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Funding community school initiatives is one of the most difficult components of the planning, implementation and scaling up process. This content area highlights how community schools identify revenue ...

Funding community school initiatives is one of the most difficult components of the planning, implementation and scaling up process. This content area highlights how community schools identify revenue streams, allocate resources, and leverage revenue streams to sustain successful community school initiatives. It also explores sources of federal, state and local funding that align with various community school components and have the potential to be leveraged for specific programs and services.

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Community School Funding Community School Funding Document Transcript

  • A RESOURCE GUIDE FORUNDERSTANDING COMMUNITY SCHOOLS Community School Funding October 2012 Prepared by: Iris Hemmerich Urban Strategies Council
  • Community School FundingTable of ContentsA Resource Guide for Understanding Community Schools .......................................................................... 2 Updating the Resource Guide ................................................................................................................... 4 Additional Community School Resources ................................................................................................. 4Our Community School work with Oakland Unified School District ............................................................. 5Community School Funding: Literature Review............................................................................................ 6 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 6 Review ....................................................................................................................................................... 6 1. Identifying and Integrating Revenue Streams .............................................................................. 6 2. Types of Funding and Revenue Streams (with a focus on Federal)............................................... 7 3. Resource Allocation ....................................................................................................................... 8 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................. 8 1. Challenges ..................................................................................................................................... 8 2. Promising Practices ....................................................................................................................... 9 3. Concluding Remarks ...................................................................................................................... 9Community School Funding: Annotated Bibliography ................................................................................ 10 1. Strategic Organization and Financing ............................................................................................. 10 2. Federal Funding Programs .............................................................................................................. 14 3. State Funding Programs.................................................................................................................. 21 1 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • A Resource Guide for Understanding Community SchoolsINTRODUCTIONUrban Strategies Council has collected and reviewed more than 175 evaluations, case studies,briefs and reports for use by those considering or planning a community school or communityschool district. Our intention is to provide interested individuals and stakeholders theresources they need to better understand the unique structure and core components ofcommunity schools. The promising practices, recommendations, tools and information sharedin this document have been culled from documents representing the last 20 years of researchand documentation of community schools across the United States.We highlighted 11 content areas that we believe to be the most foundational for understandingcommunity schools. Within each of the content areas, you will find: 1. A literature review: The literature reviews for each content area are organized around core questions and provide a synthesis of the most commonly identified solutions and responses to each question, as well as highlights, promising practices, challenges and recommendations. 2. An annotated bibliography: We gathered and annotated literature in each of the content areas to underscore key themes, some of which include: best practices, exemplary sites, models and tools. The annotations vary by content area in order to draw attention to the most pertinent information. For example, the Evaluations content area includes annotations of the evaluation methodology and indicators of success.The 11 content areas include the following: 1. Community School Characteristics Provides a general overview of the structure, function, core elements, programs and services of a community school. 2. Planning and Design Explores the general planning and design structures for community schools, and discusses the initial steps and central components of the planning and design process, as well as strategies for scaling up community schools. 3. Equity Frameworks and Tools Examines literature and tools that can be adapted to an equity framework for community schools. We included equity frameworks and tools that explore disproportionality and the monitoring of disparities and demographic shifts. 4. Collaborative Leadership 2 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • Addresses how to build, strengthen and expand the collaborative leadership structure at community schools. Collaborative leadership is a unique governance structure that brings together community partners and stakeholders to coordinate a range of services and opportunities for youth, families and the community.5. Family and Community Engagement Explores how community and family engagement operates as well as the challenges for actualizing it at the site level. Family and community engagement is a unique component of community schools in which the school, families, and community actively work together to create networks of shared responsibility for student success.6. Data Collection and Analysis Addresses the outcomes measured at community schools, methods for collecting data at community schools, and short and long term indicators.7. Assessment Tools Includes tools used to measure outcomes at community schools.8. Community School Evaluations Provides evaluations of community school initiatives with special attention paid to methodology, indicators of success, findings and challenges.9. Community School Funding Explores how to leverage revenue streams and allocate resources at community schools.10. Budget Tools Includes tools that support the process of budgeting and fiscal mapping.11. Community School Sustainability Explores promising practices for creating sustainability plans, partnership development and leveraging resources for the future. 3 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • UPDATING THE RESOURCE GUIDEUrban Strategies Council will continue its efforts to update the Resource Guide with the mostcurrent information as it becomes available. If you know of topics or resources that are notcurrently included in this guide, please contact Alison Feldman, Education Excellence Program,at alisonf@urbanstrategies.org. We welcome your ideas and feedback for A Resource Guide forUnderstanding Community Schools.ADDITIONAL COMMUNITY SCHOOL RESOURCESNational:The Coalition for Community Schoolshttp://www.communityschools.org/The National Center for Community Schools (Children’s Aid Society)http://nationalcenterforcommunityschools.childrensaidsociety.org/Yale University Center in Child Development and Social Policyhttp://www.yale.edu/21c/training.htmlRegional:The Center for Community School Partnerships, UC Davishttp://education.ucdavis.edu/community-school-partnershipsCenter for Strategic Community Innovationhttp://cscinnovation.org/community-schools-project/about-cscis-community-schools-project/community-school-initiative-services-coaching-and-ta/’ 4 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • Our Community School work with Oakland Unified School DistrictUrban Strategies Council has a long history of working with the Oakland Unified School District(OUSD) to support planning for improved academic achievement. Most recently, we helpeddevelop and support the implementation of OUSD’s five-year strategic plan, CommunitySchools, Thriving Students. Adopted by the Board of Education in June 2011, the plan calls forbuilding community schools across the district that ensure high-quality instruction; developsocial, emotional and physical health; and create equitable opportunities for learning. UrbanStrategies Council has worked with the school district, community members and otherstakeholders to support this system reform in several ways: Community Schools Strategic Planning: Urban Strategies Council facilitated six School Board retreats over a 14-month period to help develop the strategic plan. As part of that process, the District created 14 task forces to produce recommendations for the plan, with Urban Strategies Council facilitating one task force and sitting on several others. Full Service Community Schools Task Force: Urban Strategies Council convened and co- facilitated the Full Service Community Schools and District Task Force, which created a structural framework and tools for planning and implementation, and produced a report with a set of recommendations that formed the foundation of the strategic plan. Community Engagement in Planning: Urban Strategies Council partnered with the district to educate and engage more than 900 school and community stakeholders on how community schools could best serve them. Planning for Community Schools Leadership Council: Urban Strategies Council has been working with OUSD’s Department of Family, School and Community Partnerships to lay the groundwork for building an interagency, cross-sector partnership body that will provide high-level system oversight and support, and ensure shared responsibility and coordination of resources towards the vision of healthy, thriving children supported through community schools. Convening Workgroups: Urban Strategies Council continues to partner with the District to convene and facilitate several workgroups developing specific structures, processes, and practices supporting community school implementation, as well as informing the eventual work of the Community Schools Leadership Council. African American Male Achievement Initiative: Urban Strategies Council is a partner in OUSD’s African American Male Achievement Initiative (AAMAI), a collaboration supporting efforts to close the achievement gap and improve other key outcomes for African American males in OUSD. Urban Strategies Council has developed data-based research; explored promising practices, programs and policies inside and outside the school district; analyzed the impact of existing system-wide policies; and developed policy recommendations to improve outcomes in various areas identified by the AAMAI Task Force. Boys and Men of Color: Urban Strategies Council is the Regional Convener for the Oakland Boys and Men of Color site, which adopted community schools as a vehicle to improve health, education and employment outcomes for boys and men of color. 5 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • Community School Funding: Literature ReviewIntroductionSecuring funding is the only way to actualize the program, service and operational elementsthat comprise a community school initiative. Unfortunately, securing funding for communityschool initiatives also proves to be one of the most difficult components of the planning,implementation and scaling up process. It is critical to understand how to leverage funding andresources in order to not only fulfill, but to sustain the community school mission. We usedthree central research questions to guide the literature review of community school funding: 1. How do community schools identify and integrate revenue streams? 2. What types of revenue streams have been utilized and leveraged at community schools? 3. How are these resources allocated?Published research on funding community school and other related initiatives from 1998 to2011 has been included as part of this literature review. The research thoroughly addresses theneed for a diversified pool of resources and discusses various federal, state and local fundingprograms as well as grant application processes. However, what appears to be lacking in theresearch is an explicit plan for sustaining funding levels during periods of financial volatility.Review 1. Identifying and Integrating Revenue StreamsThe most commonly identified avenue to integrate funding was outreach to communitypartners, public agencies and philanthropists. Local Education Agencies (LEAs) were identifiedas a means to integrate multiple federal funding sources to support a single project. LEAs canutilize federal funding if they can demonstrate the costs charged to each federal program areallocable to a particular community school program. This can be proved through: time andeffort records to demonstrate employees paid with federal funds benefitted the federalprograms that paid their salaries; inventory management records to demonstrate itemspurchased with federal funds benefitted the federal programs that paid for the item; andfinancial management records that permit the tracing of costs to specific funding sources1.1 Pastorek, Paul G. “Use of Funds Manual.” Louisiana Department of Education, February 2011. Web. 20 March2012.<http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/16546.pdf>. 6 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 2. Types of Funding and Revenue Streams (with a focus on Federal)Community schools can receive funding from a multitude of federal government programs ifthey align the eligibility requirements with specific community school program areas. Title I isone of the most commonly leveraged federal funding programs for improving studentachievement so that schools make adequate yearly progress (AYP) and meet exit improvementstatus. It has the potential to be leveraged for community school extended learning programsand enrichment activities2.Title II Part A can be used toward professional development at community schools andimplementing mechanisms that help schools effectively recruit and retain highly qualifiedteachers, principals, and specialists in core academic areas and professional development. TitleII Part D can be used to improve student academic achievement through the access of high-need schools to technology3.Furthermore, Title III can be leveraged for community school programs that help ensure thatEnglish Learners, including immigrant children and youth, attain English proficiency, develophigh levels of academic attainment in English, and meet the same state standards expected ofall children. Title IV, 21st Century Community Learning Centers, is currently leveraged atcommunity school initiatives and can be applied toward programs that establish or expandenrichment activities in community learning centers, such as youth development activities andrecreation programs4.Title X has potential to be leveraged in communities with concentrations of homeless childrenand youth. The purpose of the program is to provide additional educational services andtraining programs for youth and parents. Additionally, the Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act (IDEA) is a significant federal source of funding that can be used for specialeducation and related services designed to meet the needs of children with disabilities5.Promise Neighborhood funding can also be leveraged toward community school planning andimplementation. Successful applicants can receive federal grants for up to $500,000 for2 Pearson, Sarah S. and Martin J. Blank. “Title 1 Dollars Support Community Schools.” Coalition for CommunitySchools, January 2010. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Title_I_Dollars_Support_CS.pdf>.3 Pastorek, Paul G. “Use of Funds Manual.” Louisiana Department of Education, February 2011. Web. 20 March2012.<http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/16546.pdf>.4 rd Children’s Aid Society. “Building a Community School, 3 Edition.” Children’s Aid Society, September 2001. Pages87-97. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.childrensaidsociety.org/publications/building-community-school-complete-manual>.<http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/16546.pdf>.5 Pastorek, Paul G. “Use of Funds Manual.” Louisiana Department of Education, February 2011. Web. 20 March2012.<http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/16546.pdf>. 7 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • planning and $4-$6 million for implementation if the plan aligns with Promise Neighborhoodfocus areas6. On a more local level, communities can leverage resources through grants andagreements with community partners, public agencies and philanthropists. In some cases, localresources such as the Community Development Block Grant can be leveraged for a wide rangeof community needs that many community schools aim to address. 3. Resource AllocationResearch suggests that most community schools use the bulk of their financial resources forcore instructional purposes. In a particular Coalition for Community Schools study, they foundthat developing learning competencies (through academic enrichment and after-schoolactivities, early childhood education, service learning and civic engagement, life skills, andsports and recreation) accounted for 57% of targeted spending at most community schools7.The same study found that 19% of funding was allocated to providing health and mental healthservices, 12% allocated toward centers supporting families and another 12% allocated towardstaffing the sites.In the majority of cases, the ratio of diversified funding to district dollars was around 3:18. Thisfinding underscores the importance of leveraging funding from multiple sectors. Categoricalgrants, federal and state programs should be leveraged along with support from community-based organizations, businesses and philanthropists.Conclusion 1. ChallengesTailoring community school components (such as programs, services and staff) so that theyclosely align with the eligibility requirements for different program applications may present asignificant challenge for securing funding. Furthermore, the uncertainty of securing a consistentamount of grant funding each year poses a challenge for community schools. A volatile politicaland financial climate could impact the availability of grants for education program areas andsubsequently affect the overall success of a community school initiative. In order to remain6 Padgette, Heather Clapp. “Finding Funding: A Guide to Federal Sources for Out-of-School Time and CommunitySchool Initiatives.” The Finance Project, January 2003. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/FundingGuide2003.pdf>.7 Blank, Martin J., Reuben Jacobson , Atelia Melaville, and Sarah S. Pearson. “Financing Community Schools:Leveraging Resources to Support Student Success.” Coalition for Community Schools, November 2010. Web. 19December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/finance-paper.pdf>.8 Blank, Martin J., Reuben Jacobson , Atelia Melaville, and Sarah S. Pearson. “Financing Community Schools:Leveraging Resources to Support Student Success.” Coalition for Community Schools, November 2010. Web. 19December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/finance-paper.pdf>. 8 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • competitive and take full advantage of opportunities, community schools should consideremploying a strong resource development team dedicated to exploring and securing federal,state and local funding. 2. Promising PracticesThe most underscored promising practice in the area of community school funding was aflexible funding strategy. The literature suggests that community schools are better prepared tosurvive fluctuating resources by developing various avenues of support. Public funds appear tobe categorical and inconsistent; therefore, community schools need to generate additionalresources from other sectors. A mix of public and private sector partners was frequently calledout as a promising practice to expand technical and political capacity. Finally, a collaborativeleadership structure at the site and system level was identified as critical to building capacity atminimal cost. 3. Concluding RemarksOverall, securing diverse funding appears to be the most concrete way to build a stablefoundation for the community school strategy. Myriad federal, state and other categoricalfunding programs can be leveraged to actualize an array of wrap-around services at communityschool initiatives. It could be useful for community school initiatives across the U.S. to createpublicly accessible, shared networks in order to learn from the experiences of one another. Inthe case of identifying and leveraging funding, sharing grant formulas or tools that have workedfor some community school sites could help streamline the process of resource development atothers. 9 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • Community School Funding: Annotated Bibliography 1. Strategic Organization and FinancingBuilding a Community School, 3rd EditionChildren’s Aid Society, September 2001. Pages 87-97. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.childrensaidsociety.org/publications/building-community-school-complete-manual>.The section, “Paying for Your Community School”, explores how to maximize service efficiencythrough strategic partnerships. It also discusses how community schools allow for funding andsaving opportunities that enable more spending for children and family services. Ten keylessons and principles for funding and sustaining community schools are provided, including: 1. Assess your existing resources (financial, capital and human) to see how they can support community schools; 2. For external fundraising, especially seed money, start with your friends; 3. Assess and share your successes regularly and always share the credit for them; 4. In fundraising, there is no substitute for hard work; 5. Be aggressive, but realistic in fundraising; 6. Be persistent if the fit is a good one; 7. Consult with education colleagues to co-construct your sustainability plan, making sure that you tap into available education as well as human services dollars; 8. In doing your funding research, look broadly; 9. Because public funds are often categorical and spotty, make sure you generate some flexible, private resources; and 10. Always have contingency plans.Additionally, a case study of sustaining Children’s Aid Society schools is provided along with listsof federal resources for community schools. Best practices: See 10 key lessons and principles above Exemplary sites: Children’s Aid Society community schools, Washington Heights, NYLearning Together: The Developing Field of School-Community InitiativesAtelia Melaville. The Mott Foundation, September 1998. Pages 108-109. Web. 19 December2011.<http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED427105.pdf>.Appendix D of “Learning Together: The Developing Field of School-Community Initiatives”provides a matrix of community school initiatives and the breakdown of their financing. Itserves as an example for those interested in financing and sustaining community schools. 10 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • Categories of the matrix include: primary source of cash funding; fiscal agent; cash provided byinitiative to average site annually; percentage of sites raising a portion of operating costs;percentage of operating costs covered by redirected resources; do the schools help withafterhours and utility costs; do the schools charge fees for some services; and do the schoolshave a long-range funding strategy. Exemplary sites: 1. Alliance School Initiative, TX 2. Beacons Schools, NY 3. Birmingham Community Education, AL 4. Bridges to Success, IN 5. Caring Communities, MO 6. Children’s Aid Society Community Schools, NY 7. Communities in Schools, inc., VA 8. Community Education Centers, MO 9. Community Education Program, MN 10. CoZi Project, CT 11. Family Resource and Youth Services Centers, KT 12. Family Resource Schools, CO 13. Full Service Schools, FL 14. Healthy Start, CA 15. New Beginnings, CA 16. Readiness-to-Learn Initiative, WA 17. School-Based Youth Services Program, NJ 18. Vaughn Family Center-Pacoima Urban Village, CA 19. West Philadelphia Improvement Corps, PAMaking the Difference: Research and Practice in Community SchoolsBlank, Martin J., Atelia Melaville, and Bela P. Shaw. Coalition for Community Schools, Institutefor Educational Leadership, May 2003. Pages 49-61. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/Page/CCSFullReport.pdf>.Under the subsection “Strategic organization and financing” in Chapter Four, five elements areidentified as part of effective organization and financing strategies. The five elements are: 1. Flexible funding; 2. A community schools coordinator; 3. Schools and all community partners who are willing to share resources; 4. A source of technical assistance; and 5. Adequate and accessible facilities. 11 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • Chapter five details the nine aforementioned elements and their role in sustaining successfulcommunity school initiatives. Best practices: See nine elements above Exemplary sites: 1. Howe Elementary School, Green Bay, WI 2. North Middle School, Aurora, CO 3. East Hartford High School, East Hartford, CT 4. Northeast Elementary School, Ankeny, IA 5. Elliot Elementary School, Lincoln, NE 6. Schools Uniting Neighborhoods Initiative, Multnomah County, OR 7. Webster Open Magnet School, Minneapolis, MN 8. Marquette Elementary School, Chicago, IL 9. East Elementary School, Kings Mountain, NC 10. Carson High School, Carson, CA 11. Parkway Heights Middle School, South San Francisco, CAFinancing Community Schools: Leveraging Resources to Support Student SuccessBlank, Martin J., Reuben Jacobson , Atelia Melaville, and Sarah S. Pearson. Coalition forCommunity Schools, November 2010. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/finance-paper.pdf>.The report describes how community schools generate resources, partnerships and activities.Moreover, the “Financing Community Schools: Findings and Lessons” section details five bestpractice findings from community school initiatives, including: 1. Community schools use the bulk of their resources to directly assist schools in meeting their core instructional mission, while also strengthening the health and well-being of students, families and neighborhoods; 2. Diversified funding in community schools leverages district dollars 3:1; 3. Collaborative leadership structures support finance and other key functions at the site and system level; 4. A mix of public and private sector partners expands financial, as well as technical and political capacity; and 5. Full-time site coordination contributes essential site level capacity at minimal cost.Six recommendations are made based upon the findings, including: 1. Define and support a community school strategy through laws, regulations and guidelines; 2. Provide incentives in ESEA and other legislation that move schools and community partners toward results-driven public/private partnerships; 12 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 3. Fund site coordination and site coordinators in support of community schools; 4. Support the work of intermediary organizations that help align and leverage resources and integrate funding streams to get results; 5. Promote interdepartmental coordination in support of community schools at the federal, state, community and district levels; and 6. Fund professional development that enables people working in schools, with community partners, and in federal and state agencies to learn how community schools work and how policy can support them. Best practices: See six recommendations above Exemplary sites: 1. Community Schools Collaboration, Tukwila, WA 2. Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation, Evansville, IN 3. Chicago Public Schools Community Schools Initiative, Chicago, IL 4. Children’s Aid Society Community Schools, New York, NY 5. Sayre University-Assisted Community School, PA 6. SUN Community Schools, Multnomah County, OR 7. Redwood City 2020, Redwood City, CA Models: 1. Figure 1: How Resources Are Used (IV) 2. Figure 2: Where Resources Come From—Combined Initiatives and Individual Sites (IV) 3. Figure 3: Communities Where Learning Happens (pg. 3) 4. Community Schools Logic Model (pg. 5) 5. Figure 7: Rationale for Diversification (pg. 10) 6. Figure 8: Community School Collaborative Leadership Framework (pg. 12) Tools: 1. Appendix B: Data Collection Matrix (pg. 38) 2. Appendix C: Fundraising Framework (pgs. 39-40)Funding Stream Integration to Promote Development and Sustainability of a ComprehensiveSystem of Learning SupportsCenter for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. Web.13 March 2012.<http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/fundingstream.pdf>.The Louisiana Department of Education developed a comprehensive system of learningsupports that unifies various intervention fragments by reworking the operationalinfrastructure at schools, districts, regional units and the state department. The intention is toclarify ways that federal, state, and local funding sources can be braided to effectivelyimplement and sustain the initiatives. The department presents templates that offer a 13 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • framework for district and school review of current and future planning for improving theirintegration of resources. Tools: Comprehensive Learning Supports System Sample Funding sheet 2. Federal Funding ProgramsFinding Funding: A Guide to Federal Sources for Out-of-School Time and Community SchoolInitiativesPadgette, Heather Clapp. The Finance Project, January 2003. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/FundingGuide2003.pdf>.The guide provides an overview of strategies for gaining access to and using federal funds. Italso provides a comprehensive catalog with information on 116 funding sources that canpotentially provide support for out–of–school time and community school initiatives. The guideexplores well–known sources of federal funding for child care, education and health efforts.Section I looks at the changing context for financing out–of–school time and community schoolprograms. Section II describes the various federal funding mechanisms, their structures andrequirements. Section III highlights strategies for maximizing federal funds and buildingpartnerships. There are five broad categories of financing strategies highlighted in this sectionthat support programs and services for children, youth and families, including: 1. Making Better Use of Existing Resources; 2. Maximizing Federal Revenue; 3. Creating More Flexibility in Existing Categorical Funding; 4. Building Partnerships; and 5. Creating New Dedicated Revenue Streams.Section IV contains a catalog of federal funding sources that can support out–of–school timeand community school services. Further resources are provided in the appendices. Best practices: See five strategies aboveFederal Education Resources for High-Poverty Community Schools: A Guide for CommunitiesBrown, Cynthia G. The Annie E. Casey Foundation, December 2003. Web. 19 December 2011.<http://tarc.aecf.org/initiatives/mc/sf/strschools_fededresources_generic.pdf>.The report is a financial resource guide detailing the federal education program resources thatapply to high poverty schools. High poverty schools are defined as schools with largeconcentrations of low income students (generally from 35% to 100% of the school). The reportdescribes the requirements for the operation of the following 11 federal education programs: 14 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 1. NCLB Act Title I , Part A: Improving Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; 2. IDEA Part B; 3. NCLB Act Title II, Part A: Teacher and Principal Training and Recruiting Fund; 4. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act; 5. NCLB Act Title I, Part B, Subpart 1: Reading First; 6. NCLB Act Title IV Part B: 21st Century Community Learning Centers; 7. NCLB Act Title II, Part D, Subpart 1: Education Technology; 8. NCLB Act Title III: Language Instruction for LEP and Immigrant Students; 9. Adult Education and Family Literacy Act; 10. NCLB Act Tile IV, Part A: Safe and Drug Free School; and 11. NCLB Act Title I, Part F: Comprehensive School Reform Program.Each section explores the total amount of federal funds available and how funds are allocatedto states, school districts and schools. The sections end with a brief discussion of potentialcontroversies, a series of questions for advocates to ask local education officials and links tovarious resources.Using Title I to Support Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives Strategy BriefDeich, Sharon, Victoria Wegener and Elisabeth Wright. The Finance Project, January 2002. Web.19 December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/titleIbrief1.pdf>.The Finance Project brief details the various uses of Title I funding for extended learningprograms and community school activities. The brief explores recent changes to Title Iallocation purposes, the allocation of Title I for program areas and strategies for using Title I tosupport out-of-school time and community initiatives. Additionally, case studies of communityschools are provided to illustrate how schools have successfully leveraged Title I funding. Best practices: see “Strategies for Using Title I to Support Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives” (pgs. 9-13) Exemplary sites (case studies): 1. Marquette Elementary School, Chicago, IL 2. Oklahoma City Public Schools, Oklahoma City, OK 3. Rose Park Together, Salt Lake City, UT 4. Missoula County School District Family Resource Centers, Missoula, MT 5. Elk Grove Unified School District, Sacramento, CAFederal Guidance that Supports Community Schools CoordinationCoalition for Community Schools. Coalition for Community Schools, 2012. Web. 13 March 2012.<http://www.communityschools.org/policy_advocacy/federal_funding.aspx>. 15 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • The Federal Funding web page details two federal funds that could be used toward sitecoordination at community schools. The two federal funds detailed are Title I, Part A ARRAFunds and the School Improvement Grant. Title I, Part A can be leveraged for hiring acommunity school coordinator to facilitate health, nutrition and social services as well asprofessional development, the provision of basic medical equipment, and even literacy classesfor adults in order to support children’s learning. The School Improvement Grant can coversafety programs, community stability programs, family and community engagement, and familyliteracy programs to help improve student academic achievement.Programs and Funding Levels by Policy Area for Children and YouthThe Finance Project. Web. The Finance Project. 20 May 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/Handout-ProgramsbyPolicyArea.pdf>.The Finance Project provides a charted list of 111 federal programs for children and youth andtheir aggregate funding levels by category. Children and youth program categories include:Education and Early Care; Physical Health; Mental Health; Family Support; and Basic Needs,Economic Security, and Child Safety.Funding Note: U.S. Department of Justice Funding Opportunities for AfterschoolDobbins, Diane. The Finance Project, June 2005. Web. 11 June 2012.<http://76.12.61.196/publications/FN-DOJ.pdf>.The Finance Project Funding Note provides an overview of the Department of Justice (DOJ)funding opportunities that can support afterschool programs. It also provides examples ofprograms that accessed DOJ funds in 2005 and tips for programs interested in accessing DOJfunds in the future. The funding note emphasizes the potential to access funds for afterschoolprograms to support violence prevention through strategic partnerships with the lawenforcement community. The following nine funding sources were identified: 1. Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grants (JAG) 2. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Formula Grants Program 3. The Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Program (Community Prevention Grants) 4. The Juvenile Accountability Block Grant (JABG) 5. The Weed and Seed Initiative 6. Safe start demonstration grants 7. Public Safety Partnership and Community Policing Grants (COPS grants) 8. Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) is a comprehensive violence prevention initiative 9. The Tribal Youth Program (TYP) 10. The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program 16 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • *Funding sources and amounts may vary due to changing funding priorities andappropriations since 2005. Exemplary sites: 1. “Juvenile Accountability Block Grant Contract Supports Youth Development Initiative” in Boston, MA (pg. 6) 2. “Blended Funds Create New Afterschool Grant” in Detroit, MI (pg. 6)Strategy Brief: Using CCDF to Finance Improved Access to Child Care During NontraditionalHoursElk Szekely, Amanda. The Finance Project, October 2004. Web. 12 June 2012.<http://76.12.61.196/publications/usingccdftofinanceSB.pdf>.The Finance Project strategy brief examines the need for child care for nontraditional-houremployees. Although not directly related to full service community schools, nontraditional childcare aligns with and supports the goals of full service community schools. In the brief, severalstate and local policy options to leverage federal child care funds for nontraditional-hour childcare are explored. It primarily explores the Child Care Development Fund (CCDF), the largestfederal child care subsidy program, as a strategy to broadly support nontraditional-hour childcare. The CCDF has two main purposes: to provide child care subsidies for low-income childrenbelow age 13 and to enhance the quality of child care for all children.*Funding sources and amounts may vary due to changing funding priorities andappropriations since 2004. Exemplary sites: 1. “Massachusetts: Direct Contracts Awarded To Providers of Nonstandard-Hour Care” (pg. 8) 2. “Delaware: Child Care Capacity Grants Support Nontraditional-Hour Providers” (pg. 9) 3. “Colorado: Local Mentoring Program Serves Family-Based Providers in Weld County, Colorado” (pg. 9) 4. “Washington: Public-Private Initiative Supports Seattle’s Kith-and-Kin Providers” (pg. 10)Title 1 Dollars Support Community SchoolsPearson, Sarah S. and Martin J. Blank. Coalition for Community Schools, January 2010. Web. 19December 2011.<http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Title_I_Dollars_Support_CS.pdf>.The brief provides state and local Title I Directors with a better understanding of the allowableuses of Title I funding for community schools. It explains how Title I funds fit within thedefinition of a community school and discusses the specific components of community school 17 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • programs that align with and have been approved for Title I funding. Additionally, the briefprovides profiles of community schools that have strategically used Title I funding. Exemplary sites: 1. Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation, Evansville, IN 2. Lincoln Community Learning Centers, Lincoln, NE 3. Indianapolis Public Schools, Indianapolis, IN 4. SUN Community Schools, Multnomah County, ORUse of Funds ManualPastorek, Paul G. Louisiana Department of Education, February 2011. Web. 20 March 2012.<http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/16546.pdf>.The purpose of the manual is to provide a general overview of the various uses of funds undermajor state administered federal education programs. It provides information about:1. The general considerations Local Education Agencies (LEAs) should take into account whendetermining whether a cost may be charged to a particular program;2. The supplement, not supplant, provision that applies to most state-administered federaleducation programs;3. The administrative considerations LEAs should take into account when integrating federalfunds; and4. Program specific information about various state-administered federal education programs,their eligibility requirements, use of funds requirements and unique fiscal requirements.Making the Most of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: A Guide for Full-Service School Leaders and Community PartnersGaughen, Katherine, Nichole H. Stewart, Robert LaVallee and Alexandra Zvara. The FinanceProject, May 2009. Web. 20 May 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/MakingtheMostARRA.pdf>.The Finance Project brief provides full-service community school leaders and their communitypartners with information on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Itdetails ARRA funding sources most closely aligned with the goals of full-service schools, such aseducation-related programs, which constitute one of the largest ARRA investments. Theinformation is broken down into four sections, which are: (1) Considerations for AccessingFunding; (2) Investments for Full-Service Schools; (3) Assessing Funding Opportunities; and (4)Preparing to Secure ARRA Funds.Ten funding sources are highlighted based on their applicability to full-service communityschools and their relevance to funding family supports, healthcare, education and out-of schooltime initiatives. Moreover, a framework is provided for full-service community school leaders 18 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • and community partners to identify, assess, access and leverage the various fundingopportunities.The Race to the Top District CompetitionDuncan, Arne. U.S. Department of Education, 22 May 2012. Web. 3 July 2012.<http://www.ed.gov/news/speeches/race-top-district-competition>.The web page provides an overview of the Race to the Top District Competition, including itspurpose, eligibility and funding. The competition provides funding to states that raisestandards, build better data systems, evaluate and support principals and teachers, anddramatically transform their lowest-performing schools. It can be leveraged to support thedevelopment of new and better assessments aligned with high standards, which is an integralpart of evaluating community schools. The grant allows school districts the flexibility toindividualize and target educational practices in their district for specific student populations.All school districts are eligible to apply and there is nearly $400 million to fund about 20 grantsin the range of $15 to $25 million dollars.Initiatives: Teacher Incentive FundU.S. Department of Education. U.S. Department of Education, 15 June 2012.<http://www2.ed.gov/programs/teacherincentive/index.html>.The web page provides a program description of the Teacher Incentive Fund, which supportsefforts to develop and implement performance-based teacher and principal compensationsystems in high-need schools. This grant can potentially be leveraged for teacher professionaldevelopment to improve student outcomes at community schools.Funding Note: SAMHSA Funding Opportunities for AfterschoolDobbins, Diane. The Finance Project, June 2005. Web. 11 June 2012.<http://76.12.61.196/publications/FN-mental-health.pdf>.The Finance Project funding note focuses on leveraging afterschool resources from theSubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), a federal agency withinthe U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Although not directly related to communityschools, the SAMHSA mental health and substance abuse prevention services throughafterschool programming can be leveraged at community school sites. The following 12 grantswere identified: 1. The Community Mental Health Services Block Grant; 2. The Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant; 3. Services Grants; 4. Infrastructure Grants; 19 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 5. Best Practices Planning and Implementation Grants; 6. Service-to-Science Grants; 7. State Incentive Grants; 8. Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Substance Abuse State Infrastructure Grants; 9. Drug Free Communities; 10. Youth Transition into the Workplace Grants (YIW); 11. Community Collaborations to Prevent Youth Violence and Promote Youth Development program (Youth Violence Prevention Grants); 12. State Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Coordination; and 13. The Targeted Capacity Expansion (TCE) Program.*Funding sources and amounts may vary due to changing funding priorities andappropriations since 2005. Exemplary sites: 1. “County Coalition Receives SAMHSA Funds for Afterschool Planning” in Santa Clara County, CA (pg. 5) 2. “Wyoming Blends Funds to Create New Grant Program” in Wyoming (pg. 5)Funding Note: Using Institute of Museum and Library Services Grants to Support Out-of-School Time ProgramsStellow-Griffin, Shawn. The Finance Project, May 2010. Web. 20 May 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/UsingInstituteOfMuseum-FN.pdf>.The Finance Project funding note explores the current Institute of Museum and Library Servicesfunding opportunities that can be used to support art and cultural out-of-school timeprograms. It offers strategies and considerations for accessing and leveraging IMLS funds, bestpractices for engaging youth in museum and library activities and descriptions of successfulprograms and funding sources available to support out-of-school time programs. The majorityof grants were described as ranging from $5,000 to $150,000 per year for up to two to threeyears, requiring a match or cost sharing from grantees. The types of federal museum grantslisted include the following: 1. National Leadership Grants; 2. Museums for America Grants; 3. 21st Century Museum Professionals; 4. Museum Grants for African American History and Culture; and 5. Native American Library Services Grants and Native American/Native Hawaiian Museum Services Grants. 20 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • Federal grants for libraries include the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Program and theNational Leadership Grants for Libraries. The funding note also identified the Coming Up TallerAwards and National Medal for Museum and Library Service as federal prizes. Best Practices: Identified best practices employed by museum and library programs: 1. Ensure continuity of program staff 2. Conduct needs assessments and evaluations to strengthen the programs 3. Provide on-going training and support to staff 4. Incorporate new sources of funding as programs evolve 5. Embed programs within the institution’s mission 6. Commit leadership 7. Connect deeply with community-wide local efforts 8. Partner with community-based organizations and other cultural institutions 9. Identify and cover gaps in available programs 10. Build awareness of the program and its impact on participants and the community Exemplary sites: 1. A 21st Century Museum Professionals Grant to the Exploratorium in San Francisco 2. The Huntington Museum of Art in West Virginia providing arts instruction for eight out-of-school time programs 3. Torres Martinez Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians conducting a spring vacation science camp in its community library 3. State Funding ProgramsMaking the Match: Finding Funding for After School Education and Safety ProgramsSandel, Kate, Cheryl Hayes, Brittany Anuszkiewicz, Carol Cohen and Sharon Deich. The FinanceProject, August 2007. Web. 20 May 2012.<http://www.financeproject.org/publications/MakingTheMatch.pdf>.The Finance Project guide helps California leaders in schools, school districts, and community-based organizations meet the After School Education and Safety (ASES) Program matchingrequirement. ASES provides California State funding for schools partnering with communityorganizations to offer kindergarten through ninth grade students safe and educationallyenriching opportunities before and after school. The guide helps prospective and currentgrantees identify potential opportunities to raise the cash and in-kind resources necessary toqualify for a program grant. It also provides a detailed summary of the ASES program, clarifiesthe ASES matching requirement, provides advice on strategic financing and sustaining afterschool programs into the future, and offers four strategies for generating matching funds.The four strategies include: 21 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 1. Accessing school and community resources;2. Accessing business and foundation support;3. Accessing local government resources; and4. Accessing state and federal funding.Each strategy details how to engage potential partners and resources and provides tools andexamples of financing strategies used in California. Exemplary sites: 1. San Juan Unified School District, CA 2. Boys and Girls Club of North Lake Tahoe, CA 3. Mount Diablo Unified School District, CA 4. The Lawndale ASES program, CA 5. Oakland SUCCESS – Oakland Unified School District, CA 6. Del Norte County Unified School District, CA 7. National School District , CA– ASES Mariachi Music program 8. After-School All-Stars–Los Angeles, CA 9. Homework, Enrichment, Acceleration, Recreation and Teamwork (HEART) After School Program of rural Tulare County 10. Sacramento’s Students Achieving Results for Tomorrow (START) 11. Tehama County, CA 12. The Oakland Fund for Children and Youth (OFCY) 13. Siskiyou County Office of Education ASES program, CA 14. Examples of state and federal program funding helps support ASES programs Tools: 1. Worksheet 3.1: Financing for What? (pg. 19) 2. Worksheet 3.2: Estimating Your Funding Needs (pg. 22) 3. Worksheet 3.3: Cataloguing Existing Resources (pg. 24) 4. Worksheet 3.4: Assessing Your Funding Gaps (pg. 26) 5. Worksheet 3.5: Evaluating Potential Funding Sources and Financing Strategies (pg. 30) 6. Table 3.1: Potential Partners and Resources for Four ASES Financing Strategies (pg. 32) 7. Community Fundraiser Calculations (pg. 48) 8. Table 7.1: Highlights of State and Federal Funding Sources (pg. 85-86) 9. Table 8.1: Characteristics of Funding Sources and Financing Strategies (pgs.104-107) 10. Worksheet 8.1: Partnership Assessment (pg. 109) 11. Worksheet 8.2: ASES Services and Activities Inventory (pg. 110) 12. Worksheet 8.3: ASES Funding Source Assessment (pg. 111) 13. Appendix 1-A: Sample In-Kind Donation Tracking Form (pg. 116) 14. Appendix 1-C: Sample Request Letter for Community Support (pg. 122) 15. Appendix 4-A: Funding Sources by Services and Activities (pg. 132) 16. Appendix 4-C: Funding Sources by Eligible Applicant (pg. 134) 22 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • Getting the Grant: A Guide to Securing Additional Funds for Afterschool Education and SafetyProgramsJones, Michelle Ganow. The Finance Project, August 2007. Web. 20 May 2012.<http://76.12.61.196/publications/FINA_GrantwritingGuide.pdf>.The Finance Project guide aims to help grantees and program site leaders develop effectivegrant proposals for the After School Education and Safety Program (ASES – CaliforniaProposition 49). ASES provides California State funding for schools that partner with communityorganizations to offer kindergarten through ninth grade students safe and educationallyenriching opportunities before and after school. The ASES program offers three-year renewablegrants that provide $7.50 per pupil per day.In the first section of the guide, the fundamentals of grant-writing are explored and advice onhow to develop effective grant proposals for after school programs is provided. The secondsection of the guide summarizes strategies for generating program support from an array offunders. The last two sections of the guide help ASES grantees and program site leadersdevelop an effective grant proposal and offer tips on how to avoid common grant-writingpitfalls. Appendix B and C provide useful connections to grant-writing and ASES resources. Models: Appendix A: Sample Afterschool Program Logic Model (pg. 39)State Administered CDBGU.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2012. Web. 22 August 2012.<http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/communitydevelopment/programs/stateadmin>.The web page provides information on the administration of the Community DevelopmentBlock Grant (CDBG). The primary objective of the CDBG program is to develop viablecommunities by providing decent housing, a suitable living environment, and by expandingeconomic opportunities for persons of low- and moderate-income. The State must ensure thatat least 70 percent of its CDBG grant funds are used for activities that benefit low- andmoderate-income persons over a one-, two-, or three-year time period. Some of the activitieswithin the CDBG parameters have the potential to be leveraged for community schoolpurposes. Examples of some broadly defined community development activities funded byCDBG include: 1. Acquisition of property for public purposes; 2. Construction or reconstruction of streets, water and sewer facilities, neighborhood centers, recreation facilities, and other public works; 3. Public services; and 23 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012
  • 4. Planning activities. 24 ©Urban Strategies Council, October 2012