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Community School Sustainability

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Sustaining and scaling up community school initiatives ensures that the community school strategy will leave a lasting impact on the youth, families and communities that it aims to serve and empower. …

Sustaining and scaling up community school initiatives ensures that the community school strategy will leave a lasting impact on the youth, families and communities that it aims to serve and empower. This section explores community school sustainability plans, partnership development, and the strategic leveraging of resources for the future.

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  • 1. A RESOURCE GUIDE FORUNDERSTANDING COMMUNITY SCHOOLS Community School Sustainability October 2012 Prepared by: Iris Hemmerich Urban Strategies Council
  • 2. Community School SustainabilityTable of ContentsA Resource Guide for Understanding Community Schools .......................................................................... 2 Updating the Resource Guide ................................................................................................................... 4 Additional Community School Resources ................................................................................................. 4Our Community School work with Oakland Unified School District ............................................................. 5Community School Sustainability: Literature Review ................................................................................... 6 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 6 Review ....................................................................................................................................................... 6 1. Sustainability Plan ......................................................................................................................... 6 2. Leveraging Existing Resources for the Future ............................................................................... 7 3. Continued Partnership Development ............................................................................................ 8 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................. 8 1. Challenges ..................................................................................................................................... 8 2. Promising Practices ....................................................................................................................... 8 3. Concluding Remarks ...................................................................................................................... 9Community School Sustainability: Annotated Bibliography ....................................................................... 10 1. Sustainability Strategies ................................................................................................................... 10 2. Sustaining Community School Partnerships ..................................................................................... 18 1 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 3. A Resource Guide for Understanding Community SchoolsINTRODUCTIONUrban Strategies Council has collected and reviewed more than 175 evaluations, case studies,briefs and reports for use by those considering or planning a community school or communityschool district. Our intention is to provide interested individuals and stakeholders theresources they need to better understand the unique structure and core components ofcommunity schools. The promising practices, recommendations, tools and information sharedin this document have been culled from documents representing the last 20 years of researchand documentation of community schools across the United States.We highlighted 11 content areas that we believe to be the most foundational for understandingcommunity schools. Within each of the content areas, you will find: 1. A literature review: The literature reviews for each content area are organized around core questions and provide a synthesis of the most commonly identified solutions and responses to each question, as well as highlights, promising practices, challenges and recommendations. 2. An annotated bibliography: We gathered and annotated literature in each of the content areas to underscore key themes, some of which include: best practices, exemplary sites, models and tools. The annotations vary by content area in order to draw attention to the most pertinent information. For example, the Evaluations content area includes annotations of the evaluation methodology and indicators of success.The 11 content areas include the following: 1. Community School Characteristics Provides a general overview of the structure, function, core elements, programs and services of a community school. 2. Planning and Design Explores the general planning and design structures for community schools, and discusses the initial steps and central components of the planning and design process, as well as strategies for scaling up community schools. 3. Equity Frameworks and Tools Examines literature and tools that can be adapted to an equity framework for community schools. We included equity frameworks and tools that explore disproportionality and the monitoring of disparities and demographic shifts. 2 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 4. 4. Collaborative Leadership Addresses how to build, strengthen and expand the collaborative leadership structure at community schools. Collaborative leadership is a unique governance structure that brings together community partners and stakeholders to coordinate a range of services and opportunities for youth, families and the community.5. Family and Community Engagement Explores how community and family engagement operates as well as the challenges for actualizing it at the site level. Family and community engagement is a unique component of community schools in which the school, families, and community actively work together to create networks of shared responsibility for student success.6. Data Collection and Analysis Addresses the outcomes measured at community schools, methods for collecting data at community schools, and short and long term indicators.7. Assessment Tools Includes tools used to measure outcomes at community schools.8. Community School Evaluations Provides evaluations of community school initiatives with special attention paid to methodology, indicators of success, findings and challenges.9. Community School Funding Explores how to leverage revenue streams and allocate resources at community schools.10. Budget Tools Includes tools that support the process of budgeting and fiscal mapping.11. Community School Sustainability Explores promising practices for creating sustainability plans, partnership development and leveraging resources for the future. 3 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 5. UPDATING THE RESOURCE GUIDEUrban Strategies Council will continue its efforts to update the Resource Guide with the mostcurrent information as it becomes available. If you know of topics or resources that are notcurrently included in this guide, please contact Alison Feldman, Education Excellence Program,at alisonf@urbanstrategies.org. We welcome your ideas and feedback for A Resource Guide forUnderstanding Community Schools.ADDITIONAL COMMUNITY SCHOOL RESOURCESNational:The Coalition for Community Schoolshttp://www.communityschools.org/The National Center for Community Schools (Children’s Aid Society)http://nationalcenterforcommunityschools.childrensaidsociety.org/Yale University Center in Child Development and Social Policyhttp://www.yale.edu/21c/training.htmlRegional:The Center for Community School Partnerships, UC Davishttp://education.ucdavis.edu/community-school-partnershipsCenter for Strategic Community Innovationhttp://cscinnovation.org/community-schools-project/about-cscis-community-schools-project/community-school-initiative-services-coaching-and-ta/’ 4 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 6. Our Community School work with Oakland Unified School DistrictUrban Strategies Council has a long history of working with the Oakland Unified School District(OUSD) to support planning for improved academic achievement. Most recently, we helpeddevelop and support the implementation of OUSD’s five-year strategic plan, CommunitySchools, Thriving Students. Adopted by the Board of Education in June 2011, the plan calls forbuilding community schools across the district that ensure high-quality instruction; developsocial, emotional and physical health; and create equitable opportunities for learning. UrbanStrategies Council has worked with the school district, community members and otherstakeholders to support this system reform in several ways: Community Schools Strategic Planning: Urban Strategies Council facilitated six School Board retreats over a 14-month period to help develop the strategic plan. As part of that process, the District created 14 task forces to produce recommendations for the plan, with Urban Strategies Council facilitating one task force and sitting on several others. Full Service Community Schools Task Force: Urban Strategies Council convened and co- facilitated the Full Service Community Schools and District Task Force, which created a structural framework and tools for planning and implementation, and produced a report with a set of recommendations that formed the foundation of the strategic plan. Community Engagement in Planning: Urban Strategies Council partnered with the district to educate and engage more than 900 school and community stakeholders on how community schools could best serve them. Planning for Community Schools Leadership Council: Urban Strategies Council has been working with OUSD’s Department of Family, School and Community Partnerships to lay the groundwork for building an interagency, cross-sector partnership body that will provide high-level system oversight and support, and ensure shared responsibility and coordination of resources towards the vision of healthy, thriving children supported through community schools. Convening Workgroups: Urban Strategies Council continues to partner with the District to convene and facilitate several workgroups developing specific structures, processes, and practices supporting community school implementation, as well as informing the eventual work of the Community Schools Leadership Council. African American Male Achievement Initiative: Urban Strategies Council is a partner in OUSD’s African American Male Achievement Initiative (AAMAI), a collaboration supporting efforts to close the achievement gap and improve other key outcomes for African American males in OUSD. Urban Strategies Council has developed data-based research; explored promising practices, programs and policies inside and outside the school district; analyzed the impact of existing system-wide policies; and developed policy recommendations to improve outcomes in various areas identified by the AAMAI Task Force. Boys and Men of Color: Urban Strategies Council is the Regional Convener for the Oakland Boys and Men of Color site, which adopted community schools as a vehicle to improve health, education and employment outcomes for boys and men of color. 5 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 7. Community School Sustainability: Literature ReviewIntroductionThe ability to sustain and scale up community school initiatives ensures that the communityschool strategy will leave a lasting impact on the youth, families and communities that it aimsto serve and empower. A successful sustainability plan also has the potential to catalyze futurecommunity school reform efforts by demonstrating how the strategy can permanently nourishpositive and healthy outcomes for youth and their communities. We used three centralresearch questions to guide the literature review of community school sustainability: 1. Is there an identified sustainability plan? 2. How are existing resources leveraged for the future? 3. Is there a process for continued partnership development?Published research on community school sustainability from 2000 to 2012 was included as partof this literature review. While the literature discussed various sustainability strategies, whatseems to be lacking in research and scholarship is a specific strategy for adapting to changingconditions. The research identified the diversification of partnerships and funding as a way tomitigate volatile political and economic conditions; however, it failed to identify a concretestrategy for navigating through constantly evolving circumstances.Review 1. Sustainability PlanAlthough a specific sustainability plan was not identified in the research, key elements andsustainability strategies were highlighted. The Finance Project Sustainability Frameworkoutlined the following eight elements of sustainability: (1) vision; (2) results orientation; (3)strategic financing; (4) broad community support; (5) key champions; (6) adaptability; (7) stronginternal systems; and (8) a sustainability plan1.According to the Finance Project, a clear vision aids the process of determining what issustained, how and when. Results orientation helps measure progress over time as well asprogram success and challenges. Strategic financing is the identified mechanism for providing astable resource base over time and adaptability is necessary for adjusting to changing social,economic, and political trends. Broad community support engages the community while keychampions can leverage their power and influence to generate more support. Strong internalsystems, such as fiscal management, information, personnel, and governance, are fundamental1 The Finance Project. “Sustaining Comprehensive Community Initiatives.” The Finance Project, April 2002. Web.20 January 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/sustaining.pdf>. 6 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 8. to sustaining operational elements. Finally, the Finance Project encouraged the integration ofall the aforementioned elements into a sustainability plan.In another piece, the Finance Project highlights the importance of developing an operatingbudget. They suggest that community schools calculate relevant cost assumptions (such as thenumber of programs or sites operating, what types of services provided, the number offamilies, children, and/or youth served) and how often services will be provided. These costsinclude both program (start-up and on-going operating costs) and system-wide (coordinationand licensing costs)2 to sustain the initiative. 2. Leveraging Existing Resources for the FutureCommunity schools need sustainable sources of funding that support their broad organizationaland operational needs, ensure program continuity and attract new partners. The literaturecommonly referenced flexible funding as a means for community school leaders to creativelyleverage additional income. Most research iterated partnerships with businesses andfoundations as the most effective means to attract cash and in-kind contributions, leverageadditional funding, provide access to technical expertise, and raise the visibility of communityschool programs.Results-orientation was commonly cited as an effective approach to engage new partners. Theability to shape the community school strategy around results creates an easier way ofcommunicating positive outcomes and accomplishments. According to the Finance Project,good public relations and results visibility in the community have the potential to buildstakeholder support and in doing so, increase the likelihood of program continuance3.The strategic leveraging of federal government programs, such as Medicaid and Title I funding,was also explored in multiple research pieces. Community schools can maximize governmenthealth services and program funding by aligning their purpose with that of governmentprograms4. Additionally, resources can be leveraged for the future by developing creativestrategies to house services in accessible and shared facilities.Fundraising was identified as another means to raise revenue. Successful fundraising has thepotential to bring in revenue, in-kind support, new volunteers and community partners. It2 Langford, Barbara Hanson. “Cost Worksheet for Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives.” TheFinance Project, September 2002. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://76.12.61.196/publications/costworksheet.pdf>.3 The Finance Project. “Sustaining Comprehensive Community Initiatives.” The Finance Project, April 2002. Web.20 January 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/sustaining.pdf>.4 Bundy, Andrew L, and Victoria Wegene. “Maximizing Medicaid Funding to Support Health and Mental HealthServices for School-Age Children and Youth.” The Finance Project, October 2000. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Brief5_Maximizing_Medicaid.pdf >. 7 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 9. appears to be a more difficult method because the resources generated often may not justifythe labor or cost. The success of fundraising is often contingent upon local economic conditionsand may also be affected by competition from other fundraising causes5. 3. Continued Partnership DevelopmentThe continued development of strategic partnerships is a powerful mechanism to expand thecapacity of communities and schools. Many literature pieces identified engaged partnerships asa means to access a range of community assets and ensure responsiveness and accountability.Professional development training and technical assistance were commonly underscored asvaluable components of continued partnership development. Utilizing tools, such asworksheets and checklists, was also explored as a practical way to develop and assesscommunity school partnerships. Some research provided sample checklists to take inventory ofexisting programs and services and catalogue the funding sources6. The majority of informationsuggested frequent communication of results among partners and the community as theprimary means to build broad support and sustain partnerships.Conclusion 1. ChallengesIt appears that one of the most challenging aspects of sustaining community schools is securinga stable and long-term revenue stream. While the research addresses the need for long-termstrategic financing, only piecemeal program funding and grants were suggested. Adapting tochanging political and economic conditions will present a significant challenge to communityschools because it requires the constant reevaluation and engagement of different partnersand resources. 2. Promising PracticesThere are multiple promising practices around community school sustainability; the mostcommonly iterated promising practice being the development of diversified partnerships andfunding. The use of a results-oriented approach to engage community partners and incentivizepolicy makers to push community school legislation was also frequently identified as apromising practice. Furthermore, a collaborative leadership structure that includes a backbone,5 Anuszkiewicz, Brittany, Nina Salomon, William Schmid, and Roxana Torric. “Finding Resources to SupportMentoring Programs and Services for Youth.” The Finance Project, November 2008. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Finding_Resources_MentoringPrograms.pdf>.6 Blank, Martin J. and Barbara Hanson Langford. “Strengthening Partnerships: Community School AssessmentChecklist.” Coalition for Community Schools and the Finance Project, September 2000. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/csassessment.pdf>. 8 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 10. intermediary organization was underscored as a promising practice for sustaining communityschool initiatives. 3. Concluding RemarksPlanning for sustainability involves building competencies into ongoing planning and programoperations in order to ensure that the initiative has the resources it will need to operatesuccessfully over time. Continuous resource development will be a crucial factor in sustainingcommunity schools. The constant reevaluation of resources and political climate will also be anessential part of sustainability. Moreover, constant reevaluation and improvement of thecommunity school infrastructure, such as the structure of collaborative leadership and sitecoordination, will be necessary in order to sustain and expand community schools throughoutevolving circumstances. 9 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 11. Community School Sustainability: Annotated Bibliography 1. Sustainability StrategiesMaximizing Medicaid Funding to Support Health and Mental Health Services for School-AgeChildren and YouthBundy, Andrew L, and Victoria Wegene. The Finance Project, October 2000. Web. 19 December2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Brief5_Maximizing_Medicaid.pdf>.The Finance Project brief explores the various uses of Medicaid funding as a source of revenuefor out-of-school time and community school health and mental health programming. The firstsection of the brief explains the background and purpose of the Medicaid program and thesecond section discusses the fundamental principles for maximizing Medicaid revenues. Thereare four key strategies identified as maximizing health services for school-age children andyouth. The four strategies are: 1. Fee-for-service claiming; 2. Administrative claiming; 3. “Leveraged” funding; and 4. Statewide systems to integrate services and improve outcomes.The brief also includes case studies of community schools to illustrate how schools havesuccessfully leveraged Medicaid funding for health programs. Best practices: see four strategies above and “Financing Strategies” (pgs. 6-16) Exemplary sites (case studies): 1. Independence School District, Independence, MO 2. New York Public Schools-Children’s Aid Society, New York, NY 3. Family Services and Children’s Mental Health Collaboratives, MN 4. Los Angeles Unified School District, Los Angeles, CA 5. Pasadena Unified School District, Pasadena, CAFinding Resources to Support Mentoring Programs and Services for YouthAnuszkiewicz, Brittany, Nina Salomon, William Schmid, and Roxana Torric. The Finance Project,November 2008. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Finding_Resources_MentoringPrograms.pdf>.The brief outlines three core strategies for financing and sustaining mentoring programs andservices for youth. The three strategies are: 10 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 12. 1. Building partnerships with businesses and foundations; 2. Conducting community fundraising; and 3. Maximizing public revenue through leveraging federal, state and local resources.Various resources and their purposes are highlighted under each strategy to aid the process offinancing and sustaining mentoring programs and services. Profiles of mentoring initiatives arealso provided to illustrate the strategies in action. Best practices: See three strategies above Exemplary sites: 1. Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) 2. 100 Black Men of North Metro 3. Memphis Grizzlies Charitable Foundation 4. Big Brothers Big Sisters of America 5. Mentor Duluth 6. Oregon Mentors 7. The Mentoring Partnership of Southwestern Pennsylvania 8. Access to Student Assistance Programs in Reach of Everyone (ASPIRE)Sustainability Planning: Coalition of Community Schools National ForumLangford, Barbara. The Finance Project, June 24, 2002. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Sustainability_Planning.pdf>.The Finance Project PowerPoint explores eight key elements of sustainability. The eightelements are: 1. Vision; 2. Results orientation; 3. Strategic Financing; 4. Adaptability; 5. Broad community support; 6. Key champions; 7. Strong internal systems; and a 8. Sustainability plan.Key lessons and next steps are provided at the end of the PowerPoint. Best practices: See eight elements of sustainability above and the following key lessons: 1. Think broadly 2. Focus on sustainability from the beginning 3. Develop a portfolio of funding resources 4. Remember the long-term process and target resources strategically 5. Balance short-term vs. long-term strategies 11 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 13. Making the Difference: Research and Practice in Community Schools (Pgs. 49-62)Blank, Martin J., Atelia Melaville, and Bela P. Shaw. Coalition for Community Schools, Institutefor Educational Leadership, May 2003. Pages 49-61. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/Page/CCSFullReport.pdf>.Chapter four from “Making the Difference: Research and Practice in Community Schools”outlines four key elements that undergird successful local efforts to create and sustaincommunity schools. The four elements are: 1. A motivating vision; 2. Connected learning experiences; 3. Community partnerships; and 4. Strategic organization and financing.The chapter explains the importance of these four elements in community school initiatives andprovides vignettes of community schools to show them in practice. Moreover, under thesubsection “Strategic organization and financing”, five elements are identified as part ofeffective organization and financing strategies. The five elements are: 1. Flexible funding; 2. A community schools coordinator; 3. Schools and all community partners who are willing to share resources; 4. A source of technical assistance; and 5. Adequate and accessible facilities.Chapter five details the nine aforementioned elements and their role in sustaining successfulcommunity school initiatives. Best practices: See nine elements above Exemplary sites: 1. Howe Elementary School, Green Bay, WI 2. North Middle School, Aurora, CO 3. East Hartford High School, East Hartford, CT 4. Northeast Elementary School, Ankeny, IA 5. Elliot Elementary School, Lincoln, NE 6. Schools Uniting Neighborhoods Initiative, Multnomah County, OR 7. Webster Open Magnet School, Minneapolis, MN 8. Marquette Elementary School, Chicago, IL 9. East Elementary School, Kings Mountain, NC 10. Carson High School, Carson, CA 11. Parkway Heights Middle School, South San Francisco, CA 12 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 14. Sustaining Comprehensive Community InitiativesThe Finance Project. The Finance Project, April 2002. Web. 20 January 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/sustaining.pdf>.The strategy brief discusses The Finance Project’s eight-part sustainability framework in depth.It explores each component of the sustainability framework with the intention of helpingpolicymakers, program developers and other stakeholders identify basic resources and strategicdecisions for sustaining community initiatives. The eight elements of the sustainabilityframework are: 1. Vision; 2. Results orientation; 3. Strategic Financing; 4. Adaptability; 5. Broad community support; 6. Key champions; 7. Strong internal systems; and a 8. Sustainability plan.The brief targets those who are involved with community development programs, earlychildhood programs, youth development programs, out-of-school time programs or any othertype of community-based program that serves the needs of children and families. Best practices: See eight elements of sustainability above Exemplary sites: 1. San Diego Unified School District, San Diego, CA 2. The Oregon Commission on Children and Families 3. Elsie Whitlow Stokes Community Freedom Public Charter School, Washington, D.C. 4. Early Childhood Alliance of the Family Resource Network, Mercer County, WV 5. The North Carolina Partnership for Children (NCPC) 6. Maryland After School Opportunity Fund Program (MASOFP)Doing What Matters: The Bridges to Success Strategy for Building Community Schools (Pgs.43-51)Melaville, Atelia. Bridges to Success, January 2004. Pages 43-51. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Doing_What_Matters.pdf>.Part III of the Bridges to Success (BTS) report is broken down into four main subsections: (1)Selecting Expansion Sites; (2) Deepening Collaborative Leadership; (3) Developing Staff; and (4)Developing Financial Strategies. Each subsection explores issues in the sustainability planningprocess and provides suggestions and examples from the BTS experience. In the “DevelopingFinancial Strategies” subsection, the Finance Project’s eight elements of sustainability areidentified as a guiding framework. The eight elements of sustainability include: 13 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 15. 1. Vision; 2. Results orientation; 3. Strategic Financing; 4. Adaptability; 5. Broad community support; 6. Key champions; 7. Strong internal systems; and a 8. Sustainability plan. Best practices: See eight elements above Exemplary sites: 1. Washington Irving Elementary School, Indianapolis, IN 2. George Washington Community School, Indianapolis, IN 3. Vandalia Elementary School, Greensboro, NC Models: 1. The BTS Model: A Community School Strategy (pgs. 12-14) 2. Appendix A: Site Team as a Coordinating Body (pg. 53) 3. Appendix C: Theory of Bridges to Success (pg. 55) Tools: 1. Appendix B: School Readiness Assessment (pg. 53) 2. Appendix D: Four Phases of Site Team Development (pg. 56) 3. Appendix F: Community Readiness Assessment (pg. 58)Financing Community Schools: Leveraging Resources to Support Student SuccessBlank, Martin J., Reuben Jacobson , Atelia Melaville, and Sarah S. Pearson. Coalition forCommunity Schools, November 2010. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/finance-paper.pdf>.The report describes how community schools generate resources, partnerships and activities.Furthermore, it explores the mechanisms community schools use to leverage additional fundingand build their capacity to achieve results. Findings from community school initiatives arediscussed and six recommendations are made based upon the findings. The sixrecommendations are: 1. Define and support a community school strategy through laws, regulations and guidelines; 2. Provide incentives in ESEA and other legislation that move schools and community partners toward results-driven public/private partnerships; 3. Fund site coordination and site coordinators in support of community schools; 4. Support the work of intermediary organizations that help align and leverage resources and integrate funding streams to get results; 14 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 16. 5. Promote interdepartmental coordination in support of community schools at the federal, state, community and district levels; and 6. Fund professional development that enables people working in schools, with community partners, and in federal and state agencies to learn how community schools work and how policy can support them. Best practices: See six strategies above Exemplary sites: 1. Community Schools Collaboration, Tukwila, WA 2. Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation, Evansville, IN 3. Chicago Public Schools Community Schools Initiative, Chicago, IL 4. Children’s Aid Society Community Schools, New York, NY 5. Sayre University-Assisted Community School, PA 6. SUN Community Schools, Multnomah County, OR 7. Redwood City 2020, Redwood City, CA Models: 1. Figure 1: How Resources Are Used (IV) 2. Figure 2: Where Resources Come From—Combined Initiatives and Individual Sites (IV) 3. Figure 3: Communities Where Learning Happens (pg. 3) 4. Community Schools Logic Model (pg. 5) 5. Figure 7: Rationale for Diversification (pg. 10) 6. Figure 8: Community School Collaborative Leadership Framework (pg. 12) Tools: Appendix B: Data Collection Matrix (pg. 38)Using CCDF to Finance Out-of-School Time and Community School InitiativesDeich, Sharon, Erika Bryant, and Elisabeth Wright. The Finance Project, August 2001. Web. 20January 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/Brief7.pdf>.The strategy brief provides an overview of the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), itsrequirements, and considerations for its use. Several strategies are highlighted for using CCDFfunds and examples of innovative approaches to support out-of-school time and communityschool initiatives are provided. CCDF was authorized by the Personal Responsibility and WorkOpportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to help low-income families, families receivingtemporary public assistance, and those transitioning from public assistance obtain child care sothey can work or attend education or training programs. Four strategies to use CCDF for out-of-school time and community school initiatives are highlighted and include: 1. Accessing subsidies for eligible program participants; 2. Becoming a CCDF contracted provider; 3. Using CCDF to enhance the quality of programs; and 4. Using CCDF to create systems of out-of-school time care. 15 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 17. Best practices: See four strategies above Exemplary sites: 1. Jackson Mann Community Center, MA 2. Child Care Services Office, SDCost Worksheet for Out-of-School Time and Community School InitiativesLangford, Barbara Hanson. The Finance Project, September 2002. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://76.12.61.196/publications/costworksheet.pdf>.The “Cost Worksheet for Out-of-Time and Community School Initiatives” describes how todevelop an operating budget for community schools and provides sample worksheets to aid theprocess. In order to make the initial case to potential funders, the report suggests the schooldocument its current financial status and develop realistic financial projections. The reportidentifies two main cost areas: program costs and system-wide infrastructure costs. Tools: Operating budget worksheetsCreating Dedicated Local and State Revenue Sources for Youth ProgramsSherman, Rachel H., Sharon G. Deich and Barbara Hanson Langford. The Finance Project,January 2007. Web. 20 March 2012. <http://www.financeproject.org/publications/Dedicated_Local_Sources_PM.pdf>.The brief highlights six strategies to create dedicated revenue sources for youth programs andservices that policymakers, intermediary organizations, and youth advocates can implement atthe state, city, and/or county levels. The six strategies for creating dedicated local revenuesources for youth programs are: 1. Special taxing districts; 2. Special taxes and levies; 3. Guaranteed expenditure minimums; 4. Fees and narrowly based taxes; 5. Income tax checkoffs; and 6. Children’s trust funds.It describes the critical features of each strategy and highlights applications of each strategy.The brief also discusses considerations for the use of each strategy, including theappropriateness of various approaches; the likely stability and adequacy of revenues generated;the extent to which the strategy can be used to improve the coordination of resources; andconsiderations regarding political feasibility. Best practices: See six strategies above 16 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 18. Exemplary sites (case studies): 1. Crime Control Prevention District, Fort Worth, TX 2. Children’s Services Councils, FL 3. FUTURE, Little Rock, AK 4. Families and Education Levy, WA 5. Fund 80, Wautoma, WI 6. Children’s Investment Fund, Portland, OR 7. Proposition 49, CA 8. Lottery for Education and Afterschool Programs, TN 9. Park District Youth Program License Plates, IL 10. Increase in Cigarette Taxes, SD 11. 4H Checkoff, AL 12. Fund for a Healthy Maine, ME 13. North Carolina Health and Wellness Trust Fund, NCAdding It Up: A Guide for Mapping Public Resources for Children, Youth and FamiliesPittman, Karen, Margaret Flynn-Kahn, Thaddeus Ferber and Elizabeth Gains. The Forum forYouth Investment and the Finance Project, June 2006. Web. 20 May 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/AddingItUpGuide.pdf>.The document describes how to plan, develop and use a Children, Youth and Families (CYF)resource map. A CYF resource map is generally used to balance a portfolio of investments,coordinate supports and services, maximize funding opportunities and advocate for additionalinvestments. In the planning section, the document walks the reader through a step by stepprocess of determining the reasons for creating a CYF resource map, partnerships and roles,timelines, information to include, and how the map and data analyses will be produced. Thefollowing section discusses the ways in which CYF resource maps can be used to inform change.In the last section, data collection is explored and specific data collection strategies are laid out. Models: 1. ‘Using the Ready by 21 Framework to Organize your Analysis’ Spreadsheet (pg. 30) Tools: 1. ‘Who Should be Involved?’ Spreadsheet (pg. 11) 2. ‘What Information Do You Want?’ Survey (pg. 18) 3. Sample Funding Flow Map (pg. 37) 4. Data Collection Strategies (pg. 40) 5. Example 1: Solano County Data Table (pg. 44) 6. Example 2: Kentucky Youth Development Partnership Policy Assessment Project Survey (pgs. 45-46) 7. Example 3: San Francisco Children’s Services Allocation Plan – Instruction Memo and Spreadsheet (pgs. 47-49) 17 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 19. 2. Sustaining Community School PartnershipsStrengthening Partnerships: Community School Assessment ChecklistBlank, Martin J. and Barbara Hanson Langford. “Coalition for Community Schools and theFinance Project, September 2000. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/csassessment.pdf>.The assessment tool contains a series of checklists to aid school and community leaders increating and/or strengthening community school partnerships. The “Community SchoolPartnership Assessment” checklist helps assess the development of the community schoolpartnership. The “Community School Program and Service Assessment” checklist helps takeinventory of existing programs and services in or connected to your school that supportchildren, youth, families, and other community residents. The “Community School FundingSource Assessment” checklist helps to catalogue the funding sources that support theseprograms and services. Tools: Three assessment checklists for strengthening community school partnershipsSchools and Community Initiative: Community Assessment FrameworkPublic Education Network. Public Education Network, 2011. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.publiceducation.org/sc_commassess_indicators.asp>.The article provides sample measures for five core areas of school-community partnerships.The five core areas include: (1) quality education; (2) family supports; (3) child and youthdevelopment; (4) family and community engagement; and (5) community development. It ismeant to serve as an initial guide for school-community partnerships in order to aid the processof developing a set of appropriate local indicators. Tools: Sample Community Assessment Framework 18 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012