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In the Trenches with Enterprise Ontology

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This was a keynote talk given at the European Knowledge Acquisition Conference in Galway Ireland in Octover 2012. …

This was a keynote talk given at the European Knowledge Acquisition Conference in Galway Ireland in Octover 2012.

We explore the issues and challenges that arise when building real world enterprise ontologies for large organizations. We summarize our experiences giving practical tips and guidelines concerning the following questions and issues.
• What is the purpose of the ontology?
• Where do you start?
• What do you include?
• Where does the knowledge come from?
• Do you use an upper ontology? Which one?
• What languages and tools should you use?

We look at how to represent concepts beyond the usual people, places, and time and explore how these things impact the business. These include: events and how to influence and regulate behavior; goals and intentions; skills and capabilities, registration and credentialing. Many examples will be from the Sentara Healthcare Enterprise Ontology (SHEO) a comprehensive ontology in the business of healthcare.

Published in: Technology, Education, Spiritual

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  • 1. • • • • • • • •
  • 2. • • •
  • 3. • • • • • •
  • 4. Stuff Space Skin Systems Structure Site
  • 5. Stuff Aesthetics Space Navigation & Search Skin Capability Systems Formal Taxonomy Structure Enterprise Arch Site Enterprise Ontology
  • 6. • • • •
  • 7. • •
  • 8. • • • • • •
  • 9. View in ontology editor Author in OWL Run inference to check consistency Interview Debug cycle Inferencing / Consistency Interview / Model cycle
  • 10. • • •
  • 11. • • • • • • Lively enjoyable sessions.
  • 12. • • • • •
  • 13. A legal organization? A building? What about patients?
  • 14. Hospital is licensed for specific number of registered beds providing particular kind of services. More than one hospital in a single building Kinds of hospitals Physical bed vs. a capacity Single “hospital services” unit that services all the hospitals in a building
  • 15. More general: Care Facility Hospital Affiliation relationship Other care facilities. Specific kinds of hospital Emergency department
  • 16. • • • – – • – – Pop Quiz Can a hospital be both an organization and a building?
  • 17. Plus plenty of other notes. We just saw these.
  • 18. View in ontology editor Author OWL Run inference to check consistency Interview Debug cycle  Inferencing / Consistency Interview / Model cycle
  • 19. An in-house tool
  • 20. Operates from fixed location Easy to understand definition Technically precise definition An event where something is recognized and granted Registered beds Accredited The result of the accreditation event
  • 21. • •
  • 22. View in ontology editor Author OWL  Run inference to check consistency Interview Debug cycle  Inferencing / Consistency Interview / Model cycle 26
  • 23. Run inference and debug
  • 24. OOPS! The ontology is inconsistent. Get an explanation.
  • 25. Scan to find obviously wrong axioms. Choose a class with fewer axioms in explanation. What did I just change? Choose a problem class, get an explanation. Draw a Venn diagram. Find group of axioms related to theme; often a single mistake has ripple effects.
  • 26. Once the ontology is consistent, check to see if there are any wrong subclass relationships. If so, use the explanation facility .
  • 27. View in Protege Author OWL Interview Run inference to check consistency Debug cycle Inferencing / Consistency Interview / Model cycle Cycle through more interviews, modeling and debugging.
  • 28. • • • • • • • To name just a few!
  • 29. What is supporting the bedrock? Controlling and Influencing Behavior Specification sheo:Specification A body of information specifying what properties, structure and/or results something should or must have after it has been built, fulfilled or completed. The thing may be physical (a building), organizational (a management structure), computational (a program), job or task related (e.g., a CEO, Chief Judge) or changing oil in a car. It is more general than gist:Template because 1) It is focused on what, not necessarily how; 2) it does not require to be executed by a computer program, but by any agent or set of agents. Rules, Regulations, Procedures, Agreements, Guidelines, Offers are all ways to influence behavior in someway. sheo:ExecutableSpecification gist:Goal A specification that is sufficiently well specified that it can be executed by an agent with no additional information required. A specific intentional endpoint usually to do, have, be, know or believe something. The something is the object of the intention. Adds structure to original version of gist:Goal sheo:TargetedGoal sheo:_Template A structure that is used as the basis for generating new individuals that have that structure, e.g., a form. A filled-in form has the structure of the form with data entered into some or all of the fields. A Goal targeted at one or more agents. The goal that some "targeted" agent or population does, has, is, knows or believes "something." (N) sheo:object some sheo:ObjectOfIntention sheo:businessDefinition A document or form used as a common starting point for a new document or form. sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription Definitive characterization of a behavior spec, includes exactly what is permitted/required/suggested/disallowed as well as possible consequences for disregarding/ disobeying. Subclass of gist:Goal --- AND --- sheo:businessDefinition gist:Content An end to which effort is directed. sheo:NormativeSpecification (N) sheo:about A characterization of how something will, should or must be done to achieve some outcome. It will typically specify what one of the intended parties should or should not do. The parties may be motivated by the goal or to avoid consequences of doing contrary behaviors. Includes Guidelines, Regulations, Agreements and Offers. Name comes from cyc. (N) sheo:forAgent min 1 sheo:AgentOrAgents some sheo:NormativeSpecification sheo:Specification sheo:GoalToBe A goal to be something. (NS) sheo:toBe min 1 sheo:_Ownable sheo:GoalToKnow To know or know about something. (NS) sheo:toKnow min 1 (N) gist:producedBy sheo:ObjectOfIntention Something that helps to characterize the nature of a goal. The thing to believe, know, do, have or be. To have an Ownable; To be or to be in a state or condition (e.g. happy). To know or believe a proposition or know about information. To do a behavior. sheo:StateOrCondition some gist:SocialBeing (N) sheo:appliesTo sheo:IntendedGoal A TargetedGoal that is intended by e.g. an agent, regulation or event. A GoalOnAgent might be that JoeBlogs buys something. It becomes an Intention when some agent declares that as a goal. Differs from gist:Intention which is more generic and not tied to any agent. --- AND --sheo:TargetedGoal Subclass of some sheo:SocialBeingOrBeings sheo:templateFor some gist:Content some gist:SocialBeing (N) sheo:_getter some sheo:_Obligation (N) sheo:hasBehaviorSpec some gist:SocialBeing (N) sheo:appliesTo min 1 (N) sheo:justifiedBy some sheo:SocialBeingOrBeings gist:hasDirectPart (N) sheo:hasScope min 0 sheo:NormativeSpecification some skos:Concept (N) gist:hasGoal some sheo:TargetedGoal sheo:businessDefinition A specification of how something may, must, should or should not be done. gist:Goal A future commitment from one social being to another. Contracts are sets of oblgations to do or forebear, or indemnify or warrant. An Obligation is a direct consequence of a BehaviorSpec as it applies to a particular SocialBeing, e.g., if boilerplate says all Females are required to do X, then JaneDoe is obligated to do X. Exactly analogous to gist:Obligation, except it applies to Instructions, Guidelines, Regulations and terms of Agreements in general, not just Offers. Should be merged. (N) sheo:_giver sheo:_Template gist:describedIn some sheo:NormativeSpecification (N) sheo:usesTemplate some sheo:BehaviorSpec gist:hasGoal (N) gist:categorizedBy some sheo:TargetedGoal some gist:DegreeOfCommitment (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription sheo:businessDefinition Something a person is committed to doing. sheo:Proposition (N) sheo:_goalOf gist:Behavior min 1 Subclass of sheo:NormativeSpecification The focus of the thing wanted in a goal. sheo:BehaviorSpec --- OR --- sheo:Guideline A suggestion, recommendation, or policy that is optional, not required. sheo:businessDefinition sheo:GoalToBelieve sheo:_Obligation sheo:BehaviorSpec Something that affects behavior. Intended to be a small number of generic ways. Includes: Permission, Restriction, Requirement and Suggestion. Are the nuts and bolts of Regulations, Guidelines, Offers and Agreements. Note that each BehaviorSpec may have its own goal in addition to the goal of the NormativeSpecification that it is part of. Also, the agent part of the intended GoalOnAgent should probably be connected to what the BehaviorSpec sheo:appliesTo Subclass of (N) gist:categorizedBy has sheo:Optional sheo:Optional Indicates that the suggested behaviors are not required. sheo:_Permission Subclass of DIffers from gist:Permission by not being a subclass of Intention. gist:DegreeOfCommitment (NS) gist:allow sheo:GuidelineDescription some gist:Behavior Text characterization of a Guideline. A Goal to believe something. sheo:SelfTargetedGoal (NS) sheo:toBelieve min 1 sheo:StateOrCondition Includes things like being happy. Broad enough to include any state of affairs or set of propositions. An Intention where the Agent intends a goal on him/her/itself. Cannot be expressed in OWL. (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:GuidelineDescription Subclass of sheo:_Restriction DIffers from gist:Restriction by not being a subclass of Intention. sheo:businessDefinition An optional but recommended policy or action. (N) sheo:about (NS) gist:prevent some sheo:Guideline some gist:Behavior sheo:Regulation A rule or law that must be obeyed, as opposed to being optional. Subclass of sheo:NormativeSpecification sheo:GoalToHave A Goal to have something. --- AND --sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription (N) gist:categorizedBy some sheo:Required sheo:Required Indicates that the suggested behaviors are required. sheo:Instruction A generic description of things that should or must be done. May become obligations when tied to particular agents. Subclass of gist:DegreeOfCommitment (NS) sheo:instructToDo sheo:RegulationDescription some gist:Behavior Text characterization of a Regulation (NS) sheo:toHave sheo:_Ownable min 1 Includes information. --- OR --- (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:RegulationDescription --- AND --- sheo:businessDefinition Subclass of Specification of something that must be done. sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription sheo:businessDefinition A rule or a law that must be followed. (N) sheo:about some sheo:Regulation sheo:Requirement A generic description of things that must be done. gist:Ownable sheo:Statute A written law. sheo:GoalToDo sheo:_Offer min 1 A product or service available to a potential purchaser under certain stipulations. Also includes guaranties, warranties, encumbrances, etc. More general than gist:Offer. (NS) sheo:require some gist:Behavior A generic description of things that should be done. Subclass of sheo:Information A Goal to do something. (NS) sheo:toDo sheo:_Agreement Normative specification where two or more parties commit, each having one or more obligations. Differences from gist:Agreement: a party can be a Population; no evidence is necessary; link to Obligations uses "justifies," not "directPart." NB: should be min 2 Obligations. Inference will not work due to property chain. (NS) sheo:suggest sheo:NormativeSpecification Subclass of sheo:Suggestion some gist:Behavior (N) sheo:_party sheo:NormativeSpecification min 2 sheo:SocialBeingOrBeings (N) gist:categorizedBy (N) sheo:justifies some sheo:Required (N) gist:giver some gist:SocialBeing min 1 sheo:_Obligation sheo:OfferDescription Text characterization of an Offer (N) gist:categorizedBy some sheo:Required --- OR --(N) gist:hasDirectPart some gist:Offering (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:OfferDescription sheo:businessDefinition The stated willingness to sell or give away some product or service. Subclass of sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription (N) gist:hasDirectPart some gist:Term (N) sheo:about some sheo:_Offer sheo:AgreementDescription Text characterization of an Agreement --- AND --(N) gist:producedBy some sheo:EnteringAgreement (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:AgreementDescription sheo:businessDefinition A mutual decision where two or more parties commit to doing something. Subclass of sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription (N) gist:hasDirectPart some gist:Term (N) sheo:about some sheo:_Agreement
  • 30. Controlling and Influencing Behavior Specification sheo:Specification A body of information specifying what properties, structure and/or results something should or must have after it has been built, fulfilled or completed. The thing may be physical (a building), organizational (a management structure), computational (a program), job or task related (e.g., a CEO, Chief Judge) or changing oil in a car. It is more general than gist:Template because 1) It is focused on what, not necessarily how; 2) it does not require to be executed by a computer program, but by any agent or set of agents. gist:Goal Rules, Regulations, Procedures, Agreements, Guidelines, Offers are all ways to influence behavior in someway. sheo:ExecutableSpecification A specific intentional endpoint usually to do, have, be, know or believe something. The something is the object of the intention. Adds structure to original version of gist:Goal A specification that is sufficiently well specified that it can be executed by an agent with no additional information required. sheo:TargetedGoal A Goal targeted at one or more agents. The goal that some "targeted" agent or population does, has, is, knows or believes "something." (N) sheo:object some sheo:ObjectOfIntention sheo:_Template A structure that is used as the basis for generating new individuals that have that structure, e.g., a form. A filled-in form has the structure of the form with data entered into some or all of the fields. sheo:businessDefinition A document or form used as a common starting point for a new document or form. Subclass of sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription Definitive characterization of a behavior spec, includes exactly what is permitted/required/suggested/disallowed as well as possible consequences for disregarding/ disobeying. gist:Goal sheo:businessDefinition --- AND --- An end to which effort is directed. gist:Content (N) sheo:forAgent sheo:NormativeSpecification min 1 sheo:AgentOrAgents (N) sheo:about A characterization of how something will, should or must be done to achieve some outcome. It will typically specify what one of the intended parties should or should not do. The parties may be motivated by the goal or to avoid consequences of doing contrary behaviors. Includes Guidelines, Regulations, Agreements and Offers. Name comes from cyc. some sheo:NormativeSpecification (NS) sheo:toBe min 1 sheo:_Ownable sheo:GoalToKnow To know or know about something. (NS) sheo:toKnow min 1 sheo:Specification sheo:ObjectOfIntention Something that helps to characterize the nature of a goal. The thing to believe, know, do, have or be. To have an Ownable; To be or to be in a state or condition (e.g. happy). To know or believe a proposition or know about information. To do a behavior. sheo:StateOrCondition (N) gist:producedBy some gist:SocialBeing sheo:IntendedGoal A TargetedGoal that is intended by e.g. an agent, regulation or event. A GoalOnAgent might be that JoeBlogs buys something. It becomes an Intention when some agent declares that as a goal. Differs from gist:Intention which is more generic and not tied to any agent. --- AND --- Subclass of some gist:SocialBeing sheo:templateFor some gist:Content some sheo:_Obligation (N) sheo:hasBehaviorSpec (N) sheo:_getter some gist:SocialBeing (N) sheo:appliesTo min 1 (N) sheo:justifiedBy some sheo:SocialBeingOrBeings gist:hasDirectPart (N) sheo:hasScope min 0 sheo:NormativeSpecification some skos:Concept some sheo:TargetedGoal A specification of how something may, must, should or should not be done. gist:Goal some sheo:NormativeSpecification (N) sheo:usesTemplate some sheo:BehaviorSpec gist:hasGoal (N) gist:categorizedBy some sheo:TargetedGoal some gist:DegreeOfCommitment (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription sheo:BehaviorSpec --- OR --- sheo:Guideline A suggestion, recommendation, or policy that is optional, not required. Subclass of The focus of the thing wanted in a goal. sheo:NormativeSpecification A Goal to believe something. (N) gist:categorizedBy sheo:SelfTargetedGoal (NS) sheo:toBelieve min 1 sheo:StateOrCondition Includes things like being happy. Broad enough to include any state of affairs or set of propositions. An Intention where the Agent intends a goal on him/her/itself. Cannot be expressed in OWL. has sheo:Optional sheo:GoalToHave Includes information. DIffers from gist:Permission by not being a subclass of Intention. (NS) gist:allow sheo:GuidelineDescription some gist:Behavior --- AND --Subclass of sheo:_Restriction DIffers from gist:Restriction by not being a subclass of Intention. sheo:businessDefinition An optional but recommended policy or action. (N) sheo:about (NS) gist:prevent some sheo:Guideline some gist:Behavior sheo:Regulation Subclass of sheo:_Ownable min 1 sheo:_Permission Subclass of gist:DegreeOfCommitment sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription sheo:NormativeSpecification (NS) sheo:toHave sheo:Optional Indicates that the suggested behaviors are not required. Text characterization of a Guideline. (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:GuidelineDescription A rule or law that must be obeyed, as opposed to being optional. A Goal to have something. sheo:businessDefinition Something a person is committed to doing. min 1 sheo:businessDefinition sheo:GoalToBelieve A future commitment from one social being to another. Contracts are sets of oblgations to do or forebear, or indemnify or warrant. An Obligation is a direct consequence of a BehaviorSpec as it applies to a particular SocialBeing, e.g., if boilerplate says all Females are required to do X, then JaneDoe is obligated to do X. Exactly analogous to gist:Obligation, except it applies to Instructions, Guidelines, Regulations and terms of Agreements in general, not just Offers. Should be merged. (N) sheo:_giver sheo:_Template gist:describedIn sheo:businessDefinition (N) sheo:_goalOf gist:Behavior (N) sheo:appliesTo some sheo:SocialBeingOrBeings (N) gist:hasGoal sheo:TargetedGoal sheo:Proposition sheo:_Obligation sheo:BehaviorSpec Something that affects behavior. Intended to be a small number of generic ways. Includes: Permission, Restriction, Requirement and Suggestion. Are the nuts and bolts of Regulations, Guidelines, Offers and Agreements. Note that each BehaviorSpec may have its own goal in addition to the goal of the NormativeSpecification that it is part of. Also, the agent part of the intended GoalOnAgent should probably be connected to what the BehaviorSpec sheo:appliesTo Subclass of sheo:GoalToBe A goal to be something. (N) gist:categorizedBy some sheo:Required sheo:Required Indicates that the suggested behaviors are required. sheo:Instruction A generic description of things that should or must be done. May become obligations when tied to particular agents. Subclass of gist:DegreeOfCommitment (NS) sheo:instructToDo sheo:RegulationDescription some gist:Behavior Text characterization of a Regulation (N) gist:describedIn --- OR --- some sheo:RegulationDescription gist:Ownable A rule or a law that must be followed. --- AND --- sheo:businessDefinition Subclass of Specification of something that must be done. sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription sheo:businessDefinition (N) sheo:about some sheo:Regulation sheo:Requirement A generic description of things that must be done. sheo:GoalToDo sheo:Information sheo:Statute A written law. (NS) sheo:toDo min 1 sheo:_Agreement sheo:_Offer A product or service available to a potential purchaser under certain stipulations. Also includes guaranties, warranties, encumbrances, etc. More general than gist:Offer. (NS) sheo:require some gist:Behavior Normative specification where two or more parties commit, each having one or more obligations. Differences from gist:Agreement: a party can be a Population; no evidence is necessary; link to Obligations uses "justifies," not "directPart." NB: should be min 2 Obligations. Inference will not work due to property chain. A generic description of things that should be done. Subclass of A Goal to do something. (NS) sheo:suggest sheo:NormativeSpecification Subclass of some gist:Behavior min 2 sheo:SocialBeingOrBeings (N) gist:categorizedBy sheo:Suggestion (N) sheo:_party sheo:NormativeSpecification (N) sheo:justifies some sheo:Required (N) gist:giver some gist:SocialBeing min 1 sheo:_Obligation sheo:OfferDescription Text characterization of an Offer (N) gist:categorizedBy some sheo:Required --- OR --(N) gist:hasDirectPart some gist:Offering (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:OfferDescription sheo:businessDefinition The stated willingness to sell or give away some product or service. Subclass of sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription (N) gist:hasDirectPart some gist:Term (N) sheo:about some sheo:_Offer sheo:AgreementDescription Text characterization of an Agreement --- AND --(N) gist:producedBy some sheo:EnteringAgreement (N) gist:describedIn some sheo:AgreementDescription sheo:businessDefinition A mutual decision where two or more parties commit to doing something. Subclass of sheo:NormativeSpecificationDescription (N) gist:hasDirectPart some gist:Term (N) sheo:about some sheo:_Agreement
  • 31. • • • • • •
  • 32. • • • • • • • • • • e.g., won’t let you say a Hospital is also a Building
  • 33. • • •
  • 34. 1277 Classes 397 Properties 8065 Axioms Business Business – Page-1 and FINANCE Author : Michael Uschold & DaveMcComb Last Updated : 5/2/2012 Document Types Communication Preferences sheo:HospitalAccreditation Registration / Credentialing SHEO: Business and Finance Sentara Healthcare Enterprise Ontology: Business Module Base URI : http://ontologies.sentara.com/sheo/business1.0 Default Namespace : http://ontologies.sentara.com/sheo# gist:Category sheo:InformationCategory http://ontologies.semanticarts.com/gist# sheo http://ontologies.sentara.com/sheo# shei sheo:Registration This currently includes [kinds of] documents as well as [kinds of] information. Could be teased apart and linked in the future. Namespaces gist sheo:Registrar The event of creating a record of some data on an individual for some purpose, e.g., permission to use an online service, receive medical care, or drive your car; or, to meet an Obligation, e.g., to register for the draft. Subclass of sheo:Recognition Ways that something can be sent to one or more a gist:Address(es). An important subset of these are ways to deliver purchased items; these are covered by Goodrelations. Imports http://ontologies.sentara.com/sheo/resource1.0 http://ontologies.semanticarts.com/gist/gistFinance1.3 URI : sheo:RegisteredPerson The one who does the registering on a Registration event. Someone who has been registered. --- AND --- --- AND --gist:Person sheo:_Agent Subclass of gist:Category sheo:DeliveryMode http://ontologies.sentara.com/shei# URI : URI : sheo:registrantOn sheo:doerOn some sheo:Registration some sheo:Registration (N) sheo:doer sheo:SensitiveInformationCategory http://ontologies.semanticarts.com/gist/gistMeasure1.3 some sheo:Registrar Instances (or subclasses) of this would include: HIV/ADIS, MentalHealth, STD, Disease States, Personally Identification, Trade Secret, Licensed (ie CPT codes) --- OR --sheo:DeliveryModePhysical (N) sheo:registrant exactly 1 sheo:Registrant sheo:DeliveryModeElectronic sheo:Registrant The one who is registered on a Registration event. --- AND --- (N) gist:produces some sheo:RegistrationRecord sheo:PersIdentInfo Information where the person can be identified. e.g. clinical information on STDs, HIV, MentalHealth etc. (NS) gist:characterizedAs some sheo:Register The event of giving hospital credentials to an organization, i.e., a hospital. Note that the recipient may not be the hospital, rather it may be the owner of the hospital. Hospital Licensing sheo:_Agent sheo:registrantOn some sheo:Registration sheo:businessDefinition Signing up for something, either voluntary or legally required. sheo:PII-MedicalResults sheo:DeliveryModePhysical sheo:DeliveryModeConfirmed Physical delivery sheo:DeliveryModeElectronic A confirmation of receipt of the delivery is possible. Electronic delivery --- OR --sheo:ElectronicConfirmedDelivery sheo:PhysicalConfirmedDelivery Delivery by Parcel Service sheo:PII-PayStub Any means of disseminating information. Narrower than DeliveryMode because it only includes information. sheo:CredentialingOrganization An organization that gives credentials to individuals or other organizations. --- AND --- sheo:PII-AppointmentReminder Subclass of sheo:Accreditation sheo:ElectronicConfirmedDelivery sheo:PhysicalConfirmedDelivery includes email confirmed receipt sheo:PII-Subpoena The event of giving credentials to an organization or individual. Subclass of sheo:PubliclyPost sheo:PII-Prescription sheo:Recognition sheo:PII-NarcoticPrescription sheo:Notify some sheo:CredentialingOrganization (N) gist:getter sheo:PII-WorkAssignment Subclass of gist:Content sheo:producedBy some sheo:Registration gist:Domain sheo:LegalEntity (N) gist:giverOn sheo:Accreditation sheo:PhysicianCredentialingOrganization some sheo:Accreditation (N) gist:giver sheo:DeliveryRegistered Delivery using a formal registration and tracking process. sheo:RegistrationRecord The output product of a Registration event behavior; data about the registrant. --- AND --- sheo:DisclosureMechanism sheo:DeliveryMode sheo:DeliveryModeParcelService includes Certified Mail, Sopeana, Fed Ex signed sheo:businessDefinition An organization that authorizes individuals or other organizations to do certain things. An organization that legally grants physicians their credentials. Subclass of sheo:CredentialingOrganization some gist:SocialBeing sheo:HospitalCredentialingOrganization sheo:SendeeType gist:Category sheo:SentPhysicalThingType Who the communication is sent to. sheo:PII-Invoice (N) sheo:given some sheo:Credentials Any kind of thing that is physically sent. (NS) gist:characterizedAs Subclass of gist:Category some sheo:Grant sheo:SentThingType sheo:HIV-AIDS Type of things that can be sent to an arbitrary address. e.g small physical item, appointment reminder sheo:SentPhysicalDocumentType Any kind of document that is physically sent. Any kind of target population that something is sent to en masse. Subclass of sheo:Credentials What is given as the outcome of an Accreditation event, e.g., legal authorization to perform or provide specific services. sheo:CredentialingOrganization Subclass of Subclass of sheo:MentalHealth sheo:SentPhysicalThingType sheo:Specimen A sample, as of tissue, blood, or urine, used for analysis and diagnosis. An organization that gives a license to a hospital. gist:Content --- OR --- sheo:MassCorrespondence (N) gist:hasA sheo:HospitalAccreditation sheo:STD sheo:SentVirtualThingType Sexually transmitted diseases sheo:InformationCategory The event of giving hospital credentials to an organization, i.e., a hospital. Note that the recipient may not be the hospital, rather it may be the owner of the hospital. Subclass of sheo:TradeSecret sheo:Accreditation some sheo:_Permission (NS) sheo:givenOn some sheo:Accreditation sheo:businessDefinition Legal authorization to do certain things. sheo:HospitalBed One space in a hospital for a patient, with a set of specific medical procedures that are allowed to be performed. Used to specify capacity for licensing, it is not the physical bed. gist:CountingUnit Subclass of (N) gist:giver sheo:Pay The funds, as opposed to the pay stub. sheo:LicensedInformation e.g. CPT codes some sheo:HospitalCredentialingOrganizatio n Subclass of sheo:SentVirtualThingType sheo:DeliveryPreference sheo:Posting Shipping or Communication Preference, e.g., for mailing, courier delivery, email, fax, etc. for different situations.This might be filled out, e.g., during patient registration, employee orientation, or be for suppliers. Subclass of sheo:NormativeSpecification sheo:SalesRegion This is putting information (or notifaction) in a generally known and accessable place without the obligation to individually alert all the people that may be affected. for instance legal notices in the classifieds, posting bids in a specific journal etc. sheo:ProtectedHealthInformation Acronym: PHI Subclass of sheo:PhysicalLocation (N) gist:getter some gist:LegalOrganization (N) gist:given some sheo:HospitalLicense sheo:businessDefinition GIving a hospital the license to operate. sheo:businessDefinition sheo:Sending (N) gist:of sheo:SummaryBenefits An area that a given sales agent is responsible for. May be a geo region, or something that has one, e.g., a township. Subclass of sheo:MedicalInformationCategory some gist:Content (N) sheo:to some sheo:PublicLocation sheo:LegallyRequiredNotification sheo:InsuranceAccreditation sheo:PublicLocation A place, physical or virtual, where things can be freely visited and/or seen by members of the public. (N) gist:characterizedAs Subclass of some sheo:PubliclyPost min 1 sheo:DeliveryMode sheo:_Location The event of giving an insurance company a license to sell insurance. sheo:ServiceRegion An area in which a given service may be provided. May be a geo region, or something that has one, e.g., a township. sheo:AgreementChangeNotification sheo:BillingStatements sheo:Notification The transmission of the whereabouts of goods or information, separate from the goods or information itself; everything from the notice that you have a package at the postoffice to the terms as defined on a particular web site. (N) sheo:hasScope sheo:businessDefinition (N) gist:given sheo:EoB The area a service is available in. some sheo:InsuranceLicense Explanation of Benefits sheo:MarketingInfo --- AND --Subclass of some sheo:InvoiceInfo some sheo:HospitalCredentialingOrganization Subclass of gist:Count (N) gist:hasUoM some sheo:HospitalBed sheo:License Permission formally granted to do or use things in a particular manner. Subclass of Subclass of sheo:Credentials sheo:Credentials (NS) sheo:givenOn An event giving a health care provider credentials to practice. some gist:Address some sheo:Sending (N) sheo:categorizedBy sheo:InsuranceLicense some sheo:InsuranceAccreditation sheo:PractitionerAccredation (N) sheo:object (N) gist:regarding sheo:BillingAddress sheo:DeliveryPreference sheo:businessDefinition Legal permission for an organization to function as a hospital. A license that permits an organization to sell insurance. Subclass of sheo:_Permission sheo:DateEntryForm sheo:HospitalLicense Data entry turnaround form (e.g. Survey) Subclass of sheo:Sending A DeliveryPreference stating where invoices should be sent. some gist:Behavior sheo:HospitalBedCount Subclass of (N) gist:getter some gist:LegalOrganization min 1 sheo:SendeeType some sheo:SentThingType (N) gist:regarding sheo:businessDefinition A unit capacity for registering beds in a hospital. A count of the number of registered beds a hospital is licenced to operate. sheo:Accreditation Subclass of sheo:PhysicalLocation (N) gist:categorizedBy Subclass of sheo:Credentials (NS) sheo:givenOn some sheo:HospitalAccreditation some sheo:HospitalBedCount (N) sheo:object min 1 (N) gist:categorizedBy (N) gist:giver gist:CountingUnit sheo:HospitalLicense A license that permits an organization to operate as a hospital. A key aspect of the license is the number of hospital beds for what medical services. (N) gist:hasMagnitude A territory handled by a salesperson. some gist:SocialBeing (N) sheo:_hasCommunicationAddress sheo:Accreditation sheo:SummaryBenefits Permissions sheo:InsuranceLicense sheo:ReinsuranceLicense Permission to operate as an insurance company. A license to insure insurance companies. Subclass of sheo:ReinsuranceLicense sheo:InsuranceLicense (N) gist:getter (N) sheo:issuedTo some sheo:HealthcareProviderPerson (N) gist:characterizedAs some sheo:InsuranceCompany sheo:HealthInsuranceLicense Permission to provide insurance for health care. sheo:OtherPlan some sheo:Notify sheo:_Permission sheo:businessDefinition Telling where some information or goods may be found. sheo:InvoiceInfo sheo:RightToMine The right to obtain minerals from some land. (N) gist:getter sheo:Non_PII_Invoice sheo:RightToBuildOn The right to construct one or more buildings on some land. sheo:PII-Invoice sheo:RightToOccupy The right to occupy something, e.g. land or a building. sheo:RealEstate Usually defined as the land itself; here we define it as the right to occupy some land. some gist:LegalOrganization Subclass of sheo:RightToOccupy (N) sheo:hasPhysicalLocation some gist:GeoRegion (N) gist:ownedBy some gist:SocialBeing sheo:COPN Certificate of Public Need A license that permits an organization to operate as a hospital. A key aspect of the license is the number of hospital beds for what medical services. Subclass of sheo:_Permission sheo:hasScope some gist:GeoRegion (N) gist:given Hospital Licensing Subclass of some sheo:HospitalLicense sheo:HospitalBed One space in a hospital for a patient, with a set of specific medical procedures that are allowed to be performed. Used to specify capacity for licensing, it is not the physical bed. Subclass of sheo:Accreditation (N) gist:regarding some gist:Behavior sheo:businessDefinition A unit capacity for registering beds in a hospital. sheo:Credentials sheo:businessDefinition sheo:HospitalAccreditation The event of giving hospital credentials to an organization, i.e., a hospital. Note that the recipient may not be the hospital, rather it may be the owner of the hospital. sheo:HospitalBed One space in a hospital for a patient, with a set of specific medical procedures that are allowed to be performed. Used to specify capacity for licensing, it is not the physical bed. GIving a hospital the license to operate. (NS) sheo:givenOn some sheo:HospitalAccreditation sheo:HospitalBedCount A count of the number of registered beds a hospital is licenced to operate. Subclass of gist:CountingUnit (N) gist:giver some sheo:HospitalCredentialingOrganization sheo:HospitalLicense (N) gist:getter some gist:LegalOrganization (N) gist:given some sheo:HospitalLicense sheo:businessDefinition GIving a hospital the license to operate. A license that permits an organization to operate as a hospital. A key aspect of the license is the number of hospital beds for what medical services. Subclass of (N) gist:regarding some gist:Behavior sheo:businessDefinition (N) gist:hasMagnitude Subclass of some sheo:HospitalBedCount gist:Count A unit capacity for registering beds in a hospital. sheo:Credentials (NS) sheo:givenOn some sheo:HospitalAccreditation sheo:HospitalBedCount A count of the number of registered beds a hospital is licenced to operate. (N) gist:hasMagnitude Subclass of some sheo:HospitalBedCount gist:Count sheo:businessDefinition Legal permission for an organization to function as a hospital. (N) gist:hasUoM some sheo:HospitalBed sheo:businessDefinition Legal permission for an organization to function as a hospital. (N) gist:hasUoM some sheo:HospitalBed
  • 35. Finance Marketing Regulations Body of Knowledge Generic concepts Health Insurance Care delivery & Coordination Core healthcare Supply chain Business Resources ---------------------- Gist minimalist ontology for business --------------------------properties classes -- sub gists: events, finance, measures, organizations etc. -- Covers six meters of wall space with a three meter tall ceiling!
  • 36. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and only comprehensive ontology for healthcare delivery and insurance.
  • 37. Health Data Initiative Forum III Health Datapalooza Using EMR and Linked Open Data to Manage Chronic Asthma and COPD • Building prototypes to demonstrate capabilities. • Based on selected portions of the ontology. Today’s Asthma Forecast Current EPA Data Anticipate and Prevent Patient Admission Data by Date Historic EPA Data at Admission
  • 38. • • •
  • 39. Important distinctions for recruiting, auditing, planning. Tricky to represent elegantly. • • • •
  • 40. • • • • • •
  • 41. • • • • • • • •
  • 42. Branding Department has the goal that some target population believes some things about the company. Sales Department has the goal that some (other) target population buys something. Patients want to achieve personal health goals (e.g., lose weight). • • • • • • • • Education goal is to know something. •
  • 43. • • • Variety of techniques contribute to one or more of these.
  • 44. • • • • •
  • 45. • • • • • The ontology should be easy to learn and understand.
  • 46. Author OWL Interview  View in Protege Run inference to check consistency Debug cycle Dozens of visualization tools out there... ...none meet our needs. Doing some of our own experiments. Inferencing / Consistency Interview / Model cycle See Simon Robe’s talk, “Adventures in Visualization”
  • 47. Author OWL Interview  View in Protege Marketing Marketing Sentara Healthcare Enterprise Ontology: Marketing and Strategy Module Base URI : http://ontologies.sentara.com/sheo/marketing1.0 Default Namespace : http://ontologies.sentara.com/sheo# Authoring format 30” x 40” paper sheo:MarketingGoal Channels Communication that is part of marketing activity. http://ontologies.sentara.com/sheo# shei http://ontologies.sentara.com/shei# skos http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core# URI : http://ontologies.sentara.com/sheo/resource1.0 Goals Subclass of gist:Goal --- AND --- A way to reach the target population with the messages. http://ontologies.semanticarts.com/gist# sheo One of many different goals that marketing activities aim to achieve, e.g., to create awareness, change attitudes, get people to buy. Usually targeted at specific populations. sheo:MarketingCommunication sheo:MarketingChannel Namespaces gist sheo:Communication --- AND --(N) sheo:object sheo:CommunicationChannel Some examples some sheo:MarketingMessage sheo:LoyaltyGoal (N) sheo:routeTakenOn Imports sheo:Marketing (N) sheo:via some sheo:MarketingChannel sheo:VirtualLocation One of several kinds of goals that indicate loyalty to a particular vendor. Loyalty is about Degree and Scope of alignment. A set of behaviors that have as their goals a change in a set of behaviors (to purchase, refer, etc.) in a target audience. (N) gist:partOf some sheo:MarketingCommunication --- AND --- some sheo:Marketing sheo:BroadcastAdvertisingRoute sheo:Persuasion sheo:TelevisionOrRadioStation The use of traditional broadcast over tv or radio to deliver a message. sheo:PurchaseGoal A television or radio station. All subclasses are disjoint The Goal that some Agent or Population purchases something. (N) gist:hasGoal (N) sheo:from --- OR --- some sheo:TelevisionOrRadioStation Messaging sheo:TelevisionStation some sheo:TargetedMarketingGoal (N) sheo:toDo some sheo:Purchase (N) gist:hasDirectPart Subclass of some sheo:MarketingCommunication sheo:RadioStation sheo:VirtualRoute sheo:businessDefinition Attempting to influence attitudes and behaviors of potential customers. gist:Message sheo:TargetedMarketingGoal A Marketing Goal targeted at specific SocialBeings or Populations. A message intended to achieve one or more marketing goals. The use of some social media web site as the destination of a message. (N) gist:hasGoal (N) sheo:to sheo:SocialMediaSite A Social Media web site. The Goal that some Agent or Population Refers a product or service to someone. Subclass of sheo:TargetedGoal sheo:WebSiteURL (N) sheo:toDo A URL to any web site. Subclass of some sheo:SocialMediaSite some sheo:TargetedMarketingGoal sheo:ReferralGoal --- AND --- sheo:SocialMediaRoute sheo:MarketingMessage some sheo:Refer Subclass of Subclass of sheo:WebSiteURL sheo:MarketingGoal sheo:VirtualAddress (N) gist:regarding Subclass of sheo:VirtualRoute some sheo:SentaraOffer (N) sheo:forAgent some sheo:SocialBeingOrBeings sheo:EnticeMessage A Marketing Message designed to entice the target audience. (N) gist:hasGoal Run inference to check consistency some sheo:EnticedGoal sheo:DirectMailRoute The use of traditional postal service to make a delivery. sheo:PreferenceGoal The Goal that some Agent or Population prefers purchasing something with certain qualities or from certain vendors. (N) sheo:to sheo:AwarenessMessage some gist:PostalAddress A Marketing Message that is intended to increase awareness. sheo:Preference some sheo:Preference Information about some Agent's likely behaviors when faced with certain options. They will choose things that they prefer. One might also model this as a rank ordering. (N) gist:regarding Subclass of (N) gist:hasGoal sheo:Information (N) sheo:toHave sheo:PhysicalRoute some sheo:AwarenessGoal Subclass of some sheo:SentaraOffer sheo:ImageMessage An Awareness Message intended to improve the image of the marketed product, service or company. sheo:EmailRoute A route used to deliver email. sheo:EmailAddress An email address (N) sheo:to Debug cycle sheo:AwarenessGoal The Goal that some Agent has awareness of something. Subclass of some sheo:EmailAddress sheo:PromiseMessage sheo:VirtualAddress A Marketing Message that makes a promise. Subclass of (N) sheo:toKnow sheo:VirtualRoute some sheo:Information (N) gist:hasDirectPart some gist:Speaking sheo:ProductAwarenessGoal sheo:OfferMessage A goal for some target population to know something about Sentara product or service. sheo:PhoneRoute A Marketing Message that makes an offer known either to increase awareness or to encourage purchasing. A route used to send a message to a phone number. Referrals sheo:PhoneNumber A phone number. (N) sheo:to (N) gist:hasDirectPart (N) sheo:toKnow some sheo:SentaraOffer Subclass of some sheo:PhoneNumber some sheo:OfferDescription sheo:VirtualAddress Subclass of sheo:Referring sheo:VirtualRoute One or more Agents give to another agent or group of agents a pointer to something that is thought to have some value to the recipient. Authors might point the reader [target population] to an article, paper or book. Someone might point you to a good chiropracter. sheo:FaceToFace The route used to communicate in the immediate presence of another person. Markets Inferencing / Consistency gist:Speaking (N) sheo:from A goal for some target population to know something about Sentara. (N) sheo:toKnow some sheo:Information --- AND --- sheo:given some sheo:BibliographicReference some gist:Agent sheo:SentaraAwarenessGoal sheo:Referring sheo:given some sheo:_Offer (N) sheo:_giver Subclass of (N) sheo:_giver some sheo:Author sheo:VirtualRoute sheo:businessDefinition A recommendation that someone use some product or service. (N) sheo:given min 1 A population of individuals that marketing activities are aimed at. Depends on the particular products and services and how they are being differentiated compared to the competition. Differeent audiences include: Patients, Physicians, Healthcare organizations, Intermediaries, Employers, Employees, Public at large, community leaders, Optima Members, etc. Interview / Model cycle --- AND --- sheo:BusinessReferral A Referring Event where one agent suggests that a customer or patient see another agent for an offered product or service, e.g., Jane refers John to the chiropractic service offered by Joe. sheo:Referring Subclass of some sheo:PersonOrPersons sheo:SentaraTargetMarket sheo:BibliographicCitation Authors of a work refer the target reader population to another work, e.g., a medical research paper points to a study in another paper. sheo:EnticedGoal The Goal that some Agent has awareness of something. (N) sheo:toBe sheo:Enticed The state of being enticed. Subclass of sheo:StateOrCondition some sheo:Enticed sheo:HealthReferral A BusinessReferral relating to a medical product or service. sheo:MarketDifferentiator sheo:BibliographicReference A measureable aspect of a product or service that is being highlighted to an audience for marketing purposes. Different audiences care about different things. sheo:GroupOfSocialBeings (N) sheo:forAgentOn some sheo:MarketDifferentiator A pointer to or description of the referred work. Could be a gist:Address, e.g., a URL. sheo:BusinessReferral Subclass of sheo:given gist:Content gist:Aspect sheo:businessDefinition --- AND --- some sheo:HealthOffer sheo:ImageGoal The Goal that some Agent believes positive things about the image of a product, service, or company. sheo:ImageProposition Beliefs and Propositions A proposition about an image, ideally that the image is very positive. (N) sheo:toBelieve Subclass of some sheo:ImageProposition sheo:Proposition (N) sheo:forAgent The people that marketing activities are directed at. sheo:SentaraProposition A proposition about Sentara or their products and services. some sheo:SentaraTargetMarket The Goal that some Agent uses a Sentara Facility Other Healthcare organizations who may wish to use or refer Sentara facilities, products and services. Strategy Some examples sheo:ConsumerMarket sheo:BenefitStack Some measure of how good the benefits are. (N) sheo:forAgent some sheo:HealthPlanMarket (N) gist:regarding sheo:CMS_Market some sheo:OptimaPolicy Persons and Organizations associated with CMS who may use Sentara services. sheo:TransformationOfCare The goal to transform care. Subclass of sheo:SentaraStrategicGoal sheo:ProductivityMeasure A measure of productivity. (N) gist:hasA min 1 sheo:EpisodeToWellnessMeasure Brokers who may sell Optima plans. A measure of the number of patients seen. Subclass of gist:Project (N) gist:hasDirectPart some sheo:SentaraOrganization some sheo:SentaraOffer some sheo:SentaraStrategicGoal (N) sheo:forAgent some sheo:SentaraOrganization sheo:FacilityConvenience Some examples sheo:PeaceOfMind The proposition that Sentara provides peace of mind sheo:SentaraBrand A set of beliefs that are commonly held about Sentara and/or its products and services. sheo:BetterOutcomes The proposition that Sentara provides better outcomes. gist:Collection all sheo:BeliefAboutSentara Subclass of sheo:SentaraStrategicGoal (N) gist:hasA min 1 sheo:PatientSatisfactionMeasure sheo:BetterCare The proposition that Sentara provides better care. (N) sheo:believedBy some gist:Employer sheo:LowerCosts The proposition that Sentara has lower costs. A major project that is a part of a strategic plan. gist:Project sheo:MeasurableGoal Some measure of how convenient the facilities are. (N) sheo:forAgent --- AND --sheo:SentaraProposition (N) sheo:forAgent sheo:Initiative sheo:SentaraStrategicGoal sheo:HomeHealthMarket A proposition believed by one or more SocialBeings. (N) sheo:toDo some sheo:PurchaseHealthPlan (N) gist:hasMember --- AND --sheo:SentaraGoal --- AND --- The Goal that some Employer uses an Optima health plan. --- AND --- sheo:SentaraGoalForItself A goal that Sentara has for itself, i.e. Sentara wants Sentara to do, have, be, know or believe something. A Goal to be in the top ten percent in patient satisfaction. sheo:UseOptimaForEmployee s some gist:SocialBeing some sheo:Initiative (N) gist:hasGoal sheo:EpisodeToWellnessMeasure A measure towards progress from moving to a wellness model from an episode model. sheo:TopTenPercentPatientSatisfaction Employers who may use Optima. sheo:PhysicianMarket sheo:SentaraStrategicPlan A project with a set of strategic goals to meet that spawns various initiatives gist:Goal (N) sheo:_goalOf sheo:NumberOfPatientsSeenMeasure (N) gist:hasA min 1 sheo:NumberOfPatientsSeenMeasure sheo:BrokerMarket sheo:SentaraGoal A goal that Sentara has for itself or other agents. --- AND --- (N) gist:hasA min 1 sheo:ProductivityMeasure Potential Optima Members Potential employees or users of Sentara facilities. gist:about some sheo:Physician A measurable aspect of something that can be used to assess progress against a goal, e.g., weight, if one is on a diet. sheo:MembersMarket sheo:EmployerMarket Potential purchasers of home health care. (N) gist:about some shei:TheSentaraHealthcare (N) sheo:forAgent sheo:BeliefAboutSentara sheo:PatientsMarket Current and potential patients. sheo:HealthPlanMarket Potential purchasers of or brokers selling Optima health plans (employers and individuals). sheo:ImageProposition (N) sheo:toDo some sheo:UseSentaraFacility sheo:GoalMeasure Some examples Ordinary consumers who may purchase Sentara products and services. --- AND --- sheo:UseFacilityGoal (N) gist:regarding some sheo:SentaraOffer sheo:OtherHealthcareOrgMarket sheo:PatientSatisfactionMeasure A measure of patient satisfaction. some sheo:HealthPlanMarket A key high-level goal that Sentara has for itself. sheo:PatientSafety The proposition that Sentara provides greater patient safety. (N) gist:partOf some sheo:SentaraStrategicPlan sheo:GoodPlaceToWork Subclass of The proposition that Sentara is a good company to work for. sheo:SentaraGoalForItself (N) gist:regarding some sheo:OptimaPolicy sheo:EmployeeMarket Employees who may wish to use Sentara offerings. sheo:TopTenPercentPatientSafety sheo:GoalMeasure A Goal to be in the top ten percent in patient safety. A measurable aspect of something that can be used to assess progress against a goal, e.g., weight, if one is on a diet. --- AND --sheo:SentaraStrategicGoal sheo:PublicAtLargeMarket Members of the public who might recommend Sentara products and services. --- AND --- sheo:MeasurableGoal sheo:MeasurableGoal A goal for which there is a measure that can be used to assess progress towards the goal. sheo:MoreConvenient The proposition that Sentara is more convenient --- AND --- gist:Aspect gist:Goal (N) gist:of (N) gist:hasA some sheo:MeasurableGoal some sheo:GoalMeasure sheo:Personalization sheo:CommunityLeadersMarket Community leaders whose opinions about health care matter. VUE HTML Docs (N) gist:hasA min 1 sheo:PatientSafetyMeasure sheo:PatientSafetyMeasure A measure of patient safety. The proposition that Sentara provides greater personalization and customization of its products and services.
  • 48. • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
  • 49. A work in progress!
  • 50. • • • • Easier said than done.
  • 51. • • •
  • 52. • • • • • • • How can the ontology add value?
  • 53. • • • • • • See how this works, one use case at a time.
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  • 57. • • • •