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  • 1. SPSS ñèñòåìèéí òóõàé. Ýíý ïðîãðàìì íü ìàòåìàòèê ñòàòèñòèêèéí ¿íäñýí àðãóóäûí òîîöîî,ñóäàëãààíû àæëûã êîìïüþòåðò WINDOWS 95-ààñ õîéøõè ñèñòåì¿¿äèéí äîðõèéõýä çîðèóëàí õèéãäñýí. Îíöëîã íü ìàòåìàòèê ñòàòèñòèêèéí àðãà ¿íäñèéã ñàéí ìýääýã, WINDOWS-èéí îð÷íû ïðîãðàììóóäûã àøèãëàæ ñóðñàí õ¿í õÿëáàð àðãààð ýçýçìøèæáîëîõîîð àñóóëãààð õàðèëöàæ àæèëëàäàã ñèñòåì þì. ̺í òóõàéí ïðîãðàììä ¿íäñýí ìýäýýëýë îðóóëàõ, ººð ïðîãðàìì, ôàéëäõºðâ¿¿ëýõ, áóñàä ñèñòåì ïðîãðàììòàé õîëáîãäîõ áîëîìæîîð ñàéíõàíãàãäñàíààñ ãàäíà, ñóäàëãààíû çîðèóëàëòòàé õÿëáàð òàáëèö á¿ðä¿¿ëýõ,áè÷èõýä òîõèðîìæòîéãîîðîî ºìíºõ õóâèëáàðóóäààñàà èë¿¿ îíöëîã áîëñîíáàéíà. Îðîõ ìýäýýëëèéí òîäîðõîéëîëòûã õèéõ, ìýäýýëýë äîòîð õóâèðãàëò õèéõ,áîëîâñðóóëàëò õèéõ ìýäýýëëèéã ñîíãîí àâàõ, ôàéëóóäûã íýãòãýõ, àãðåãàò õèéõ,á¿òöèéã ººð÷ëºõ, çàäëàõ çýðýã îëîí ñàéí ¿¿ðýã ôóíêö¿¿äòýéãýýð îíöëîã ñèñòåìþì. WINDOWS 95-ä àíõ SPSS 7.0 õóâèëáàð îðæ èðñíýýñ õîéø ò¿¿íèé 7.5, 8.0,9.0, 10.0, 11.1, 13.0, 14.0 çýðýã õóâèëáàðóóäàä ìýäýýëýëòýé àæèëëàõ, ¿ç¿¿ëýëò,ôàéëûã ººð÷ëºõ, õóâèðãàõ, ìàòåìàòèê ñòàòèñòèê ñóäàëãààíû àðãà, ìîäåëóóäûãòºðëèéí øèíýòãýë ñàéæðóóëàëò õèéãäñýí áàéíà . Òóõàéëáàë ìýäýýëýëä õèéõ,¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéã äàõèí êîäëîõ, PIVOT TABLE-ôóíêöèéí áîëîìæèéã îðóóëàõ,êîìàíäûí ä¿ðýì áè÷èæ ýðãýí àøèãëàõ, îðõèãäñîí óòãûã ñýðãýýí òîîöîõ çýðýãìýäýýëýëòýé àæèëëàõ áîëîìæèéã ºðãºòãºñíººñ ãàäíà ãàçðûí çóðàã, ãðàôèêòàéàæèëëàõ øèíý áîëîìæ, ñòàòèñòèê ¿íýëãýýíèé íýìýëò ôóíêö¿¿ä, ðåãðåññ,õîëèìîã ìîäåë, ãîë êîìïîíåíòèéí àðãà, àíãèëàë, êëàñòåðèéí ñóäàëãàà,õýìæýýñèéí ¿íýëãýý ãýõ ìýò ìàòåìàòèê ñòàòèñòèêèéí îíîë ñóäàëãààíû ñ¿¿ëèéí¿åèéí ìîäåë, àðãà ç¿éã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ïðîãðàìì ïðîöåäóðààð áàÿæóóëñàí íü ýíýñèñòåìèéí îíöëîã òàë áîëæ áàéíà. SPSS –ñèñòåìèéí ¿íäñýí çàð÷èì áà Data Editor ïðîãðàìì Ýíý ïðîãðàìì íü File, Edit, View, Window Help çýðãýýðýý EXCELïðîãðàììòàé òºñòýé ¿íäñýí ìåíþíèé ¿íäñýí õýñýã íü ýíý ïðîãðàììûí îíöëîã¿éë àæèëëàãààã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýä çîðèóëàãäñàí áîëíî. ¯íäñýí öýñèéí ¿¿ðã¿¿äýýñçàðèì îíöëîã ç¿éëèéã òîâ÷ëîí òàéëáàðëàâàë:
  • 2. SPSS Data Editor ïðîãðàìì íü áîëîâñðóóëàëòàíä îðæ áàéãàà ìýäýýëëèéãòîäîðõîéëîõ, îðóóëàõ, èìïîðòëîõ, ýêñïîðòëîõ, õóâèðãàõ á¿õèé ë ¿éëàæèëëëàãààíä ¿éë÷èëíý. SPSS Data Editor-èéã õàðàõàä äîòðîî Data View,Varaible View ãýñýí õ¿ñíýãò áàéõ áºãººä ýõíèé Data View-ä ¿íäñýí ìýäýýëëèéíìºð¿¿ä áàéäàã. Data View äîòîð áàéãàà ¿íäñýí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí ìºð¿¿ä òîäîõîéëîëòûíõîîäàãóó áàãàíà áàãàíààð äàðààëñàí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòýýñ òîãòîõ áºãººä ò¿¿íèéã EXCEL-èéí sheet-òýé àäèëààð áîäîãäîæ àøèãëàæ áîëîõ ñóäàëãààíû ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéãàãóóëñàí ýíãèéí ìàòðèö áîëíî. Varaible View äîòîð ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí òîäîðõîéëîëò áàéðëàõ áºãººä òàáëèöáîëîâñðóóëàëòàä øààðäàãäàõ ¿íäñýí òîäîðõîéëîëòóóä áàéðëàíà. ¯¿íä: - Name-òóõàéí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí íýðèéã çààñàí ¿ñýã òîîí èëýðõèéëýë / 8 òýìäýãò/ - Type-¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí òºðºë, õýëáýðèéã çààã÷, ãîë òºëºâ. Numeric-òîî, String- òåêñò áàéäëààð ä¿ðñëýãäýíý. - Width-¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí ºðãºí áóþó õýäýí òýìäýãòýýñ òîãòîõûã çààíà. - Decimal-òîîí ¿ç¿¿ëýëò áîë òàñëàëûí àðààð õýäýí îðîíòîé áàéõûã çààíà. - Label-òóõàéí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí íýð (òàáëèöàä áè÷èãäýæ ãàðàõ íýðøèë) - Values-¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí òóõàéí óòãàíä õàðãàëçóóëàí îíîîæ ºãñºí íýðèéã øààðäëàãàòàé ãýæ ¿çâýë îðóóëæ ºã÷ áîëíî. Íýðèéã îðóóëàõäàà òýð ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí values áàãàíààä äàðàõàä óòãà, îíîîæ ºãºõ íýð 2-ûí öîíõíóóäûã áºã뺺ä íýìýõ òîâ÷ëóóðûã àøèãëàí îðóóëæ ºãºõ áàñ õàñàõ áîëîìæòîé.
  • 3. - Missing-òóõàéí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí çàðèì óòãûã àëäààòàé óòãà ãýæ çààæ ºã÷ áîëäîã. ¯¿íèéã ìºí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí Missing áàãàíàíä äàðàõàä àëäààòàé óòãà áè÷èõ áîëîìæ ãàð÷ èðíý. Ýíý íü òóõàéí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéã îðîëöóóëàí òàáëèö áîëîâñðóóëàõàä ò¿¿íèé Missing óòãûã òîîöîæ òîîëæ ä¿ãíýæ àâäàãã¿é áîëîõûã àíõààðàõ õýðýãòýé. Missing-óòãà 2 òºðºë: ñèñòåìèéí ãýäýã íü õýðýãëýã÷èéí òîäîðõîéëæ ºãñºí áóðóó óòãûã õýëäýã.- Columns -òóõàéí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí áàãàíûí íèéò ºðãºíèéã çààæ ºãäºã.- Align -¿ç¿¿ëýëò ººðèéí öîíõîíäîî õýðõýí áàðóóí ç¿¿í òèéø, òºâä ãýõ ìýò÷èëýí áàéðëàõûã ýíãèéíýýð çààæ ºãäºã.- Measure-¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí õýìæýýñèéã ãîë òºëºâ òîîí áîë Scale, ¿ñýã òîîí áîë String, øèíæ ÷àíàð, çýðýãëýëèéã àíãèëñàí áîë nominal, òºâøíèéã òîäîðõîéëñîí òîîãîîð õýëæ èëýðõèéëäýãã¿é áàÿí, ÿäóó, ÷èíýýëýã ãýõ ìýòèéí áîë ordinal ãýæ õýëäýã. Ìýäýýëëèéã õýðõýí îðóóëàõ- Øóóä SPSS ñèñòåìèéí Data Editor-èéã àøèãëàí õ¿ñíýãòýíä ìýäýýëýë îðóóëàõ ãýâýë ýõýëæ äýýð çààñíû äàãóó ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí òîäîðõîéëîëòîî Varaible View-ä òîäîðõîéëæ ºãººä äàðàà íü Varaible View-ä ¿íäñýí ìýäýýëëýý îðóóëæ ºãíº.- Ãàäíààñ èìïîðò õèéæ îðóóëàõ ãýâýë òóõàéí òîõèîëäîëä EXCEL-ýýñ îðóóëàõäàà EXCEL-í ôàéëûíõàà çºâõºí 1-ð ìºðºíä ¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿äèéíõýý íýðèéã áè÷èæ õàäãàëààä SPSS-ò îðæ OPEN data õèéãýýä ôàéëûí òºð뺺 *.xls ãýæ õàäãàëààä íýýíý. Ýíý ÿâöàä 1-ð ìºðèéã ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí íýð ãýæ àâàõ óó ãýõýä íü òèéì ãýæ õàðèóëààä îðóóëæ èðýõýä Varaible View-ä ¿íäñýí ¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿ä, Data VIEW- ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí íýðñ îðñîí áàéíà. ¯¿íèé äàðàà Data View-ä îðæ ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí òîäîðõîéëîëòîî øààðäëàãûí äàãóó íýìæ çàñ÷ òîäîðõîéëæ áîëíî.- ªºð áóñàä ñèñòåìýýñ îðóóëàõ áîë: EXCEL-ýýñ ôàéë îðóóëàõòàé àäèë DBASE, ACCESS çýðãýýñ îðóóëæ àâ÷ áîëîõ þì. ̺í óðüä÷èëàí òîäîðõîéëîãäñîí òîäîðõîéëîëò á¿õèé SPSS ôàéë äýýð EXCEL –ýýñ íýðã¿é äàí òîîãîî ñîíãîí èäýâõæ¿¿ëýýä Varaible View-ä COPY, PASTE- ààð ¿íäñýí òîîã îðóóëæ àâ÷ áîëíî. Цýñèéí кîìàíäóóä
  • 4. 1. FileNew-¿íäñýí ìýäýýëëèéã øèíýýð îðóóëæ ýõëýõ ãýæ áàéãàà áîë øèíý ãýæ íýýãýýäàæèëëàíà. Òýãýõäýý àæèëëàõ ôàéëûí òºðºë, õóóäàñ íü áóñàä åðäèéíñèñòåì¿¿äèéíõýýñ îíöëîã áîëîõûã öààøäûí òàéëáàðóóäààñ ¿çýõ áîëíî.Open: data-çºâõºí áîëîâñðóóëàëò õèéãäýæ áàéñàí SPSS-èéí ººðèéíõ íüìýäýýëëèéã íýýíý. *.sav ºðãºòãºëòýé áàéõ ¸ñòîé.Output-áîëîâñðóóëàëò ñóäàëãàà õèéãýýä ãàðñàí ¿ð ä¿íãèéí ôàéë. *.spoºðãºòãºëòýé áàéõ ¸ñòîé.Read text data-åðäèé òåêñò ôàéëûã îðóóëæ ¿íäñýí ìýäýýëýë áîëãîí àøèãëàõòîõèîëäîëä õýðýãëýíý.Recently used data-ñ¿¿ëèéí ¿åä àøèãëàæ áàéñàíáîëîâñðóóëàëòûíìýäýýëë¿¿äèéí íýðñ õàäãàëàãäàæ áàéäàã òóë òýäíèé àëü íýãèéã øóóä íýýæáîëíî.Recently used file-ñ¿¿ëèéí ¿åä àøèãëàæ áàéñàí áîëîâñðóóëàëòûí áóñOUTPUT ãýõ ìýò ôàéëóóäûã íýýæ áîëíî.2-3. EDIT, VIEWÝäãýýð öýñ¿¿äèéã áóñàä ïðîãðàììûí àäèëààð îéëãîæ áîëíî.4. DATA- Ìýäýýëýëòýé àæèëëàõ Ýíý õýñýãò ôàéëòàé àæèëëàõàä ìàø ÷óõàë õýðýã áîëäîã õýä õýäýíàøèãòàé äýä öýñ áàéäàã. Äýä öýñ¿¿äèéí àæèëëàãààíû çàð÷ìûã òàéëáàðëàâàë:
  • 5. Define dates - îãíîîã ÿàæ òîäîðõîéëîõûã çààæ ºãíº.Insert variable - àøèãëàæ áàéãàà ìýäýýëëèéí äîòîð øèíý ¿ç¿¿ëýëò íýìæîðóóëàõ.Insert Case - àøèãëàæ áàéãàà ìýäýýëýëä íýã øèíý ìºð îðóóëàõ.Goto case - àøèãëàæ áàéãàà ìýäýýëëèéí òîäîðõîé ìºðä ò¿¿íèé äóãààðûã òàâüæõ¿ðýõ.Sort cases - àøèãëàæ áàéãàà ìýäýýëëèéí ìºð¿¿äèéã òîäîðõîé ¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿äýýðÿëãàëò õèéæ ýðýìáýëýõ, ¿ç¿¿ëýëò á¿ðèéí õóâüä ýðýìáèéí ºñºõ áóóðàõûã òóñá¿ðò íü çààæ ºãºõ áîëîìæòîé.Transpose - àøèãëàæ áàéãàà ìýäýýëëèéí ìºðèéã áàãàíà, áàãàíûã ìºð áîëãîíõºðâ¿¿ëýõ áà ¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿äèéã áàñ ñîíãîæ ºã÷ áîëíî.Restructure - àøèãëàæ áàéãàà ìýäýýëëèéí á¿òöèéã äàðààõ áàéäëàà𠺺ð÷ëºõ.