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Environmental Pollutants

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Desribes the pharmacology of environmrntal pollutants

Desribes the pharmacology of environmrntal pollutants

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  • 1. Environmental Pollutants Dr.Rathnakar U.P. MD.DIH.PGDHM K.M.C. Mangalore
  • 2. Polluted environment
    • We live in a chemical environment
    • We inhale, ingest, or absorb from the skin many of these chemicals.
    • Toxicology is concerned with the deleterious effects of these chemical agents on all living systems.
    • ?????Humans
  • 3. Toxicology
    • Occupational Toxicology
    • Environmental Toxicology
    • Ecotoxicology
  • 4. Occupational Toxicology
    • Chemicals found in the workplace
    • Identifies, defines safety [ threshold limit values (TLVs)] limits and lays down guidelines to minimize absorption
  • 5. Ecotoxicology
    • Traditional toxicology is concerned with toxic effects on individual organisms
    • Ecotoxicology is concerned with the impact on populations of living organisms or on ecosystems
  • 6. Environmental Toxicology
    • Environmental toxicology deals with the deleterious impact of chemicals, present as pollutants of the environment, on living organisms.
    • The term environment includes all the surroundings of an individual organism, but particularly the AIR, SOIL, AND WATER.
  • 7. Pollution And pollutants
    • Pollution
    • Introduction of contaminants
    • Into an environment
    • [Which] Causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort
    • To the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms .
  • 8. Pollution and pollutants
  • 9. Pollution And pollutants
    • Pollutants -
    • A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil.
    • Elements of pollution ,
    • Can be foreign substances
    • Or energies,
    • Or naturally occurring-when they exceed natural levels
  • 10. History
    • Undesired spin-off of Human activity
    • Discovery fire-Paleolithic era
    • Discovery of tools- Iron Age
    • Industrial revolution-Modern era
  • 11. Water Pollution
    • Uncontaminated water does not occur in nature
    • Less serious-> Natural-N2, Co2, H2S ←Rain fall
    • Serious -> Sewage, Industrial waste, Agricultural waste, radioactive sub. ←Urbanization & industrialization
  • 12. Land pollution
    • Main causes
    • Indiscriminate dumping of Industrial, muncipal solid hazardous waste.
    • Industrial effluents and domestic sewage
    • Mining and mineral processing
  • 13.
    • Other Pollutions
    • Noise pollution
    • Light pollution
    • Visual pollution
    • Thermal pollution
    • Misc.
    • Pesticides, Natural [Dust, Fungi, Noise, Light]
    • Tobacco smoke
  • 14. "The smoke of chimneys is the breath of Soviet Russia"
  • 15. Sources-Air Pollution
    • Automobiles-Major urban
    • HC, CO, Pb, N.oxides,
    • Particulate matter
    • Strong sun light->HC & N.Oxides ->Oxidizing photochemical pollutants
    • Disel engines ->Smoke, Fumes
    • Industries
    • Smoke, So2, N.Oxides, Fly ash, H.Fluoride, HCL, CO, Ozone, H2S, SO2.
    • Domestic
    • Burning-Coal, wood, Oil. ->So2, No2.
    London Disaster-1952
  • 16. Great Smog of 1952- London More than 4000 people died
  • 17.
    • Routes
    • Inhalation
    • Atmospheric pollutants , Industry
    • Transdermal
    • Oral
    • Pollutants of water and soil
    • Duration
    • Acute exposure
    • Single or multiple for 2-3 days
    • Industry, occupational
    • Chronic exposure
    • Occupational or atmospheric
    Exposure
  • 18.
    • BIOACCUMULATION
    • Intake of a contaminant by an organism
    • Exceeds the latter's ability to metabolize or excrete the substance
    • Chemical accumulates within the tissues of the organism.
    • Bioaccumulation.
    • BIOMAGNIFICATION
    • Concentration of a contaminant may be virtually undetectable in water
    • Magnified thousands of time as the contaminant passes up the food chain
    • Biomagnification
  • 19. Phytoplankton Zooplankton Rainbow smelt Lake trout Herring Gull Fish Fry Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) undetectable in water Biomagnification In food chain X 1 X 49.2 X 416 X 1932 X 49,600 ?????
  • 20. Air pollutants [Inhalation]
    • Size
    • 5µ -Deposited upper airway
    • 1µ-5µ-terminal airway
    • <1µ deposited in alveoli –absorbed
    • Larger surface area
    • Proximity to circulation
    • High blood flow
    • Removal
    • Wiping, blowing, sneezing
    • Ciliary movement
    • From alveoli
    • Absorbrd
    • Phagocytosed
    • Lymphatic system
  • 21. Types & Sources Air pollution Sulfur oxides CO Volatile organic compounds Particulate matter Nitrogen oxides 5 pollutants- 98% of Air Pollution
    • Others
    • Lead
    • Hydrocarbons
    • Cadmium
    • H 2 S
    • Ozone
    • Polynuclear
    • aromatic
    • hydrocarbon
    • Indoor air pollution
  • 22.  
  • 23. Toxicology – Carbon Monoxide
    • Colorless, tasteless, odorless, and nonirritating gas
    • Incomplete combustion
    • CO +Hemoglobin= Carboxyhemoglobin.
    • Cannot transport oxygen
    • Interferes with the dissociation of oxygen from the remaining oxyhemoglobin
    • Brain and the heart most affected
  • 24. Carbon Monoxide
    • Clinical Effects:
    • Psychomotor impairment.
    • Headache.
    • Loss of visual acuity.
    • Tachycardia,Tachypnea,Syncope &Coma.
    • Convulsions, Shock and Respiratory failure.
    • Treatment:
    • Administration of Oxygen.
  • 25. Carbon Monoxide Don’t be cozy in a closed car!!!
  • 26. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 )
    • Colorless, irritant gas
    • Combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels
    • Moist membranes+ SO 2 -> sulfurous acid, -> severe irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, skin.
    • Bronchoconstriction & P.Edema
    • No specific tt
  • 27. Nitrogen Dioxide
    • Brownish irritant gas
    • Fire and fresh silage-Silo filler’s disease in farmers
    • Lung irritant -pulmonary edema
    • Treatment-Preventive and symptomatic
  • 28. Ozone
    • Bluish irritant gas - occurs normally in the earth's atmosphere
    • Source:
    • Workplace->Around high-voltage electrical equipment and around ozone-producing devices used for air and water purification.
    • Important oxidant found in polluted urban air.
    • Important absorbent of ultraviolet light.
  • 29. Ozone-Clinical Effects & Treatment
    • Irritant of mucous membranes.
    • Mild exposure ->Upper respiratory tract irritation.
    • Severe -> Deep lung irritation -> pulmonary edema
    • Ozone penetration in the lung depends on tidal volume -> exercise increases the amount reaching the distal lung.
    • Some effects of O 3 resemble-> radiation effects← formation of reactive free radicals.
  • 30. Ozone….
    • Causes shallow, rapid breathing and a decrease in pulmonary compliance.
    • Enhanced sensitivity of the lung to bronchoconstrictors
    • Irritation and dryness of the throat;
    • Changes in visual acuity, substernal pain, and dyspnea.
    • Airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation
    • NO specific treatment for acute O 3 intoxication
  • 31. SOLVENTS 1. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
    • CCl 4 ,
    • Chloroform,
    • Methyl chloroform.
    • Trichloroethylene,
    • Tetrachloroethylene,
    • Uses -Industrial solvents, degreasing agents, cleaning agents
    • Occupational hazard
  • 32. Solvents-MOA & Clinical Effects
    • CNS depression,
    • Liver injury, kidney injury,& cardiotoxicity
    • Tetrachloroethylene can -> impaired memory and peripheral neuropathy
    • Carcinogenic effect-Safety margin is large
    • No specific treatment
  • 33. SOLVENTS 2. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • Benzene
    • Solvent and in the synthesis of other chemicals
    • Acute effect
    • Depression of CNS
    • Euphoria, nausea, locomotor problems, and coma; vertigo, drowsiness, headache, and nausea.
    • No specific treatment
  • 34. Benzene
    • Chronic exposure ->very serious toxic effects,
    • Injury to the bone marrow; aplastic anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, or thrombocytopenia
    • Increased incidence of leukemia
    • TOLUENE (METHYLBENZENE):
    • NO myelotoxic properties nor associated with leukemia.
    • But a CNS depressant
  • 35. INSECTICIDES
    • Organophosphorus Insecticides.
    • Carbamate Insecticides.
    • Organochlorine Insecticides.
    • Botanical Insecticides
  • 36. Organochlorine Insecticides
    • Eg. DDT , Benzene hexachlorides, cyclodienes, toxaphenes
    • They can be absorbed through the skin[Not DDT] as well as by inhalation or oral ingestion
    • Interfere with inactivation of the sodium channel ->rapid repetitive firing in most neurons.
    • Effect is CNS stimulation.
    • Tremor and convulsions,
    • There is no specific treatment
  • 37. Organochlorine insecticides…
    • Envn. Toxicology
    • Persistent chemicals.
    • Degradation is slow and bioaccumulation, particularly in aquatic ecosystems, is well documented.
    • Once adsorbed in soil, they do not readily desorb.
  • 38. Botanical Insecticides:
    • Nicotine – Convulsions, respiratory paralysis, hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias.
    • Rotenone – Pharyngitis, GI irritation, Conjunctivitis and Dermatitis.
    • Pyrethrum – CNS excitation,Convulsions,
    • and tetanic paralysis.
  • 39. Endocrine Disruptors
    • Chemicals mimic, enhance, or inhibit a hormonal action
    • Estrogen-like or antiandrogenic properties
    • Eg.Phytoestrogens ,Mycoestrogens, Persistent organochlorine agents such as DDT.
  • 40. Lead free toys
  • 41. The Indian Vultures 'God’s own incinerators’ - Dr. Salim Ali
    • The White backed vulture population
    • 30 million birds in 1992.
    • Today, it is a mere 11,000 birds and falling.
    • Diclofenac poisonong
  • 42. Kerala is called &quot;God's own country.&quot; Its beauty is unsurpassed. Only ENDOSULFAN marred that beauty
  • 43. Summary
    • Occupational, Envn, Ecotoxicology
    • Definitions-Pollution and pollutants
    • Air, Land, Water pollution
    • Other pollutants
    • Sources-Auto, Industry, Domestic
    • Exposure-Route and Duration
    • Bioaccumulation , Biomagnification
    • Air pollutants size and removal
    • Imp 5 pollutants-Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, CO, volatile organic chemicals, Particulate matter
    • Affect on health
    • Individual pollutants
    • Solvents-Aliphatic and Aromatic
    • Insecticides-Carbamates Organophos, OrganoCl, Botanical
  • 44. Please Keep the World Clean Thank You W Future of our planet lies in our hands