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Ushahidi Deployment - Implementation Toolbox

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The Harvard Humanitarian Initiative research team led by Jennifer Chan and Melissa Tully, supported by the Knight Foundation, conducted evaluation research. Over the year, they interviewed Kenyan …

The Harvard Humanitarian Initiative research team led by Jennifer Chan and Melissa Tully, supported by the Knight Foundation, conducted evaluation research. Over the year, they interviewed Kenyan Ushahidi deployers, specifically those participating in Uchaguzi, Unsung Heros and Building Bridges, and had community members help shape the research deliverables. Evaluation to action was a key goal of the project. Their research resulted in the creation of three toolboxes to assist users in the various stages of their Ushahidi deployments: Assessment, Implementation and Outputs.

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  • The Ushahidi User Guide- will give you a step-by-step overview on how to set up your own Ushahidi map and how to make full use of all the features that the Ushahidi software offers.

    On Crowdmap versus Ushahidi:
    Crowdmap is easier, no need of developer, but little customization possible, less plugins available, no ownership of the data (or if you wish shared ownership of data), no ability to solve bugs by yourself, no themes available, more problems in having your domain name and logo.
    Ushahidi instance: need of a server, need of a developer, ongoing dev work on the platform, possibility to change themes, customize, use your domain name easily and logo, ownership of the data.
  • Anahi Ayala Iacucci MODULE- “Keep in mind that if your project is small you don’t necessarily need one person for each  task or role, but you can just decide to have few people covering all the tasks. Also keep in mind that these duties may switch throughout the initiative. The Core management team must be flexible and team player

    (TIPS) The emergency Unit is something you need when you are working on projects where you may have very urgent information coming in, that needs to be processed immediately. In this case you want to have a team of people that is ready to map and approve the reports as soon as the information comes in and channel them directly to responders if appropriate.

    (Anahi Ayala Iacucci) If you are an NGO almost all of the figures here may be already existing in the overall structure of the organization, and the same if you are an international/national organization.

  • Roles Examples
    Overall Project Manager
    Funder
    Technology Manager
    Volunteer Manager
    Media Manager
  • EXAMPLES
    Original Ushahidi Colombia
    Revised Ushahidi Colombia
    Uchaguzi Kenya
  • You need to set up a very efficient and fast communication system if you are cooperating with different actors in using the platform. Set up a Skype Chat, a google group, whatever you like to improve communication and assure that the people working on the platform can easily reach each other, See Anahi Ayala Iacucci’s: http://crisismapper.wordpress.com/2010/05/22/how-to-create-your-own-project-using-the-ushahidi-platform/
  • You need to set up a very efficient and fast communication system if you are cooperating with different actors in using the platform. Set up a Skype Chat, a google group, whatever you like to improve communication and assure that the people working on the platform can easily reach each other.- See Anahi Ayala Iacucci’s blog post: http://crisismapper.wordpress.com/2010/05/22/how-to-create-your-own-project-using-the-ushahidi-platform/

    TIPS- when you determine what specific types of information you want to collect and how to categorize information- think about existing indicators that you have already used, are used by similar organization or are used by governments/UN with which you will share information.

    Anahi Ayala Iacucci module 1- “Ones you decide what information you want to gather, then you have to look at the existing organizations on the ground that may have already formulated indicators, initiatives, information needs or formats that you should be linking with and following or supporting in designing your project. If there are local organizations that are involved or engaged with your topic/theme/project/initiative already, you may want to  think at how they can be involved and engaged3 “
  • Tips:
    From lessons learned/evaluations
    Hold a workshop with your partners,
    Meet communities and ask them how what information they need and how they would like it shared with them
  • Anahi Ayala Iacucci “If you decide not to respond, then it is extremely important that you make this clear to your audience to ensure that there are no expectations around the project or that there is no information gathering system that you cannot or are not set up to meet.”
  • TIPS: (Guide to verification) Also, It is important to anticipate the quantity of reports that you may receive to make sure you have capacity to keep up with report verification. If you are implementing a long-term campaign, you will need to consider sustainability, which may require training people to administer your instance and thinking about funding. You may want to consider recruiting additional volunteers to help with verification!

    (volume/duration and verification) It is important to anticipate the quantity of reports that you may receive to make sure you have capacity to keep up with report verification. If you are implementing a long-term campaign, you will need to consider sustainability, which may require training people to administer your instance and thinking about funding. You may want to consider recruiting additional volunteers to help with verification!

    (preparation) consider having a pocket care, or 1-pager that outline the verification process so people can refer to it.

    Anahi Ayala Iacucci- how to create your own instance blog “Decentralize. If you decide to use Ushahidi in cooperation with a number of organizations give to each organization working with you an admin account and decentralize the mapping and reporting system in this way. Have only the tech people with a Super-Admin account, but let the rest of the work to be done independently by the single organizations, better if distributed geographically. This has two main advantages: the geo-referencing will be done by people knowing the areas they are mapping, so it will be easier, and faster; the administrator, which normally is the one that verify the report is not in the capital hundreds kilometers away from the actual area, but he is there, and can more easily verify information and contact reporters.”
  • Linda Rafferty- Based on the broader framework of your project or initiative, what is the geographic range for information collecting? (1 community? One district? Nation-wide?) Is there detailed geographical/map information for the area you want to work in? Do you actually need it?  If it doesn’t exist, what will you do about it?

    TIP: (Anahi, Blog)
    Ushahidi is not a map, but it uses maps done by others, like Google Map or OpenStreet Map which are used to reference the geographical location you are reporting. So you need to check carefully if there is a detailed geographical/map information for the area you want to work in, or if you even need it.  If a map doesn’t exist, you need to start thinking about possible ways to face this
    issue

    Based on the broader framework of your project or initiative, the geographic range for information collecting has to be carefully designed. (Anahi Ayala Iaccui)

    Especially in developing countries you may find yourself in the situation where the country you are working on doesn’t have good maps, or as it is the case in lots of developing countries, people don’t use addresses but references to locate buildings or houses. ( Anahi Ayala Iacucci)

    During crisis or disaster when imagery can change quickly, you should consider a GIS expert on your team who will be able to update changing maps on your Ushahidi instance. Crowdmap currently (as of April 2011) does not have the flexibility to change maps in this way.

    I can’t find a map for my project- consider looking into walking papers and Open Street Map
  • TIPS:

    Uchaguzi and Plan International both suggest that real life demonstrations can to improve local “take up.” Similar outreach efforts could be used with beneficiary populations and humanitarian orgs / responders.
    Consider the use of SMS Blasts. However, consider capacity issues.
    Radio can be an effective means for raising awareness and educating the public.

    (Ushahidi Practical Considerations) How will people find out about your initiative?  How will you advertise the number to send information to — by radio, television, billboards, handmade posters, word of mouth, in schools?

    (Anahi Introduction Module)
    Communication with the crowd should be on several levels:
    1. Announcement of the service: how to use it, who is running it, how are the messages processed, what reaction can people expect as a result. The message going out should be very simple, but crystal clear.
    2. Automatic reply: once someone sends a message, than should automatically receive a message like: thank you for your message, it was received and will be processed.
    3. After some time of service is in place and some ammount of messages were processed, there should be a media outreach  telling people how the system works, success stories, repeating the purpose of the service. This whole process needs some capacity, but is critical.
  • TIPS:
    Jaroslav Valuch- messaging
    Anahi Ayala Iacucci - blog




  • (Anahi Ayala Iacucci Module 1) Very important too is also the communication strategy of the organization, which should explains what the platform is and what it is not, like if you will use it as a data-gathering and mapping platform, or if you are someone who is gonna solve the problems on the ground. There are different ways to manage expectations, like conducting local media campaigns, or sending automatic responses to messages saying "thank you for message, now the message will be processed", and so on.

    (Anahi Module 1) “Managing the expectations is also something you may want to consider when starting a Ushahidi project. Very important in doing this is to decide how you will close the feedback loop and if you want to provide a response to those who submit information. In this case you have to think at what  this response will be and who will respond. “


    6) How will you close the circle and manage expectations?
    Will there be a response to those that submit information? What? Who will respond? How? What is the plan?
    How will you ensure that there are not expectations around the project or information gathering system that you cannot or are not set up to meet?
    How will you return the information to the community/local district/those who provided so that they can use it for decision making or program intervention?
    How will on-line/offline be managed and streamlined into an information gathering, communication and feedback system that works for the different levels of access of the populations you want to collect information from and share information with?
    In your project design, how will you take into consideration and maximize local information sharing formats, customs, and opportunities?
    And how will you ensure that the information remains in a protected/private state in order to avoid putting anyone at risk?

    There are different ways to manage expectations, like conducting local media campaigns, or sending automatic responses to messages saying "thank you for message, now the message will be processed", and so on. (Anahi)

  • TIPS:

    Uchaguzi and Plan International both suggest that real life demonstrations can to improve local “take up.” Similar outreach efforts could be used with beneficiary populations and humanitarian orgs / responders.
    Consider the use of SMS Blasts. However, consider capacity issues.
    Radio can be an effective means for raising awareness and educating the public

    How will people find out about your initiative?  How will you advertise the number to send information to — by radio, television, billboards, handmade posters, word of mouth, in schools?

    Communication with the crowd should be on several levels: (Anahi- Module)
    1. Announcement of the service: how to use it, who is running it, how are the messages processed, what reaction can people expect as a result. The message going out should be very simple, but crystal clear.
    2. Automatic reply: once someone sends a message, than should automatically receive a message like: thank you for your message, it was received and will be processed.
    3. After some time of service is in place and some ammount of messages were processed, there should be a media outreach  telling people how the system works, success stories, repeating the purpose of the service. This whole process needs some capacity, but is critical.
  • ( Linda Raffety) End user input and testing is critical. We learned a lot and our thinking evolved exponentially during the workshops
  • Transcript

    • 1. COMMUNITY USER EDUCATIONAL TOOL TOOLBOX #2 IMPLEMENTATION
    • 2. Why do the toolbox? These tools are based upon the rich experiences of people and organizations that have used the Ushahidi instance. The following toolboxes are crucial to your success! Checklist  TOOLBOX 1- SELF ASSESSMENT  TOOLBOX 2- IMPLEMENTATION  TOOLBOX 3 - USING YOUR INFORMATION ✔
    • 3. TOOLBOX 2 Implementation This toolbox will help you implement your project using the Ushahidi/Crowdmap instance : - Review of your work from Toolbox #1 - Choosing the platform that will work best for your project (Ushahidi or Crowdmap) - Understanding and planning roles and responsibilities - Think about information inflows and outflows - Plan a verification process that will link directly to action - Create a marketing plan - Build a feedback loop - Plan for a volunteer team - Plan and implement training for your members and partners
    • 4. Project Goal/Objectives/anticipated impact _______database will auto-generate user’s answer from toolbox #1_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Reasons for mapping _________database will auto-generate user’s answer from toolbox #1______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Partnerships ____________database will auto-generate user’s answer from toolbox #1____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Information/Communication ____________database will auto-generate user’s answer from toolbox # 1___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Marketing Media Plan ____________database will auto-generate user’s answer from toolbox #1 _____________________________________________________________________________ Technology Assessment ____________database will auto-generate user’s answer from toolbox #1 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ The database will auto-generate the following: Before moving into toolbox 2, here is a review of your work from the assessment toolbox…. I would like to make changes….. Let’s move on!
    • 5. Which platform is best for your project? Ushahidi or Crowdmap Choosing the platform that will work best for your project The Ushahidi Platform • A platform for organizations with more tech experience. •Needs to be downloaded to your own server • A good fit for a project that has tech experience and developer support. • Allows for customization. • You can own the data Check out the demo….. •allows you to set up your own deployment of the Ushahidi Platform without having to install it on your own web server •Does not require and installation •the fastest, simplest installation of the Ushahidi platform. •built to handle information coming out of a crisis. • No need for a developer •Fewer plug-ins •Open data / unable to password protect Learn more on the website: FAQ’s Which one will work best for you project? TIPS: A technology developer (or tech savvy person) can install your Ushahidi instance and you or another team members can install Crowdmap. There is a very comprehensive Ushahidi User guide, that will help take you every step of the way.
    • 6. TIPS: Community users believe that defining roles and responsibilities early in a Ushahidi project is very important to it’s success. Understanding Roles/Responsibilities Let’s collaborate! STOP HERE and consider having a workshop with your partners and audience to agree upon roles and responsibilities for your project!!! Planning roles and responsibilities for your project will depend on the size of your project. Choose the option that best fits your project: LARGE medium small Planning a country-wide project, one that involves many partners, or will be collecting large amounts of information Crisis Mapping  Haiti, Libya Election Monitoring Kenya/Uganda Planning a small audience outreach program to collect and share with a single, specific community Unsung Peace Heroes/Building Bridges Short-term deployment with one to three volunteers. Lower targets for volume and outreach. I Vote Because - http://ivotebecause.ca/
    • 7. Understanding Roles/Responsibilities- (example of large project) Here are some example roles from other deployments: 1) To the right examples- -> Example TOR’s Leadership Lessons Learned Roles in Crisis icon Roles in Election Monitoring Project Manager (PM) Responsible for keeping the coordinators up to date on the project, monitor activities, and communicate what needs to be done for the project. Will organize meetings, draft agendas and reports. Admin Coordinator Has direct access to the Ushahidi platform and is responsible for overseeing the approval of reports. Selects a small team with access to this site. Will be responsible for identifying mistakes in reports. Technology Coordinator Often a technical advisor who is responsible for managing all technical problems. For example, will change categories, basemaps, & sms syncing programs Works with a PHP Developer and/or GIS expert. Not all projects require a PHP or GIS expert, especially if you are using Crowdmap. Volunteer/Training Coordinator He/she will keep track of the volunteers and will coordinate the division of volunteers (ex, mappers, monitors and admins). Requires three different tasks: recruiting, training and coordinating. Media/Outreach Coordinator Responsible for the platform messaging to the crowd/community and media and manages relationships with journalists and general media in general. You may have two people on this team one for the community/crowd and another for the media/journalists. Works closely with the PM on the media/outreach strategy. Emergency Response Coordinator For Crisis related Projects: Responsible with a team to constantly monitor and process reports to identify emergencies and to provide information to responders. Communicates closely with the project manager or core team. This is not a complete list! Consider having a workshop with your partners and audience to agree upon roles and responsibilities for your project!!!
    • 8. Planning Roles/Responsibilities Role (drop down box+ write in) Partners (drop down box+ write in) Responsibility (write in) Tasks or Specidic act (write in)- Job TOR’s Partner Agreements (ex. Memorandum of Understanding, MOUs) Learn more…icon Community user from other deployments recommend a leadership team. Who will be part of your leadership team? TOR job description
    • 9. Planning Roles/Responsibilities- CRISIS and EMERGENCIES You will likely need to plan, recruit volunteers, and build partnerships at the same time. We recommend that you use the following resources. RESOURCES for IMPLEMENTING THE USHAHIDI/CROWDMAP PLATFORMS: - The StandbyTaskForce- http://blog.standbytaskforce.com/ - The CrisisMappers Network www.crisismappers.net/ - The Ushahidi Manual
    • 10. Planning Information & Communication Flows One of the most appealing reasons to use Ushahidi/Crowdmap is the potential to improve communication and information flow between groups & to improve knowledge among communities and to help people make decisions. The next few slides will help you create the information flows using Ushahidi/Crowdmap, but first think about how you will analyze and feedback information: 1) How you will analyze your information? 1) How you will feedback information? Examples )
    • 11. Planning Information & Communication Flows Here are some example of the part and groups that will be part of your information system Ushahidi or Crowdmap Platform Incoming Information Feedback loops and return of information The ‘crowd” or public community People who will freely send in information from an open community who are unknown to the program . For example; affected people during a crisis, citizens during an election. (need more examples here!) A trusted or bounded community Individuals or Groups that are part of the community and also part of known set of reporters to the platform. For example: NGO workers reporting to a UN system, election monitors reporting into the system. Pre-identified trusted community members sending in human rights information, and even known first responders during a disaster. Partners who will send & receive information Other organizations/partners- Organization that are partners involved in the program. This can be the organization that represents a bounded community (ex. Election monitoring group, UN Cluster, consortium) They can also be organization that wish to received analyzed information as well. ( Media/Journalists) Ushahidi/Crowdmap Platform- This is where information from the group above will come into and will also be the location where analyzed or processed information may come from. Within this platform there may be more people involved to process/analyze and present information back to the wider community. Remember that on major part of the platform is internet and web-based!
    • 12. Planning Information & Communication Flows This picture will help you determine information flows with the Usahahidi instance Ushahidi/Crowdmap Platform Ushahidi Map/Website categories layers reports statistics Partners who will send information you can have another group here like international media EXAMPLES- ALL Incoming Information Feedback loops and return of information Your thoughts? UNDP/OCHA COLOMBIA HAITI CRISIS MAP LIBYA CRISIS MAP
    • 13. Planning Information & Communication Flows Create the information flow and system that will best fit your project (is it possible to do a drag/drop function here? Where they would drag a group/partner into a circle? ) Drag your partners/group into the shapes- (auto-generated from assessment) Add more partners…. Drag the arrows to show where the information will enter
    • 14. Information/Communication Here is a recap of your information communication strategy from the assessment toolbox make changes…. Let’s move on! How do you plan to collect information the information you wish to map on the Ushahidi platform?  SMS  Web  Twitter  Smart phone Apps  Email  Call Center  Voice Message  Facebook List the specific types of information that you will collect for your project:  Face to Face  Radio  Other________________  Other________________
    • 15. Information and Categories A very good way to create and choose categories is to first understand how you will use the collected information. Information How will it be collected? (drop down or write in..) XXX camp sms, phone XXXX hospital sms, phone CATEGORY Camp Locations Hospital (functioning) How will this information be categorized? Information How will it be communicated out? (drop down or write in..) Refugee camp locations in X region UN cluster map, SMS alert, Functioning hospitals in Y region UN Health map, Cluster meeting How will this information be communicated out? EXAMPLE: You are quickly setting up a crisis map. Your goal is to identify the location of refugee camps to share who/what/where maps and share information about hospitals/ and clinics at UN Cluster meetings so organizations can plan shelter and health services. The information for the UN meeting will be maps with refugee locations and functioning hospital locations Categories you can create are “Camp Locations” and “Hospitals (functioning)” Now think about how this information will feasibly be collected. a) crowd information b) NGO individuals reporting into the system. 1 2 3 123
    • 16. Adding your information and feedback loops- Now add the information types to information diagram that you just created. Have you completed the feedback loop? More tips….. (is it possible to do a drag/drop function here? Where they would drag a group/partner into a circle? ) Drag your information types next to the red and green arrows above (auto-generated from assessment) . Schematic diagram from Slide 11 inserted here. Information OUT (drop down?) Auto inserted from slide 13 As above Information IN (drop down) Auto inserted from slide 13 As above
    • 17. ACTION AND RESPONSE
    • 18. Verifying information One of the challenges of using a crowdsourcing tool is verification: When information enters the Ushahidi/Crowdmap platforms you or your team will need to verify and confirm reports. Here are some ways that deployments have verified information: •You have the information from multiple reliable sources •You have two or more text messages from different phone numbers about the same incident. •Someone on your team has spoken with the person on the ground to get more detailed information about the report. •On of the providers of information is a partner or part of your “trusted network” What is a trusted network? Twitter challenges Example verificationsicon The Guide to verification What will be the rules to verify a report? (enter text here) If you have large numbers of reports coming in all at once, how will you prioritize which ones to verify quickly? How will you train your teams on how to verify? (enter text here) TIPS: If there is any doubt about a report, a good first step would be to mark the report as unverified, until you have the opportunity to investigate further.
    • 19. Choosing the Right Map When using Ushahidi or Crowdmap your verified reports will be placed on a map. You will need to choose a map that best fits the needs of your project. TIPS: How large is the area that you will place information on the map? (country, region, city, community)? Consideration #1: What is the scope or size of your project. Do you plan to collect information for an entire country, a city, or just a community? Consideration #2: Is there a map that exists of the areas that you are interested in? Some maps services may not have the area mapped. You should always check. If it does not exist? What are the next steps? What are your options? Ushahidi has 4 available providers, if you have a developer you can have them add another map to better fit your needs. The only customizable map is OpenStreetMap (OSM) Check out the following map providers here: I can’t find a map for my project ….. Visual Earth
    • 20. Messaging/Campaign How will people find out about your initiative? If your project involved receiving messages from the “crowd” or the open community, it is very important that you have a clear message and strategy about what type of information you would like people to send in, and for what purpose you will be using the information. Here are some things to think about: HOW DO PEOPLE ALREADY BROADCAST INFORMATION TO ONE ANOTHER? Think about the ways that people communicate with one another about information. If the community that you want to send in message watches television, reads the newspaper, or listen to the radio, this may be a very effective way to inform people of your project and why you want them to send you information. KEEP IT SIMPLE Don’t forget about face to face communications! Think about how people can spread the word in local meetings, through community leaders, and other basic communication pathways. TRUST If you are asking people to provide sensitive information how can you create trust so that they will feel safe and comfortable to provide information? Who will help you achieve this? (community leaders, etc) and how long will it take? TIMELINE Think carefully about the time it will take to launch your campaign. If you are planning on using different media plan for time to contact radio stations, money for printing fliers, and more time to build relationships and trust with community leaders who may promote your project. SMS USE The presence of mobile networks does not always mean that people will easily and freely SMS text. If you expect most of your information to come by SMS , investigate whether or not people are literate, feel comfortable texting, etc. COST Although using more media channels increase your campaign, it will likely also increase the cost of your project. One inexpensive and very effective way is to use community leaders and community organizations but this requires time and trust- which you may not always have especially during an emergency or crisis. TIPS: Many users believe in the importance of advance outreach via media coverage, advertising, workshops & demonstrations.
    • 21. The Message What will you actually say in your message? The specific words that you use in your campaign message will not only determine the type of messages you received, but will also influence the expectations of the users or “crowd”. Here are some examples and the successes and challenges. Needs Accurate Content here! This message generated thousand of messages, but one of the challenges was the large number of needs. In addition many people believed that if they texted in their need, that there would always be a response. This web banner was one of many message that Building Bridges use to have people map peace initiatives around the world. Needs content here for snowmagedden MORE EXAMPLES
    • 22. Managing Expectations of your partners/audience When using the Ushahidi/Crowdmap platform people often expect a response. HERE ARE SOME THINGS TO THINK ABOUT •If you decide not to respond, then it is extremely important that you make this clear to your audience to ensure that there are no expectations around the project or that there is no information gathering system that you cannot or are not set up to meet. •How will you ensure that there are not expectations around the project or information gathering system that you cannot or are not set up to meet? •Do you have a communication plan when you are unable to fulfill the promise of response that you messaged out in the past? •How will you return the information to the community/local district/those who provided so that they can use it for decision making or program intervention? HERE ARE SOME EXAMPES OF USER EXPERIENCES (please help with content here!!!) TIPS: There are different ways to manage expectations, like conducting local media campaigns, or sending automatic responses to messages saying "thank you for message, now the message will be processed", and so on. (Anahi)
    • 23. Messaging/Campaign How will people find out about your initiative? How will people find out about your initiative? What communication pathways will you use? TIPS: If you have time, we recommend that you touch base with your partners and users to see how they will interpret your message. Write down some sample messages that you will you for your campaign How will you manage expectation from communities and the crowd?
    • 24. Volunteers/Data Handling Team The human resources needed to run the platform
    • 25. Training To be completed soon. Please add ideas here!
    • 26. THANK YOU FOR COMPLETING TOOLBOX #2! Please save this file and add your name to the title. Then, return it to Heather Leson hleson@ushahidi.com. . You will receive a report from toolbox #1 to use in your project. In your email please send comments on how you would like this tool improved or changed! Thank you for being a very important part of Ushahidi’s User community!
    • 27. Appendix
    • 28. Local Associations Local Responders- police, redes social Agencies/Intl Orgs- PDP, defenseria, NGO, UN Key node(s) -Trusted by community -Trusted by the system Community Individual(s) Platform SIHCE SIDCE Key Components -Fact -Request -Documentation - Proof of Support Platform Administrators -Information management -Maintain flow of information from nodes to committee - technical knowledge to maintain platform infrastructure Government -Governor -Secretariats -Advisors Public Advocacy Recommendations Rapid response Committee -validate/monitor/and analyze information - local organizations rapidly respond -Coordinate & collectively present information to government -key representative of organizations - Collective Report Policy Monitoring Individual Agency Recommendations ReturnNext Example
    • 29. DepartamentodelCesár UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgrammeRedes UnitedNationsOfficefortheCoordinationofHumanitarianAffairs Return Next Example
    • 30. ReturnNext Example