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English Grammar Group members: 1. Le Thi Hoai Thanh 2. Nguyen Hanh Le 3. Tran Thi Ut Tram 4. Hoang Thi Thu Huong 5. Le Thi Thu Phuong 6. Nguyen Thi Thu Trang
Adjective phrase1.Definition An adjective phrase is a phrase with an adjective ( or adjectivalized participle) as the head. An adjective phrase consists of an adjective which may be preceded and/or followed by other words. Ex1 :1.It is a nice cat2. I was very excited3. They have been very curious about this (strange )guy
Adjective phraseII.Structure:Full Structure: Pre-modification + head + postmodification1.Pre-modification: modifying,describing,or qualifying constituents which precede the head.Pre-modifier typesAdverb phraseex: Yesterday was a very unusually hot day
Use very,quite,partly,perfectly.ect…Ex: This exercise is relatively hardAdjective can be premodified by either + Grading: ( slightly,somewhat,very,overly…)Ex: A slightly bent wire,an extremely overweight dog + comparison : (more,less,least,most) Ex: The more he eat,the fatter he is.
Not all adjectives can be graded or compared: Comparable: more beautiful, the most red Noncomparable (ungradable): NATIONALITIES: French, Spanish MISC.: dead, alive, broken, etc Comparison can also be done morphologically: the bigger/biggest
A few intensifier may pre-modify noun phrase: quite, rather and the pre-determiners such and exclamatory what, the noun phrase is normally indefinite and the intensifiers precede and determines Ex:- I was rather a mess- He was quite some player- I have never heard such wickedness
Noun phrase: We can put a phrase of measurement before some adjsEx : The man is about forty years old I am 1,67 metres tall
2.The HeadIs an adjective or participle serving as the focus of the phraseEx: She is a nice cat adjI was very excited. past participle They have been very curious about this (strange) guy adj
3.Post-modification: Modifying constituent which follows the head; and complementation,(the major subcategoryof postmodification here) is the constituent which follows any postmodification and completes the specification of a meaning implied by the head
Adverbs as postmodifiers ( enough/indeed) Ex: This fruit is not ripe enough to eatHe doesn’t do it badly.He is sucessfull indeed+ complements of adj
That-clause: Ex: We were confident that he was still alive To-infinite clause: Ex: Bob was slow to catch the ball This meal is too expansive to enjoy
Ing-clause Ex: I’m busy getting the house redecorated We’re fortunate having Aunt Agatha as a baby-sistter
Prepositional phrase: Ex: Bobby is fond of maths Comparative clause Ex: It was easier than they said
1. NOUN PRE – MODIFIER ( attributive adjs) Adjs are attributive when they premodify nouns, appear between the determiner and the head of the NP. Ex:1. she had a big hat. Det adj.p H of HP NP2. Only rich people can afford that flat. Det Adj.P H of NP NP
2. COMPLEMENTS (predicative adjs)- Subject complement: with corpus verbs: look, seem, sound ,hear, get, become. . .Ex:1. He looks handsome. S C2. She feels unhappy. S C+ Subject complement (subject is a finite clause)Ex: What the said is right. Finite C+ Subject complement (subject is non-finite clause)Ex: Learning English is very difficult. Non-finite C
2. COMPLEMENTS (predicative adjs)- Object complement:Ex: The gifts make children happy. O C+ Object complement (object is a clause)Ex: I consider what he did foolish. O C+ Object complement expresses the result of process denoted by the verbEx He pulled his belt tight. (as the result, his belt was then tight)
3.POST-POSITIVEA post-positive adjective is an adjective that appears after noun that it modifies. Apostposed adj can usually be regarded as a relative clause.There are some following cases:+ Indefinite pronoun ending in-body, -thing,-one. . .Ex: I’d like to have something useful.(I’d like to have something which is useful)+the adjs having different senses for each position with some adjsEX: The president-elect is an intelligent man. (Soon to take office) The elect man is Mr. Smith.(the best man)
3.POST-POSITIVE+ In several compounds:Ex: Courts martial, heir apparent, body politic+ Some adjs not occurring attributively in the relevant meaning like ablaze, afloatafraid, alike, alive, absent . . .Ex: The house ablaze is next door to mine. The people involved were not found.
4.THE HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE Adjective can often function as heads of NPs as the following cases: + adjs having personal reference: Ex: The poor get poorer, the rich get richer. H H These seats are for the disabled. H + Adjective denoting nationalities Ex: The French like eating well. The Dutch are the tallest in the world. + Adjective having abstract reference Ex: The newest is that he is going to China. He ventured into the unknown.
6.EXCLAMATORY ADJ SENTENCE An adj as head of an adj. P or as its sole realization can be an exclamatory. Ex. How beautiful! Great! What a nice day!
5.VERBLESS ADJ CLAUSE Verbless clauses are clauses in which the verb and sometimes other elements have been deleted. +An adj can function as a verbless clauses. The clause may be mobile in sentence. Ex: (By then) nervous, the man opened the gift. The man, (by then) nervous, opened the gift. The man opened the gift, (by then) nervous. Contingent adjective clause An adj Contingent clause expresses the circumstance or condition under which what is said in the superordinate clause applies. Ex: Enthusiastic, they make good students.(when enthusiastic) (When) ripe, these apples are sweet.
Attributive onlyAdjectives Predicative only CentralSyntactic classification of adjs
attributive only Adjectives which are restricted to attributive position do not characterize the referent of the noun directly eg. A small businessman → a businessman whose business is small → not a businessman is small My old friend → One who has been a friend for a long time → not a friend is old
Note: words with strongly emotive value: poor man, my dear lady, wretched lady…Inherent adjs Non-inherent adjsCharacterize the referent of the Do not characterize the referent ofnoun directly the noun directlyEg: Distant relatives Distant hills a complete idiot a complete chapter a heavy smoker a heavy bag A social animal a social survey an old friend an old man
Attributive onlyIntensifying Limiter Related to Denominal adjs adjs adverbials adjs
INTENSIFYING ADJECTIVES Emphasizers: have a general heightening effect on the noun and convey speaker’s attitude toward the referent eg. Utter despair, pure bliss, a real hero, a certain winner… Amplifiers: denote the upper extreme of the scale are central(inherent) eg. A complete victory →the victory was complete are attributive only(non-inherent) eg. A complete idiot (not the idiot is complete) Notes: mere, sheer, utter (always attributive only)
LIMITER ADJECTIVES Particularize the reference of the noun eg. the main topic, the only person, etc…. Note: some of adjectives have homonyms Ex: a certain person a limiter → a particular person a certain winner an intensifier→ a sure winner( one who is certain that he will win )
RELATED TO ADVERBIALS adjs that are attributive only can be related to adverbials. eg. my former friend ~ formerly my friend adjs premodify agentive nouns >have a relationship to the verb base eg. a hard worker ~ a worker who works hard. the implied process can be associated with an inanimate object eg. a fast car ~ a car that one can drive fast
DENOMINAL ADJECTIVES are derived from nouns and attributive only Ex: a criminal law (a law concerning crime) Note: a criminal law ~ a law seems criminal → a central adjective a medical school ( a school for students of medicine)
II.PREDICATIVE ONLY Eg. she is alive ( not alive girl ) S V Cs Adjectives which are restricted to predicative position refer to condition rather than to characterize Some group of adjs must take complementation: afraid(that, of, about); fond(of); conscious(that, of) etc… Ex: i am intersted in listening to music S V adj C
Some of the common predicative onlyand attributive ony adjectives inEnglish are:Attributive adjectives: Predicative adjectives aliveeast/west/south/north aloneeastern/wetern/southern/… apartindoor/outdoor awaremaximum gladnationwide illoccasional likelysupplementary readywoolen safeetc. sorry sure unable
III.CENTRAL central = both attributive and predicative eg: a (1)lazy student→ the student is (2)lazy attributive predicative the (1)blue sea → the sea is (2)blue attributive predicative note: (1) attributive position (2) predicative position
Stative and Dynamic Adjectives Stative adjectives are the adjectives that denote a state or condition, which may generally be considered permanent, such as big, red, and small. Stative adjectives can not normally be used in imperative constructions, so we cannot say: be red/big/small. In contrast, dynamic adjectives denote attributes which are, to some extent at least, under the control of the one who possesses them. All dynamic adjectives can be used in imperatives.
Stative and Dynamic Adjectives Calm Mannerly Careful Patient Cruel Rude “Be careful!” toWe can say Disruptive Shy someone, andPerson may Foolish Suspicious then this control Friendly Tidy himself to Good vacuous become more impatient Vain careful
gradable and non-gradable adjectives Gradable- Most everyday adjectives are gradable- They denote qualities, properties, states, conditions or relations…. Which vary in their degree or extent?- Gradable adjectives can be pre-modified by degree expression.
gradable and non-gradable adjectivesGradable Very He is Quite Selfish Degree adv Gradable adj -Gradability includes comparison. Ex My sister is taller than I
gradable and non-gradable adjectivesnon-gradable•… Can not be pre-modified bydegree adverbs or used incomparative sentence such asautomatic, dead alive; male;IrishEnglish; marriedunmarriedsingle.Ex She is single Non- gradable
Inherent and non-inherentExAn old man = a man who is old.A small businessman ≠ a businessman whois small. “small” is non-inherent•inherent adjs: are the adjs which directlydenote attribute and quality of the noun theymodify.•Non-inherent adjs: are the adjs which don’tdenote attribute and quality of the noun theymodify.
Definition: An adverb phrase is aword What is an adverb as group with an AdvP?its head.This He studies be accompanied Ex: adverb may English very well.by modifiers or qualifiers. AdvP
MorphologicalCharacteristicsof the Adverb Functional
Characteristicsof the Adverb Morphological Adv N -ward/wise/ways Ex: northward=north+ward clockwise=clock+ wise sideways=side + ways
Characteristicsof the Adverb Morphological Adv Adj Ex: hard, late, high, deep, etc. Note: In this case, if adding suffix–ly, the meaning of these adverbs will change: Ex: hardly: almost not lately: recently highly= deeply: very, very much
MorphologicalCharacteristicsof the Adverb 1. Adverbial 2. Modifier of adj & adv Functional
Structure of Adverb phrase Adverb Phrase Adv of degree: too, very, quite, etc. Pre- Ex: He runs very fast. Post- Adv(head)modifiers modifiers Comparison: more Ex: He runs more slowly than me.
Structure of Adverb phrase Adverb Phrase 1. Adverb: enough, indeed Ex: He works hard enough to pass the exam. Pre- Post- Adv(head) 2. To infinitive clause:modifiers modifiers Ex: He talks too quickly to follow. 3.Comparative clause: Ex: He works as hard as we do.
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase AdvP as adverbial AdvP as modifier AdvP as complement of preposition
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase AdvP as adverbial Ex: John always comes late. NP AdvP VP AdvP S A V A Adverb as modifier Adverbs as complement of preposition
Adjuncts: are integrated within the structure of the clause to at least some extent. Ex: They are waiting outside. Disjuncts: are not integrated withinClasses of the clause. They express an evaluation of what is being said.adverbial Ex: Frankly, he is not a nice guy. Conjuncts: have a connective function. They indicate the connection between what is being said and what was said before. Ex: If they open all the windows, then I’m leaving.
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase Modifier of adjective AdvP as modifier Modifier as Adverb Modifier of prepositional phrase Modifier of determiner, pre- determiner, post- determiner Modifier of Noun phrase
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase AdvP as modifier Modifier of adjective - Adverbs and adverb phrases can perform is the adjective phrase modifier. Adjective phrase modifiers are defined as words and phrases that describe an adjective or adjective phrase. Ex: I’m not quite sure of When to set off. AdvP adj advP
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase AdvP as modifier Modifier of Adverb -An adverb may pre-modify adverb, and function as intensifier : ex:. He smokes very heavily adv adv advP
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase Modifier of prepositional AdvP as modifier phrase -The few adverbs that pre-modify particles in phrasal verbs also pre-modify prepositions or (perhaps rather) prepositional phrase. Ex: His score was right above the average. advP preP NP PP
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase Modifier of determiner, AdvP as modifier pre-determiner, post- determiner-Intensifying adverbs can premodify indefinite pronouns,predeterminers, and cardinal numerals : Ex: Almost the students voted for him advP det NP NP Almost all the students voted for him. advP pre-modifier det NP NP
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase AdvP as modifier Modifier of Noun phrase-A few intensifiers may pre-modify noun phrase: quite, rather, and thepre-determiners such and exclamatory what. Ex Such a nice day. advP NPSome adverbs signifying place or time can be used as aPre-modifier or Post-modifier:The students abroad The upstairs neigbour NP advP advP NP
Syntactic functions of adverb phrase AdvP as complement of preposition-Some place and time adverbs function ascomplement of a preposition. Ex: It is over there PP AdvP