Ecological Site Based
Shrubland Management
For Utah

Rebecca Mann, MS Ecology, Utah State University
Tom Monaco, USDA-Agri...
Steep and shallow loamy hillsides, Salina wildrye

Land grouped by:

Sandy Loam bottoms, Alkali sacaton
Slide by Jamin Joh...
Steep and shallow loamy hillsides, Salina wildrye

Sandy Loam bottoms, Alkali sacaton
Slide by Jamin Johanson, NRCS

Diffe...
Ecological Site-Based
Management

Ecological Sites: A Tool
for Effective
Management
Ecological Site-Based
Management
Experimental Framework
 Shrub Reduction
• Herbicide Application
• Mowing

 Herbaceous U...
Research Objectives

Goal 1
Determine the magnitude
of shrub reduction in
response to herbicide and
mowing, and rate of
re...
Research Objectives

Goal 2
Determine the
magnitude and duration
of herbaceous species
increase following
reduction of fou...
Research Objectives

Goal 3
Evaluate how outcomes
of shrub management
tactics vary due to
Ecological Site,
at the small pl...
Study Area

Bear Lake: Sagebrush
Artemisia spp.

Park Valley: Greasewood
Sarcobatus vermiculatus

Two Ecological
Sites per...
Experimental Design
80-400 Acres
Ecological Site A

1½ -acre
study area
Sampling
transects
Ecological Site B
Untreated
Con...
Site Summary

Cedar Fort

Birdseye

Black
Greasewood

Snakeweed

Rubber
Rabbitbrush

Tebuthiuron 20P
(Alligare)

Low
(2.5l...
Landscape Scale
Measurements
2013 - 2016
 Shrub Density
• 1m x 20m belt transect
• By age class
• Live vs. dead

 Herbac...
Small Plot Experimental Design
20'

Rep 4

10'

RE

CM

CT

KI

CM

RE

CT

KI

SP

KI

RE

SP

CT

CM

RE

CM

KI

SP

CT...
Small Plot Experimental Design

SP

CM

KI

RE

CT

RE

KI

CT

SP

CM

Code
Mowing
Improved Seed Mix
Non-seeded Control
S...
5 herbicide treatments x 3 seed treatments x 2 mowing treatments x 4 replicates
= 120 plots per experimental area
In 8 Eco...
Small-Scale Plot Measurements
2013 - 2016

 Shrub Density
• 10’ x 20’ plot
• By age class
• Live vs. dead
 Shrub Cover
•...
Project Progress
 Landscape-scale herbicide
application at each ranch
(Fall 2012 - Summer 2013)
 Fenced 1½ acre Experime...
Outreach and Additional Aspects
 Field Tours of Experimental Sites 2016
 USU Extension Shrubland Management Project
http...
Management Approach Matters
Treatments very in their
capacity to reduce shrub
cover and improve
herbaceous understory.
Var...
Ecological Site-Based Handbook for
Shrubland Management in Utah
• Use best information available: contemporary data sets, ...
Outreach and Additional Aspects
 Field Tours of Experimental Sites 2016
 USU Extension Shrubland Management Project
http...
Acknowledgements
Project Contributors
Dr. Tom Monaco, Justin Williams
Dr. Kari Veblen

USDA-Agricultural Research Service
...
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Ecological Site Based Shrubland Management For Utah by Rebecca Mann, USU

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Ecological Site Based Shrubland Management For Utah by Rebecca Mann, USU

  1. 1. Ecological Site Based Shrubland Management For Utah Rebecca Mann, MS Ecology, Utah State University Tom Monaco, USDA-Agricultural Research Station Kari Veblen, Wildlands Resources Department, Utah State University
  2. 2. Steep and shallow loamy hillsides, Salina wildrye Land grouped by: Sandy Loam bottoms, Alkali sacaton Slide by Jamin Johanson, NRCS • • • • • Soil type Landscape position Climate Hydrology Potential natural plant communities
  3. 3. Steep and shallow loamy hillsides, Salina wildrye Sandy Loam bottoms, Alkali sacaton Slide by Jamin Johanson, NRCS Different potential plant communities across different sites
  4. 4. Ecological Site-Based Management Ecological Sites: A Tool for Effective Management
  5. 5. Ecological Site-Based Management Experimental Framework  Shrub Reduction • Herbicide Application • Mowing  Herbaceous Understory Increase • Broadcast Seeding  8 Ecological Sites  Landscape scale & Small-plot scale
  6. 6. Research Objectives Goal 1 Determine the magnitude of shrub reduction in response to herbicide and mowing, and rate of recovery of four target shrubs in the Great Basin study area.
  7. 7. Research Objectives Goal 2 Determine the magnitude and duration of herbaceous species increase following reduction of four target shrubs in the Great Basin study area.
  8. 8. Research Objectives Goal 3 Evaluate how outcomes of shrub management tactics vary due to Ecological Site, at the small plot scale and the landscape scale.
  9. 9. Study Area Bear Lake: Sagebrush Artemisia spp. Park Valley: Greasewood Sarcobatus vermiculatus Two Ecological Sites per ranch Cedar Fort: Snakeweed Gutierrezia sarothrae Birdseye: Rubber Rabbitbrush Ericameria nauseosus
  10. 10. Experimental Design 80-400 Acres Ecological Site A 1½ -acre study area Sampling transects Ecological Site B Untreated Control Herbicide Treatment
  11. 11. Site Summary Cedar Fort Birdseye Black Greasewood Snakeweed Rubber Rabbitbrush Tebuthiuron 20P (Alligare) Low (2.5lbs/acre) Upland Loam (Wyoming Big Sagebrush) Kerl Loam Lonjon Silt Loam Semidesert Loam (Wyoming Big Sagebrush) Lembos Loam Kunzler Loam Upland Shallow Hardpan (Pinyon-Utah Juniper) Borvant Cobbly Loam Upland Stony Loam (Mountain Big Sgebrush) Park Valley Wyoming Big Sagebrush Ecological Sites Associated Soil Series Semidesert Alkali Loam (Black Greasewood) Bear Lake Herbicide Application Rate Upland Stony Loam (Black Sagebrush) Location Dominant Shrub Donnardo Stony Loam Upland Loam (Basin Big Sagebrush) Ant Flat Loam Upland Loam (Mountain Big Sagebrush) Doyce Loam Escort XP (DuPont) Cimmaron Max (DuPont) Picloram + D (Alligare) Med-High (2.0 oz/acre) Low (1.0 oz/acre) Med-High (4 pts/acre)
  12. 12. Landscape Scale Measurements 2013 - 2016  Shrub Density • 1m x 20m belt transect • By age class • Live vs. dead  Herbaceous Cover, Frequency • Ten, ¼ m2 quadrats  Herbaceous Biomass • Two ¼ m2 quadrats/year
  13. 13. Small Plot Experimental Design 20' Rep 4 10' RE CM CT KI CM RE CT KI SP KI RE SP CT CM RE CM KI SP CT CM SP RE KI CT KI SP CT RE CM CT CM KI RE SP KI CT CM SP RE Rep 3 SP Rep 1 Rep 2 O 40' 20' Gate
  14. 14. Small Plot Experimental Design SP CM KI RE CT RE KI CT SP CM Code Mowing Improved Seed Mix Non-seeded Control Standard Seed Mix Trade name Active Ingredient SP Spike Tebuthiron 20P CM Cimmaron Max 2,4-D, Dicamba, + Metsulfuron methyl KI Kindra Aminocyclopyrachlor + 2,4-D RE Rejuvra Aminocyclopyrachlor + Metsulfuron methyl CT Nontreated Control
  15. 15. 5 herbicide treatments x 3 seed treatments x 2 mowing treatments x 4 replicates = 120 plots per experimental area In 8 Ecological Sites 20' Rep 4 10' RE CM CT KI CM RE CT KI SP KI RE SP CT CM RE CM KI SP CT CM SP RE KI CT KI SP CT RE CM CT CM KI RE SP KI CT CM SP RE Rep 3 SP Rep 1 Rep 2 O 40' 20' Gate
  16. 16. Small-Scale Plot Measurements 2013 - 2016  Shrub Density • 10’ x 20’ plot • By age class • Live vs. dead  Shrub Cover • 40’ Line-Intercept  Herbaceous Cover, Frequency • Eight ¼ m2 quadrats  Herbaceous Biomass • Eight ¼ m2 quadrats in 2016
  17. 17. Project Progress  Landscape-scale herbicide application at each ranch (Fall 2012 - Summer 2013)  Fenced 1½ acre Experimental Areas established (Fall 2012)  Pretreatment Field Measurements (Summer 2013)  Treatment in small plots: Herbicide application and mowing (Summer 2013 – Fall 2013)  Seeding will occur in Fall 2014  Analysis is ongoing; Finalized 2017
  18. 18. Outreach and Additional Aspects  Field Tours of Experimental Sites 2016  USU Extension Shrubland Management Project https://extension.usu.edu/rangelands/htm/utah-projects/utah-shrub-project  Utah Shrubland Management Handbook • Review of Literature • Analysis of state management datasets • Utah Watershed Restoration Initiative • Division of Wildlife Resources Range Trend
  19. 19. Management Approach Matters Treatments very in their capacity to reduce shrub cover and improve herbaceous understory. Variability due to • Ecological Site • Biology of shrub • Site History Assessment of shrub manipulation treatments implemented through Utah’s Watershed Restoration Initiative since 2005 (T. Monaco, unpublished data).
  20. 20. Ecological Site-Based Handbook for Shrubland Management in Utah • Use best information available: contemporary data sets, current knowledge, up to date technology for brush management and range planting. • Highlight how Ecological Sites influence effectiveness of range improvement practices (for wildlife, livestock, etc). • Use Ecological Sites to improve predictability of management outcomes. • Applicable for shrub-dominated sites throughout Utah
  21. 21. Outreach and Additional Aspects  Field Tours of Experimental Sites 2016  USU Extension Shrubland Management Project https://extension.usu.edu/rangelands/htm/utah-projects/utah-shrub-project  Utah Shrubland Management Handbook • Review of Literature • Analysis of state management datasets • Utah Watershed Restoration Initiative • Division of Wildlife Resources Range Trend  Associated Questions • Seed Production in response to shrub management at project site • Competitive ability of native grass ecotypes across sites/stresses
  22. 22. Acknowledgements Project Contributors Dr. Tom Monaco, Justin Williams Dr. Kari Veblen USDA-Agricultural Research Service Wildlands Resources Department, Utah State University Research Cooperators Beth Burrit, Dr. Roger Banner USU Extension Jamin Johanson, Jamison Jewkes, Matthew Phillippi USDA Nat. Res. Cons. Service Troy Forrest, Ashley Hansen UDAF Utah Grazing Improvement Program Bill Kral, John Cantlon, Nevin DuPleissis DuPont Bill Robinson, Lance Westmoreland, Rial Berry, Monty Weston Landholders Field Assistance Justin Chutich, Brittany Duncan, Sarahi Felix, Joe Lamb, Jessica Walker Additional Support Rebecca Mann, Wildlands Resources Dept, Utah State University rkmann@gmail.com Veblen Research Lab University Agricultural Experiment Station Ecology Center Utah State University Wildlands Resources Dept., College of Natural Resources, Utah State University
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