 6. PHYLUM - ARTHOPODA 7. PHYLUM - ECHINODERMATA 8. PHYLUM - ANNELIDA
  21. 21. PHYLUM - CORDATA SUBPHYLUM - VERTIBRATE (BACK BONE PRESENT) 1. CLASS - PISCES 2. CLASS - AMIPHIBIAN 3. CLASS - REPTILIA 4. CLASS - AVES 5. CLASS - MAMMALIA
  22. 22. INVERTIBARTES These are those animals which are lack of vertibrate column (backbone) called in vertibrates. Invertebrates are animal species that do not develop a vertebral column. This in effect includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include insects, worms, clams, crabs, octopus, sn ails, and starfish. Taxonomically speaking "invertebrate" is no more than a term of convenience. The vast majority of animal species are invertebrates, since only about 3% of animal species include a vertebral column in their anatomy. In other words all animals except those in the chordate subphylum Vertebrata (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) are regarded as invertebrates.
  23. 23. general points • Symmetry. • Body Cavity. • Embryonic Layer. SYMMETRY SYMMETRY MEANS THE PATTERN OF DIVIDING 1. Asymmetrical - The animal which can not be divided into two equal halves those animals are called asymmetrical. EXAMPLE- Flat worm , Amoeba , Euglena , Paramecium .
  24. 24. 2. Bilateral symmetrical - The animal which can be divided into two equal halves they are called bilateral symmetrical . 3. Radial symmetry – The animal which can be divided into equal parts when cute to any radii are called radial symmetry .
  25. 25. Body cavity THE SHAPE BETWEEN BODY WALL AND ELIMANTARY CANAL IS CALLED BODY CAVITY. Body cavity is of three types :- 1. Acoelomate – body cavity absent . Example – Platyhelmenthes. 2. Psendocoelomate – False body cavity . Example – Ascalmenthes. 3. Eucoelomate – True body cavity. Example - Man
  26. 26. LAYERS OF BODY 1. Ectoderm - outer part. 2. Mesoderm - middle part. 3. Endoderm - inner part ECTODERM MESODERM ENDODERM EUCOELOMATE OR TRUE BODY CAVITY PSEUDOCOELOMATE OR FALSE BODY CAVITY
  27. 27. GERM LAYER 1. Ectoderm 2. Mesoderm 3. Endoderm Triploblastic 1. Endoderm 2. Endoderm Diploblastic
  28. 28. Circulatory system 1. Open circulatory system - blood vessel are absent. 2. Close circulatory system - blood vessels are present. RESPIRATION SYSTEM 1. BY SKIN. 2. BY GILLS. 3. BY LUNGS.
  29. 29. Phylum : porrifera • Ostia and Osculum are the characteristic features of porrifera. •Body cavity called spongo coel. • Mode of nutrition is hetrotroph. • Digestion is intracellular (within the cell). • Most of members are marine but few are fresh water. • They are diploblastic means endoderm and ectoderm is present. •EXAMPLE – bath sponge spongelle , euplectella
  30. 30. EXAMPLES OF PORRIFERA Euplectelia Sycon Spongilla
  31. 31. Phylum : COELENTRATA •They is Triploblastic animal • in this phylum body cavity is called coelentron. •Cnidoblast is the special stinging cell present at the terminal which paralyze prey and them the prey is eaten by tentacles. • in coelentrata radial symmetry is present. •Mode of nutrition is hetrotroph. • mostly are in marine water but few are fresh water. • digestion is extra cellular(out the cell). • EXAMPLE –Hydra , jellyfish , sea anemone.
  32. 32. Hydra Sea anemone JELLY FISH SEA FAN EXAMPLES OF COELENTRATA
  33. 33. PHYLU M : PLATYHELMENTHES • They are commonly called flat worm and also called ribbon worm. •Dorsoventraly flattened(very thin). •They are acoelomate(body cavity absent). •There are bilaterally symmetrical. •The are endoparasite(active when in the body). •They are hermaphrodite(bisexual)means male and female parts present in single body. •Digestive system absent. •Secretary organ called flame cell. •EXAMPLE – Taenia solium, Tapeworm , Fasciola.
  34. 34. TAPE WORM Taenia solium FASCIOLA EXAMPLES OF PHLATYHELMANTHES PLANAREIA
  35. 35. PHYLUM : NEMATODA • It is also called Ascalamenthes. •They are commonly called round worm •The are pseudocoelome. •They are called pseudocoelomate. •They are unisexual means male and female is separated. •The male is small in size but female is long in size. •Bilateral symmetry is present in nematodes.
  36. 36. FEMALE MALE ASCARIS WUCHERERIA EXAMPLES OF NEMATODA
  37. 37. PHYLUM : ANNELIDA •Body is segmented ring like structure . •They are triplobltic and coelomate(true body cavity). •They are hermaphrodite (bisexual). •Circulatory system is closed. •Necturnal(active in night). •Digested system is completed. •The have hemoglobin but have not red colored blood because hemoglobin is dissolved in plasma. •Excretory organ is nephridia •Setae is the structure which is out growth of skin(epidermis) and help in movement and locomotion called parapodia • EXAMPLE – Earth worm , Leech.
  38. 38. EXAMPLES OF ANNELIDA Earth warm Leech Nereis
  39. 39. PHYLUM : ARTHAPODA •It is the largest phylum of the animal kingdom about 80% of phylum is covered by this. •They have jointed legs. •They have open circulatory system is presented •Body is divided into heads , thorax and abdomen •They have compound eyes. •Excretory organ is called malpigiam tubules. •Hard chitinous layer is presented on the dorsal surface. •Mouth part are different in different types of species •They are sucking ,biting and chewing type . •It is the largest phylum of the animal kingdom about 75% of phylum is covered by this. •EXAMPLE - Mosquito , Honey bee , House fly, Grasshopper ,etc.
  40. 40. EXAMPLES OF ARTHAPODA Palaemon (Prawn) Pariplaneta (Cockroach) Aranea(Spider) Musca (House fly)
  41. 41. PHYLUM : MOLLUSKA •They have kidney for secretion. • The are Triploblastic and coelomate . •Digestive system complete. •Outer surface is covered by a hard covering called shell. Shell is made up of calcium carbonate. •Inner part is soft and delicate. •Inner pat is folded and form a structure called mantle. •Excretory organ is metanephrida . •Its symmetry is bilateral. •EXAMPLE – Snail , Oyster , Chiton.
  42. 42. EXAMPLES OF MOLLUSKA OCTOPUS PILA CHITON UNIO
  43. 43. PHYLUM : ECHINODERMATA •Body is pentamerous (divided into five parts). •They have spiny skin . •Water vascular system present. •Locomotion by tube feet's. •Radial symmetry is present.
  44. 44. EXAMPLES OF ECHINODERMATA Antedon (feather star) Holothuria (sea cucumber) Asterias (star fish) Echinus (sea urchin)
  45. 45. PHYLUM : CHORDATA •Due to presence of notochord it is called chordate. •They are bilaterally symmetrical. •They are Triploblastic and have coelomate. •They have notochord which is rod like support structure that run along back of animal separating the nervous tissue from the guts. It provides a place for muscles to attach for easy the movement. •They lives mostly in marine water. EXAMPLE – Herdemania ,Amphioxus , Balanoglossus. All veribrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertibrates.
  46. 46. EXAMPLES OF CHORDATA Balanoglossus
  47. 47. SUB PHYLUM : VERTIBRATE •These animals have true vertebral column and internal sceleton. •That skeleton allowing a completely different distribution of muscle attachment points to be used for movement. •They have bilateral symmetry , Triploblastic, Coelomate and segmented •Have notochord. •Have a dorsal nerve cord. •They have paired grill pouches.
  48. 48. •THEY ARE OF FIVE TYPES:- 1.PISCES 2.AMPHIBIAN 3.AVES 4.REPTILIA 5. MAMMALIA
  49. 49. CLASS : PISCES •They are cold blooded animal(piekilothermic). •There heat is of two chambers. •They are oviparous(egg laying). •In Pisces single circulatory system is present. •Respiration by gills. •Locomotion by fins. •EXAMPLE – Rohu , Shark , Whale
  50. 50. EXAMPLES OF CLASS: PISCES Electric ray (Torpedo) Sting ray Caulophyryne jordani (Angler fish) Synchiropus splendidus Pterois volitans (Lion fish) Scoliodon (Dog fish)
  51. 51. CLASS : EMBHEBIAN •They live in land and water both. •Their heart is three chambered (2 auricle, 1 ventricle) •They are cold blooded. •They are oviparous. •There respiratory organ is gills , skin and lungs. •There skin is moist and slimy due to presence of mucilaginous. •They are Triploblastic , coelomate and heterotrophic animal. • EXAMPLE – Bufo(toad), ranatigrina(frog) , hyla(tree frog), salamander.
  52. 52. EXAMPLES OF CLASS: EMPHIBIAN Dendrobates Salamander Rana tigrina (Common frog)Hyla (Tree frog) Toad
  53. 53. CLASS : REPTELIA •They are creeping animals. •Their heart is three chambered except crocodile in crocodile heart is of four chambered. •Their respiration is by lungs. •They are oviparous (egg laying) •They are picilotheumic (cold blooded animal). •Scales present on the body surface / skin. •EXAMPLE – Crocodile , Snake , Lizard , Tortotoise.
  54. 54. EXAMPLES OF CLASS: REPTELIA Flying lizard (Draco)King CobraHouse wall lizard (Hemidactylus) Chameleon Turtle
  55. 55. CLASS : AVES •They are warm blooded animal. •Hear if four chambered heart (2 auricle , 2 ventricle). •Beak present on the interior portion of the mouth. •Their bone is hollow due to which they can fly called pneumatic bone. •Fore limb are converted into wings . •Feather present on the wings. •Only ostrich , kiwi and penguin are those aves which van not fly.
  56. 56. EXAMPLES OF CLASS: AVES Pigeon crow Ostrich (Struthio camelus) White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) Male Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula)
  57. 57. CLASS : mammAlia •There memory gland are well developed •Hair present on there body. •They are viviparous(child bearing). •They have 4 chambered heart. •There respiration is by lungs. •They are warm blooded(homiothermic). •There nerveous system is well developed. •Digestive system is well developed. •In there mouth several typed of tooth's are present. •They are unisexual means males and female are seperated.
  58. 58. EXAMPLES OF CLASS:MAMMALIA WHALE CAT HUMAN RAT BAT
  59. 59. NAME - UTKARSH SINGH CLASS - IX – b ROLL NO. - 47

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