[Usability Study] Comparing 9 Online Supermarkets in 3 countries


Published on

"Finding rubbish bags is the most difficult task in all countries": How easily do users understand terminologies and product categories of online supermarkets when looking for a specific product. By means of an international Tree Test a total of 180 users were asked to search for 5 products: honey, orange juice, muffins, pizza, and rubbish bags.

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

[Usability Study] Comparing 9 Online Supermarkets in 3 countries

  1. 1. TREE TESTING USABILITY STUDY Comparing Online Supermarkets 1
  2. 2. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Content Introduction Online supermarkets in the UK and their surge in popularity in the ecommerce market. About the Study Participants . 180 users: male and female between 25 and 50 . They usually buy groceries online Study Design . Usability research technique: Tree Testing . Every user randomly conducted 5 tasks in one supermarket . 3 target countries: United Kingdom, Germany, and Spain Study Results . International Results . UK Results . Conclusions Brands tested: 2
  3. 3. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Online grocery shopping is big business Books, electronic devices, fashion and shoes - a significant amount of users are already accustomed to placing orders online. And an increasing part are turning to online food stores to shop for groceries on the Net. The market will almost double in value by 2016 Although buying groceries online was one of the last retail markets to develop on the Internet, it is now the one with the highest growth rates. Buying food online is slowly becoming an attractive alternative and new buying habit. About 12% of the users located in the United Kingdom shop for groceries on the Internet. In other European countries only an average of 7% do food shopping online. 3
  4. 4. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Leading bricks and mortar retailers are also at the forefront of online food shopping Online food stores & their surge in popularity In the UK , the grocery market is worth £169.7 billion in 2013, which is an increase of 3.7% on 2012. Internet orders placed at online food specialists for home delivery accounts for £6.5 billion.* In addition to their high street presence, more and more retailers like Sainsbury’s and ASDA also use so called “dark stores”. Those stores are not open to the public, but assist nearby shops to deal with orders placed by web customers. *Data is year to April. Source: IGD UK channel forecasts 2013-18 4
  5. 5. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets An average of 7% of all FMCG in Europe purchased online are groceries & healthcare products % - market share of online food sales with regards to all FMCG sold in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Spain 60% 37% 33% 16% 15% Retail 25% 7% Technology 7% Groceries & Healthcare 14% 64% online %- market share per industry in Europe 35% 23% 21% Male Female 9% Automotive Media & Travel Entertainment Travel Finance & Real Estate 5 Source: CONSUMER BAROMETER 2012 GOOGLE (http://www.consumerbarometer.com)
  6. 6. 60% of the online buyers are loyal and come back to shop again. Shop from home while watching TV Despite the concern of not receiving entirely fresh products or paying an extra charge for the delivery, more and more people appreciate the advantages of making a purchase without having to leave their own house. While in some countries like France customers use “drive in” stations where they can pick up pre-ordered groceries, people in bigger cities like London prefer their food to be delievered directly to their front door. Being convenient and saving time are the main reasons for doing grocery shopping from home: Open 24/7 No parking space or traffic issue No carrying of heavy bags Increasing delivery charges Concern to receive food close to expiration date 6
  7. 7. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Online grocery shopping: A new buying experience Competition is fierce and supermarkets are testing different approaches to keep internet buyers happy: from offering low delivery charges, short booking slots, and long delievery hours to free delivery offers, and no minimum spends. Apart from the benefits, some food retailers make their online customer´s life harder by providing confusing product terms or categories, which significantly decrease the user experience of online food buyers. Some online food shops make it hard to find a common item from an average shopping list. 7
  8. 8. How easy is it to find a certain product in an online supermarket? To enhance a website‘s user experience it is recommended to continously ask users to test it. At UserZoom, our UX Research Team conducted an international Tree Test to analyse the navigation structure of 9 online supermarkets. 8
  9. 9. Usability Study: Tree Testing Comparing Online Supermarkets 9
  10. 10. Objective: Do the online supermarkets use terminologies and product categories which help online shoppers find the items they are looking for? How did we conduct the study? 10  *The data used is based on the point of analysis..
  11. 11. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Countries and Online Supermarkets: SLOVAKIA COLOMBIA 11
  12. 12. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Participants: We invited 180 male and female users between 25 and 50 years to participate. All users have at least once before bought groceries online. Frequency of buying groceries online (in %) Once a week Once a month Twice a month Not on a regular basis 12
  13. 13. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets About Tree Testing Tree Testing is a usability technique for evaluating the findability, labelling, and organisation of a website’s structure The technique closely matches the navigational experience a visitor would have on a site. A large website is typically organised into a hierarchy (“tree”) of topics and subtopics. Tree Testing provides a way to measure how well users can find items, content, services, and products in this hierarchy. 13
  14. 14. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets About Tree Testing Unlike traditional usability testing, Tree Testing is not done on the website itself. Instead, a simplified text version of the site structure is used. Tree Testing ensures that the structure is evaluated in isolation, nullifying the effects of navigational aids, visual design, and other factors. By means of Tree Testing you can find out, if the chosen navigation structure is actually in line with the users’s expectations. 14
  15. 15. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Tasks Every user performed 5 different tasks with regards to the navigation structure of 1 online supermarket. The participants were asked to look for the following products: 1. Honey 2. Orange Juice 3. Muffins 4. Pizza 5. Rubbish Bags 15
  16. 16. International Results 16 *The data used is based on the point of analysis.
  17. 17. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Where do online shoppers succeed the most? 1 2 3 4 5 6 The German supermarket EDEKA is the one with the highest success rates 7 In all supermarkets, most products are only found after several attempts. 17
  18. 18. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Task 1: Look for Honey Apart from at the German supermarket EDEKA, 50% of all study participants can not find the honey section. Most users don´t select the correct main category when looking for “Honey”. 78% While some supermarkets use the term “breakfast” (REWE, Caprabo) other food shops use the category “Cereal, Tinned & Dried” (ASDA) to accomodate honey. 41% Many online customers don´t relate honey to those categories and check out other menu options like “Food” or “Canned” instead. 61% 39% 32% 26% 17% 12% 5% *Successful in first attempt 18
  19. 19. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Task 2: Look for Fresh Orange Juice The category “Beverages” works great for juices. The task to look for fresh orange juice achieves the highest success rates in all supermarkets analysed. Most web shops include orange juice in the “Beverage” category, which users can easily identify. On the other hand, ASDA places juice in two different categories (“Food” and “Drinks”). Because of that, participants have trouble finding it here. 94% 88% 78% 71% 68% 58% 39% 28% 5% *Successful in first attempt 19
  20. 20. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Task 3: Look for Muffins User don´t always think about the time of the day when they consume a product, when they are about to purchase it. If “Muffins” are placed in the main category “Bakery” most users find them easier as opposed to when they are in the “Breakfast” 59% section. It doesn´t seem to help customers find an item when 56% it´s in a category, which is related to the time of day they actually 55% consume it, e.g. “Breakfast”. 50% At some supermarkets the term “Muffins” can be found in different categories, although the products actually differ (e.g. at ASDA 48% and Sainsbury´s). Other supermarkets use similar terms such 48% as “Pastries”, “Sweets”, and “Breakfast”, which confuse users into not 37% knowing where to look first. The German supermarket Bringmeister places “Muffins” in “Everyday Commodities”. But because the users don´t relate the little cakes to this section, they can´t find the product at all. 18% 0% *Successful in first attempt *Because EDEKA doesn´t sell chilled or baked products, “Muffins” were replaced by “Cake Mix” 20
  21. 21. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Task 4: Look for a Pizza Not all participants find “Pizza” straight away. To look for a pizza in an online supermarket turns out to be a problem for most users in every country. Only a few can locate them after a couple of clicks. Waitrose, EDEKA and REWE achieve the highest success rates with regards to users finding a pizza in their first attempt, followed by the Spanish shop Mercadona and British ASDA. Some supermarkets like Caprabo have generic categories like “Food” which can actually contain everything, but at the same time they accomodate pizzas in “Ready Meals”, where users don´t expect them to be. 72% 72% 71% 63% 58% 44% 44% 32% 6% *Successful in first attempt *Because EDEKA doesn´t sell chilled or baked products, “Pizza” was replaced by “Pasta Sauce” 21
  22. 22. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Task 5: Look for Rubbish Bags Similar categories cast doubt. Finding rubbish bags is the most difficult task in all countries. In general, users relate them to the categories “Home” and “Household Articles”. As soon as a supermarket uses both terms, user behaviour changes depending on the country, 78% 67% 35% e.g. while at the German supermarket EDEKA 94% of the 24% and “Household Article” categories. 11% 24% online customers at Carrefour equally searched the “Home” 21% users looked for “Rubbish Bags” in the “Home” section, Waitrose uses keywords related to certain products in the main categories, such as “Foils, Bags & Wraps”, although e.g. 11% 5% “Rubbish Bags” can not be found there, but in the “Cleaning Cupboard” section. 22
  23. 23. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Summary Many users have trouble finding specific products. The terms most online food shops use to describe parent categories in the navigation tree are not clear enough. A great amount of the online shoppers don´t click on some of the correct main categories in order to reveal underlying subcategories. This explains why more than half of the Internet customers can´t find a product straight away. The analysed supermarkets choose names, which in many cases don´t describe a product sufficently. Hence, most users look at other options in the navigation tree. Or participants get confused, because two product names are too similar. They jump from one menu to the next in order to find the difference between two given options. There is room for improvement in every online supermarket analysed In total, Waitrose obtains the highest success rates, followed by Sainsbury’s. At ASDA users have greater difficulty finding the requested items. The task which turned out to be the hardest was “looking for rubbish bags”. More than 50% of the participants can´t find them in their first attempt. All online shoppers encounter problems due to the navigation structure or terminology used (Waitrose, ASDA, and Sainsbury´s). 23
  24. 24. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Where can online shoppers find items the easiest? 1 2 3 Waitrose is also valued best by the users after they just complete the test. 24
  25. 25. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets How many users find a product in their first attempt? Task success rate for each user search (where do users click first in the navigation tree when looking for a product) Honey Orange Juice 61% Muffins 78% 28% 5% 39% 5% Pizza 50% 45% 48% Rubbish Bag 72% 24% 58% 21% 44% 11% 25
  26. 26. Why users can not find a product. Main problems encountered in the British supermarkets 26 *The data used is based on the point of analysis.
  27. 27. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets 1. The less time a user spends on a purchase, the happier he is The success rate for finding a product in the first attempt is generally low. Most users are only able to find a product after several clicks. When an online customer takes longer to find a desired item, the time someone spends to complete the purchase also increases. As a result, their user satisfaction decreases. At ASDA of all the users looking for rubbish bags, only 21% found them in their first attempt. Several clicks later, the success rate increases to 58%. The same happened at Sainsbury´s and to a lesser extent at Waitrose. First attempt After several clicks 24% 35% 21% 58% 11% 21% User satisfaction is ultimately low if finding a product is too much of an effort An easy-to-find product increases the user satisfaction 27
  28. 28. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets 2. Applicable product categories make finding a product easier Some groceries are placed in parent categories, which are not clearly named. Users then browse a shop for a long time, while opening different menus to find a desired product. At ASDA, only 5% of the participants are able to find “Honey” straight away. 16% of the remaining participants finally encounter “Honey” after several tries. The problem is, that most shoppers search within the category “Condiments, Sauces & Seasonings” instead of looking in “Cereal, Tinned & Dried”. First attempt Parent categories are not selfexplanatory Usercanneitherfind“Honey” intheirfirstattemptnorafter a couple of clicks All clicks 28
  29. 29. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets 3. One category per product helps locating an item At ASDA users can find “Juice” in 2 similar categories: “Drinks” and “ Food”. Because of that, participants do not know where to look first and the quest to find juice turns out to be really complicated. While “Fresh Juice” is placed in “Foods”, all other juices are within the “Drinks” section, misleading 74% of the users to look for fresh juice there. At the end, only 5% find the product in the “Food” section. Same product in two different categories If products are repeated in 2 different categories, users are misled to think they are surfing on the parent category level 29
  30. 30. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets 4. One name per product leads to clearer results In some cases, online shoppers find 2 items with the same product name. Most participants then choose to click on the first option. Although items are named exactly the same, you don´t always encounter the same product, e.g. at Sainsbury’s users find it difficult to understand the difference between “Breakfast Muffins” and “Muffins”. Although the word “Muffins” can be found in various categories, users are led to different products 30
  31. 31. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets 5. Commonly used terms make a shopper´s life easier Most food retailers place “Rubbish Bags” in categories where users don´t expect them to be. At Sainsbury´s 83% of the users look in the “Home & Garden” section rather than going to “Food & Drinks”. After several clicks: After several clicks, the success rate for finding the bin bags increases to 11%. 4 31
  32. 32. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets 6. An intuitive navigation works best The name used at Waitrose to categorise the parent level is “Cleaning Cupboard”. Most users don´t expect “Rubbish Bags” to be there, but search in “Foils, Bags & Wraps”. First attempt 24% After several attempts 35% After several attempts, 65% of the users still think the bags should be in the “Foils, Bags & Wraps” section. After several attempts 32
  33. 33. Conclusions 33
  34. 34. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Key Lessons Learned 1. Don´t use ambiguous names to categorise products. a single meaning. It should clearly A category name should be clear and should only have reflect what the category contains. two different categories, especially they could contain 2. Avoid assigning two simliar names to will find it easier to choose the rightifnavigation path. similar products. This way, a user 3. A very generic name, which can be used for any kind of product doesn´t help, but will only confuse a customer. that a main category clearly 4. It´s important the first click, a user wants toindicates what its´ subcategories contain. After find a product easy and fast by means of a clear and direct click path. Be sure to avoid non-intuitive names, which may cause users to head off into many different directions. ideal use the name of meal to 5. It is notdon´ttorelate the sameaproductscategorise food, because users to the different kinds of meals, e.g. not everybody eats the same groceries for breakfast. 34
  35. 35. TREE TESTING Usability Study: Comparing Online Supermarkets Research Benefits: Conducting user studies by means of Tree Testing helps finding out how users arrange and structure products in an online supermarket, which saves time and resources when building or optimising a web shop. The study results can also positively affect your ROI on maintaining an online store or web presence. Since a more effective purchase process increases user satisfaction, leading to greater brand loyalty and full shopping carts. This clearly increases your Return on Investment. 35
  36. 36. UX Research Team UserZoom Dolors Pou Jen Kirschniok Jordi Sintes Would you like to experience UserZoom? Request a demo or a free pilot study. www.userzoom.co.uk UserZoom Spain UserZoom UK UserZoom USA UserZoom Germany 50a Alderley Road Wilmslow, Cheshire SK9 1NT Sunnyvale (CA) USA 440 N. Wolfe Rd. Sunnyvale, CA 94085 München (DE) Ainmillerstr. 11 80801 München Tel: +1 (866) 599 1550 Contact: Alfonso de la Nuez alfonso@userzoom.com Tel: +49 89 41 41 42 45-0 Contact: Jakob Biesterfeldt jbiesterfeldt@userzoom.com Tel: + 44 (0) 1625 525 650 Mob: + 44 (0) 7900 472 920 Contact: Arthur Moan amoan@userzoom.com @UserZoom_UK @UserZoom @UserZoom_DE BARCELONA Av. Diagonal 618 3º D 08030 Barcelona, Spain Telf: +34 93 414 7554 MADRID Calle Fortuny 3 2º 28010 Madrid Tel: +34 915 426 252 Contact: Sara López slopez@userzoom.com @xperience_UZ www.linkedin.com/company/userzoom www.userzoom.co.uk