Dr.U.P.Rathnakar MD.DIH.PGDHM
<ul><li>Pharmaceutical process </li></ul><ul><li>Drug reaches the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetic process </li><...
Enteric - coated Tablet Tablet Extended-release tablets  Capsules Mixtures
Injections Vials  Ampoules
Inhalers Ointments / Creams ;  Powders
 
Routes of Drug Administration
Routes of Drug Administration <ul><li>Route of administration </li></ul><ul><li>is the path by which a drug, is brought in...
Routes of Drug Administration- Classification  <ul><ul><li>A.   Local : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical, Deep tissues, ...
Local Route <ul><li>Topical:  Local action </li></ul><ul><li>Ointments, powders, eye drops, paints,    lozenges, unabsorba...
Local Route -  Enema <ul><li>Evacuant enema :- </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Soap & water enema , </li></ul><ul><li>AIM:- to remov...
Sublingual <ul><li>Drug placed under the tongue or crushed </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of S/L route-  </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Oral or Enteral route <ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><li>Safer </li></ul><ul><li>More convenient </li></ul><ul><li>Eco...
 
  PARENTERAL ROUTE  <ul><li>s.c, i.m, i.v., intradermal </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious & un-co...
PARENTERAL ROUTE…. <ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Less safe </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul><ul><li>In...
<ul><li>Pressured metered dose  aerosols/inhaler- eg.Salbutamol, Beclomethsone. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen or compressed air...
<ul><li>To prevent dry mouth and hoarseness, rinse mouth after each  use.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to practice g...
Injections <ul><li>Intradermal :  </li></ul><ul><li>B.C.G Vaccination;   </li></ul><ul><li>Drug sensitivity tests. </li></...
Intradermal
 
 
i.v.injection
Intravenous <ul><li>Intravenous (I.V) route. :  </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>100% bioavailability </li><...
Intravenous… <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Its action cannot be halted </li></ul><ul><li>Local irritation can le...
Alveolar Blocks
Transcutaneous <ul><li>Iontophoresis:  Galvanic current  </li></ul><ul><li>eg:salicylates. </li></ul><ul><li>Jet injection...
TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Transdermal therapeutic system[TTS] Eg. Scopolamine,  Nitroglyserine,  Nicotine.
Trans-nasal route <ul><li>Postpituitary extract in Diabetes  insipidus. </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH, &  Calcitonin </li></ul><u...
Factors  deciding the choice of route <ul><li>Physical & chemical properties-Solid/Liquid/Gas, Irritancy, pH </li></ul><ul...
 
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Gen Pharma Pharmaceutical Phase Bds

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Gen Pharma Pharmaceutical Phase Bds

  1. 1. Dr.U.P.Rathnakar MD.DIH.PGDHM
  2. 2. <ul><li>Pharmaceutical process </li></ul><ul><li>Drug reaches the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetic process </li></ul><ul><li>What body does to the drug </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacodynamic process </li></ul><ul><li>What drug does to the body </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacotherapeutic process </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic effect on the patient </li></ul>
  3. 3. Enteric - coated Tablet Tablet Extended-release tablets Capsules Mixtures
  4. 4. Injections Vials Ampoules
  5. 5. Inhalers Ointments / Creams ; Powders
  6. 7. Routes of Drug Administration
  7. 8. Routes of Drug Administration <ul><li>Route of administration </li></ul><ul><li>is the path by which a drug, is brought into contact with the body </li></ul>
  8. 9. Routes of Drug Administration- Classification <ul><ul><li>A. Local : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical, Deep tissues, Intra-arterial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Systemic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S.L. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans Cutaneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injections – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s.c, i.m, i.v., intradermal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Inhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Nasal </li></ul></ul>Enteral Parenteral
  9. 10. Local Route <ul><li>Topical: Local action </li></ul><ul><li>Ointments, powders, eye drops, paints, lozenges, unabsorbable drugs, Inhalers for Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper tissues: </li></ul><ul><li>Intra articular, alveolar block, intrathecal </li></ul><ul><li>Intrarterial- Contrast media, cancer therapy </li></ul>
  10. 11. Local Route - Enema <ul><li>Evacuant enema :- </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Soap & water enema , </li></ul><ul><li>AIM:- to remove faecal matter & flatus </li></ul><ul><li>Retention Enema: [Suppositories] </li></ul><ul><li>Local action:- Eg: Prednisolone enema in ulcerative colitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic action[Transrectal]:-MgSO4 to  ICT. Diazepam in epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages & Disadvantages of </li></ul><ul><li> rectal route Vs oral </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the drug escapes liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassing, Irritation </li></ul>
  11. 12. Sublingual <ul><li>Drug placed under the tongue or crushed </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of S/L route- </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid onset </li></ul><ul><li>Quick termination of the drug effect </li></ul><ul><li>No effect of gastric juice </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages:- </li></ul><ul><li>Irritants and non-lipid soluble canot be given </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Nitroglycerine , Buprenorphine, Desaminooxytocin </li></ul>
  12. 13. Oral or Enteral route <ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><li>Safer </li></ul><ul><li>More convenient </li></ul><ul><li>Economical </li></ul><ul><li>Painless </li></ul><ul><li>Self administration possible </li></ul><ul><li>Complications of parenteral therapy avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow onset </li></ul><ul><li>Irritant & unpalatable drugs can not be given. </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting, unconscious pts.- not useful </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs which are destroyed by digestive juices -- not useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Tab, Cap, Syp, Enteric coated pills / tablets, Controlled release </li></ul>
  13. 15. PARENTERAL ROUTE <ul><li>s.c, i.m, i.v., intradermal </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious & un-cooperative pt. </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting & diarrhoea </li></ul><ul><li>Emergencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Irritant drugs (I.V.route) </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs which are destroyed by G.I. enzymes - given safely. </li></ul>
  14. 16. PARENTERAL ROUTE…. <ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Less safe </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Inconvenient </li></ul><ul><li>Self medication is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Painful. </li></ul><ul><li>Chances of local tissue injury,& injury to nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Requires sterilization of instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Pressured metered dose aerosols/inhaler- eg.Salbutamol, Beclomethsone. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen or compressed air driven nebulised solutions- eg. Salbutamol. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry powders from inhalers activated by patients inhalation –eg. Salbutamol </li></ul><ul><li>Gases eg. General anaesthetics, Oxygen </li></ul>Inhalation: Local Action Systemic Action
  16. 18. <ul><li>To prevent dry mouth and hoarseness, rinse mouth after each use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to practice good oral hygiene to prevent mouth infections </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth decay ? </li></ul>Nebulizer Metered dose inhaler
  17. 19. Injections <ul><li>Intradermal : </li></ul><ul><li>B.C.G Vaccination; </li></ul><ul><li>Drug sensitivity tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous (S.C): </li></ul><ul><li>Only non-irritant drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin; Adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>INTRAMUSCULAR ROUTE : (i.m) </li></ul><ul><li>Deltoid, Gluteus, Rectus femoris, </li></ul><ul><li>Mild irritants, suspensions </li></ul><ul><li>should not exceed 10 ml </li></ul>
  18. 20. Intradermal
  19. 23. i.v.injection
  20. 24. Intravenous <ul><li>Intravenous (I.V) route. : </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>100% bioavailability </li></ul><ul><li>Emergencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Large volumes </li></ul><ul><li>Irritant drugs. Eg.- I.V. Nitrogen mustard </li></ul>
  21. 25. Intravenous… <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Its action cannot be halted </li></ul><ul><li>Local irritation can lead to phlebitis </li></ul><ul><li>Self medication is difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires sterilization of instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Precautions: </li></ul><ul><li>Should be given slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the needle is in the vein. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Alveolar Blocks
  23. 27. Transcutaneous <ul><li>Iontophoresis: Galvanic current </li></ul><ul><li>eg:salicylates. </li></ul><ul><li>Jet injections:- </li></ul><ul><li>High velocity jet </li></ul><ul><li>No needle –painless </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for mass inoculation. </li></ul><ul><li>Jet injections for insulin also available. </li></ul>
  24. 28. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Transdermal therapeutic system[TTS] Eg. Scopolamine, Nitroglyserine, Nicotine.
  25. 29. Trans-nasal route <ul><li>Postpituitary extract in Diabetes insipidus. </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH, & Calcitonin </li></ul><ul><li>[Nasal decongestant-Topical] </li></ul>
  26. 30. Factors deciding the choice of route <ul><li>Physical & chemical properties-Solid/Liquid/Gas, Irritancy, pH </li></ul><ul><li>Site of desired action- Local or systemic </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of absorption from a route </li></ul><ul><li>Effect digestive juice and First pass metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Routine or emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy of dosage </li></ul><ul><li>Condition of Pt.-Unconcious, vomiting </li></ul>
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