Water Sustainability CommitteeWeather Modification andGeoengineering
BC Water& Waste AssociationWeather Modification Definedand Techniques
BC Water& Waste AssociationWeather ModificationActivities in Canada• Variety of experimental programs since 1948• Calgary based hail mitigation program• BC Hydro snowpack augmentation study
BC Water& Waste AssociationGeoengineering Defined and Techniques
BC Water& Waste AssociationGeoengineering Techniques Cont.
BC Water& Waste AssociationSolarRadiationManagement
BC Water& Waste AssociationPatents• Over 150 Patents registered with US PatentOffice for weather modification andGeoengineering• Patents range from weather modification tofull scale geoengineering• Patents are range in complexity• US Patent 5003186 Stratospheric Welsbachseeding for reduction of global warmingnotes a simple approach
BC Water& Waste AssociationActivities in CanadaHaida Gwaii Iron Ocean Fertilization - Goddard Earth SciencesData and Information Services Center/NASA
BC Water& Waste AssociationInternational Activities• More than 30 countries practice weathermodification• China has largest national weatherengineering program• Projects vary in scope and scale• Projects occur in international territory• Weather modification for war is bannedinternationally
BC Water& Waste AssociationCanadian Policy and Regulation• Federal: Weather Modification InformationAct R.S.C., 1985, c. W-5• Federal: Weather Modification InformationRegulations C.R.C., c. 1604• BC: Weather Modification Act [RSBC 1996]CHAPTER 486 [Repealed by the Water, Landand Air Protection Statutes Amendment Act,2003,SBC2003, c. 90, s. 21, effectiveNovember 20, 2003 (Royal Assent).]
BC Water& Waste AssociationInternational Policy and Regulation• No International policy or regulation onweather modification (more than 30countries actively modifying weather)• International push for global governance ongeoengineering through the United Nations• Open discussion by UK Parliament ScienceCommittee on urgent need for internationalRegulation – Link to report• http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmsctech/221/221.pdf
BC Water& Waste AssociationInternational Governance Direction123. We are clear that serious consideration for theregulatory arrangements for geoengineering needs tostart now, not once highly disruptive climate change isunderway. If we start now it will provide the opportunity“to explore the technological, environmental, political andregulatory issues in a measured, science-led process”. TheUN is the route by which eventually we envisage theregulatory framework operating but first the UK and othergovernments need to prime the UN pump. As Mr Virgoepointed out, such “an approach would encourageenhanced awareness of the options and help ensure that, ifand when a crisis arrives, there is a reasonable chance ofgetting multilateral agreement to a geoengineeringdeployment through the UN.
BC Water& Waste AssociationAdvantages and Justifications• Increases resilience• CO2 reductions and lower temperatures• Cost effective• Politically expedient• Buys time
BC Water& Waste AssociationDisadvantages and Criticisms• Moral hazard• Addresses symptom not the cause• Known and unknown consequences– Hydrology– Ocean acidity– Ozone depletion• Path dependency• Cost uncertainties• Militarization• Health and environmental issues
BC Water& Waste AssociationThe Panic ButtonTracking Methane From the Arctic OceanA new airborne study with NASA contributions measured surprising levels of the potentgreenhouse gas methane coming from cracks in Arctic sea ice and areas of partial sea icecover. This image was taken over the Arctic Ocean at a latitude of approximately 71degrees North on April 15, 2010.Image credit: NASA/JPL
BC Water& Waste AssociationAMEG Report to UK• Therefore we consider our present situation isextremely dangerous and warrants the designationof "planetary emergency" We see only one way toavoid passing this point of no return, which is tointervene by cooling the Arctic, principally by usinggeoengineering techniques starting immediately.• Report link:• http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmselect/cmenvaud/writev/171/171.pdf
BC Water& Waste AssociationIndicators of Potential Impacts ofSolar Radiation Management
BC Water& Waste AssociationAerosolsNASA Persistent ContrailsNASA Persistent Ship Trails
BC Water& Waste AssociationGlobal Dimming• 2005 documentary by BBC• Global pan evaporation decline• 911 study of temperature delta during planegrounding• Persistent contrails major contributor• Indicator of potential impacts of SRM• Indicator of potential impacts of reducingemissions
Safeguarding public health and the environmentthrough the sharing of skills, knowledge, education and experience,and providing a voice for the water and waste community.www.bcwwa.orgQuestions?“We cant solve problems by using the samekind of thinking we used when we createdthem.” Albert Einstein
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