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  • 1. (Insulin receptor substrate)(Insulin receptor substrate)InsulinInsulin 活化活化 GlycogenGlycogensynthase kinasesynthase kinase 活性以促活性以促進進 Glycogen synthesisGlycogen synthesis作用在使作用在使 GlycogenGlycogensynthesissynthesis 維持在不維持在不活化的狀態活化的狀態不活化狀態不活化狀態活化狀態活化狀態活化狀態活化狀態 不活化狀態不活化狀態
  • 2. 活化狀態活化狀態(Insulin receptor substrate)(Insulin receptor substrate)InsulinInsulin 活化活化 GlycogenGlycogensythase kinasesythase kinase 活性以促進活性以促進Glycogen synthesisGlycogen synthesis不活化狀態不活化狀態活化狀態活化狀態 不活化狀態不活化狀態作用在使作用在使 GlycogenGlycogensynthesissynthesis 維持在不維持在不活化的狀態活化的狀態
  • 3. Pamitate (16:0)生產 AcetylCoA耗掉 1 ATP生產 7 FADH2 = 7*1.5 ATP生產 7 NADH = 7*2.5 ATP生產 7 Acetyl CoA  TCAcycle7 cycles ofβ-oxidationTCA cycle
  • 4. β-oxidation of unsaturatedfatty acid1 Double bond1 Double bond
  • 5. 2 Double bond2 Double bond
  • 6. The final metabolite of β-oxidationof Odd-Chain fatty acidTCA cycle?
  • 7. TCA cycleThe metabolism of Propionyl CoAPropionyl CoACarboxylaseMethylmalonylCoA mutaseMethylmalonylCoA mutaseCoenzyme : Vit B12
  • 8. PeroxisomeMitochondrialβ-oxidation
  • 9. β-oxidation of Eukaryotic cellβ-oxidation of Eukaryotic cellLong chain fatty acidOctanoyl CoAAcetyl CoA
  • 10. The first step of β-oxidation inperoxisome of Eukaryotic cell
  • 11. From acetyl CoA to Ketone body
  • 12. Lack of GlucoseAcetyl CoA formed fromβ-oxidation would not bemetabolized into TCAcycleAcetyl CoA formed fromβ-oxidation would not bemetabolized into TCAcycleAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoAThe accumulatedAcetyl CoAmetabolized intoketone body pathwayThe accumulatedAcetyl CoAmetabolized intoketone body pathway
  • 13. Ketone body biosynthesis pathwayKetone body biosynthesis pathwayAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoA
  • 14. Acetyl CoAAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoA
  • 15. Acetyl CoAAcetyl CoAHMG CoAHMG CoA
  • 16. Acetyl CoAAcetyl CoA
  • 17. Rich in NADHRich in NADHLack of NADHLack of NADH
  • 18. TCA cycleTCA cycleGlycolysisGlycolysisGlucoseGlucoseTCA cycleTCA cycleCOCO22 + H+ H22OO
  • 19. Lack of GlucoseAcetyl CoA formed fromβ-oxidation would not bemetabolized into TCAcycleAcetyl CoA formed fromβ-oxidation would not bemetabolized into TCAcycleAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoAThe accumulatedAcetyl CoAmetabolized intoketone body pathwayThe accumulatedAcetyl CoAmetabolized intoketone body pathway
  • 20. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acid1. Biosynthesis in cytoplasm2. Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP)3. Fatty acid synthase4. Adding by 2 carbons per cycle5. NADPH6. Elongation until palmitate (16:0) with Fattyacid synthase complex
  • 21. The committed step of synthesis ofFatty AcidAcetyl CoA CarboxylaseAcetyl CoA Carboxylase
  • 22. Acetyl ACPAcetyl ACP& Malonyl ACP& Malonyl ACPAcetyl CoAAcetyl CoA&&Malonyl CoAMalonyl CoABinding with ACPBinding with ACP
  • 23. Acetyl CoAAcetyl CoA should be transported toshould be transported tocytoplasm via citrate for fatty acid synthesiscytoplasm via citrate for fatty acid synthesisATP-citrate lysaseATP-citrate lysaseMalate DHaseMalate DHaseMalate enzymeMalate enzyme
  • 24. Sources of NADPHSources of NADPH
  • 25. Regulation of Acetyl CoA carboxylaseRegulation of Acetyl CoA carboxylase
  • 26. BiochemistrySixth EditionChapter 26The Biosynthesis of MembraneLipids and SteroidsCopyright © 2007 by W. H. Freeman and CompanyBerg • Tymoczko • Stryer
  • 27. HMG- CoAHMG- CoAreductasereductase

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